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The Stormy Forties was a memorably turbulent era, forever linked in the public consciousness with World War II
(1937/1939-1945), the development of the first atomic weapons and subsequent attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This also marked the start of the Cold War
and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
. But this era also brought many other changes on the world's political map. The Soviet Union annexed Estonia
, and Lithuania
, while Burma
, and The Philippines
gained independence from various European and American colonial empires. New regimes also emerged in existing countries; Republican Italy
, West Germany
, Red China
, and East Germany
all emerged in the second half of the decade.
The technological innovations of the decade included the first actual computers - notably Z3 by Konrad Zuse (1941, German), the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1942, American), the Colossus Mark 1 and Mark 2 computers (1943 and 1944, British), the Harvard Mark I (1944, American), Z4 by Konrad Zuse (1944, German), ENIAC (1946, American), the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (nicknamed "Baby") (1948, British), Sergey Lebedev's MESM (1948, USSR), the EDSAC (1949, British), the Manchester Mark 1 (1949, British), and the CSIRAC (1949, Australia).
While functioning radars were actually developed in the 1930s, they were first widely used in this decade, with several of the World War II combatants adopting and/or improving the relatively new technology. The first military jeeps were developed for the United States Army in 1940; the private companies creating them introduced civilian models in 1945. The German V-2, introduced in 1942, was the first successful ballistic missile and served as the progenitor of all modern rockets. Jet aircraft were still in an experimental phase during the start of the decade, but the jet-powered Messerschmitt Me 262 (1942, Germany) served as the first operational jet fighter aircraft, the first of many.
Television was still in its infancy. At the start of the decade, only a few countries had operational television stations (including the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Soviet Union, Mexico, the Free City of Danzig, Poland, Japan and Italy), and said stations only broadcast in major cities. Only a very limited number of people owned or had access to a television set - as of 1941, WRGB in Schenectady, NY was the only TV station outside a major world city anywhere
. Later in the decade, the Philippines, Czechoslovakia, Chile, and the Netherlands would get their first experimental broadcasts. Commercial television got its start in this decade with the launching of early privately-owned networks.
The hit toy of the era was the Slinky, a helical spring which stretched and bounced up and down. Developed by engineer Richard Thompson James, it became commercially available in 1945. Tupperware, an airtight plastic container for storing food, was created by the eponymous Earl Tupper in 1946. The first commercial microwave oven was introduced by Raytheon in 1947, based on the experiments of inventor Percy Spencer. Velcro was invented by George de Mestral in 1948, though it would not become commercially available until the late 1950s. Momofuku Ando embarked on his quest for instant noodlesnote
in 1947, finally succeeding ten years later.
The cinemas of several countries managed to produce influential films. The Golden Age of Hollywood
was still ongoing, and hit films such as The Maltese Falcon
were arguably among its best products. The Film Noir
genre rose to particular prominence. British cinema had some major hits in the adaptation of Shakespearean works by Laurence Olivier
and the exemplary noir The Third Man
. In France, influential directors such as Marcel Carné, Robert Bresson, and René Clément scored major hits in the aftermath of the War. Italian neorealism was developed in this decade, with major directors in the genre including Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, and Giuseppe De Santis. In the Soviet Union, Ivan the Terrible
by Sergei Eisenstein
was arguably the most notable film of its decade. Meanwhile, a new generation of directors managed to produce their own hits. In Japan, new director Akira Kurosawa
began his career.
As for fashion, styles for dresses, suits (especially zoot suits
) and sportswear were a continuation of 1930s silhouettes, like shoulder pads
and backless evening wear
, only more robust, mannish and simplistic. Hairstyles for women were often long and updone in which they often showed their foreheads. Fedoras and Latin American influenced hats were popular headwear; while high-heeled wedgies, mary-janes, close-footed oxfords and peep-toe pumps were popular choices for footwear. Gloves were a must. The decade also introduced a new fabric — nylon — and was used in hosiery, toothbrush bristles, ropes, and parachutes.
During the war, due to fabric rationing and the closing of fashion houses in Paris, many day dresses were American-made, strictly knee-length and plainly decorated. Nylon stockings suffered shortages due to the need for parachutes, and sportswear was often substituted for casual wear. Many more had innovated themselves in order to be more stylish, even while working on factories. For instance, some women applied makeup on their legs in place of wearing stockings. While other women had the need to borrow their man's trousers and suits while joining the workforce
. And somehow, in a certain loophole
, while dresses only used a limited amount of fabric and cutting, accessories such as hats, gloves and jewellery weren't. Hats can be wide and decorated with fruit as they can get
, gloves can be as high as they can
, and necklaces can go as low as they can hit the dancefloor. After the war, restrictions were still implemented but were gradually relaxed in 1947, when a Parisian designer named Christian Dior and created a new set of style which included long full skirts, rounded busts and narrow shoulders. Journalists had dubbed it the "New Look" and the innovative style lingered on until the end of The Fifties
For music, jazz was the main ingredient to swing (the rage of the dance floor), bebop (the cutting edge, characterized by extremely fast tempos and complex improvisation), and Latin dances like samba, mambo, salsa and conga brought by soldiers. And then, before The Fifties
popularized teen sensations, Frank Sinatra
was the teen sensation.
See Also: The Gay Nineties
, The Roaring Twenties
, The Great Depression
, The Fifties
, The Sixties
, The Seventies
, The Eighties
, The Nineties
, Turn of the Millennium
and The New Tens
Popular tropes included in this period are:
- Babies Ever After: There's a reason people born for the 20 years after the end of the war were called "Baby Boomers".
- Cold War: No one knows for sure when the actual date started but 1945 was an acceptable year.
- Dance Sensation: Swing, and in later years, Latin dances like mambo and salsa.
- Dumb Blonde: While the sterotype long predates this era, the late forties saw the character type of the pretty but dim blonde woman become really popular.
- Film Noir: This genre was spawned out of the hard boiled detective stories. In fact, many of those stories were made into film noir adaptations.
- The Golden Age of Comic Books: While comic books existed in some form or another since the late 1800's, this decade saw the rise in comic books as a common form of entertainment.
- Glamorous Wartime Singer
- Hard Boiled Detective: Introduced in the twenties, the trope reached its peak in this era.
- Hipster: Hipsters originated from this time period. Their lifestyles differ from those today though.
- Malt Shop: Actually a bit Older Than They Think.
- Nothing But Hits
- Pimped-Out Dress: Despite the fabric rationing, dresses, whether on special occasions, casual wear, or sportswear are considered elegant. Then the latter half of the decade went on straight thanks to Dior and Balenciaga.
- Roswell That Ends Well
- Screwy Squirrel / Karmic Trickster: Became popular archetypes in animation from the World War II era onward.
- She's Got Gams / Show Some Gam: On movies, dancing swing, playing golf, on the beach, with or without nylon stockings, entertaining soldiers, she's got it all. Her mother would have either been so proud, jealous, or shocked.
- Shoulders of Doom: From dictators to women, emphasized and accented shoulders were the fad until 1947. The pads were revived forty years later, only bigger.
- Wartime Cartoon
- Wartime Wedding: Those who survived and lived to tell the tale may have great rewards.
- Wrench Wench
- World War II: More tropes are mentioned here.
- Yakuza: The golden age of the Japanese Yakuza was in the late 1940's, after Japan was defeated in World War II.
- You Have Waited Long Enough for me to return from the war.
Works that are made in this time period:
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Anime and Manga
- Momotarō no Umiwashi (Momotarō's Sea Eagles). A Japanese propaganda film, released in 1943.
- Momotarō: Umi no Shinpei (Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors). 1945 sequel to the above. The first Japanese feature-length animated film.
- Sazae-san. Comic strip. Started in April, 1946.
- The Golden Age of Comic Books was still ongoing.
- The Adventures of Tintin. Series started in 1929.
- The Flash/Jason "Jay" Garrick. First appeared in January, 1940.
- Hawkman/Carter Hall. First appeared in January, 1940.
- Hawkwoman/Hawkgirl/Shiera Sanders. First appeared in January, 1940.
- Captain Marvel/Billy Batson. First appeared in February, 1940.
- The Spectre. First appeared in February, 1940.
- Catwoman. First appeared in Spring, 1940.
- The Joker. First appeared in Spring, 1940.
- Hourman/Rex Tyler. First appeared in March, 1940.
- Lex Luthor. First appeared in April, 1940.
- Robin/Richard "Dick" Grayson. First appeared in April, 1940. He would eventually become Nightwing.
- Doctor Fate. First appeared in May, 1940.
- The Spirit. First appeared in June, 1940.
- Green Lantern/Alan Scott. First appeared in July, 1940.
- The Atom. First appeared in October, 1940.
- Disney Ducks Comic Universe. Some of them were introduced in comic strips by Osborne and Taliaferro. Others in comic books by Carl Barks.
- Daisy Duck. Adapted to the medium in November, 1940.
- Neighbor J. Jones. First appeared in July, 1943. Redesigned and fleshed out in November, 1943.
- Grandma Duck/Elvira Coot. First appeared in September, 1943.
- Scrooge McDuck. First appeared in December, 1947.
- Gladstone Gander. First appeared in January, 1948.
- Abigail "Ma" Hunkel became the Red Tornado in November, 1940.
- Justice Society of America. Debuted in Winter, 1940.
- Bucky Barnes. First appeared in March, 1941.
- Captain America. First appeared in March, 1941.
- Red Skull
- Red Skull/George Maxon. First appeared in March, 1941.
- Red Skull/Johann Schmidt. First appeared in October, 1941.
- Red Skull/Albert Malik. First appeared in March, 1947.
- Tom Poes. First appeared on March 16, 1941.
- Blackhawk. First appeared in August, 1941.
- Plastic Man. First appeared in August, 1941.
- Phantom Lady. First appeared in August, 1941.
- Looney Tunes. First adapted to the medium in October, 1941.
- Aquaman. First appeared in November, 1941.
- Green Arrow. First appeared in November, 1941.
- Jimmy Olsen. First named appearance in November, 1941.
- Archie Comics
- Archibald "Archie" Andrews. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Elizabeth "Betty" Cooper. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Forsythe Pendleton "Jughead" Jones III. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Fred Andrews. Father of Archie. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Mary Andrews. Mother of Archie. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Hal Cooper. Father of Betty. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Alice Cooper. Mother of Betty. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Coach Kleats. First appeared in February, 1942.
- Mr. Waldo Weatherbee. First appeared in Spring, 1942.
- Veronica "Ronnie" Lodge. First appeared in April, 1942.
- Reginald "Reggie" Mantle. First appeared in Summer, 1942.
- Miss Geraldine Grundy. First appeared in August, 1942.
- Hiram Lodge. Father of Veronica. First appeared in September, 1942.
- Hermione Lodge. Mother of Veronica. First appeared in Winter, 1942.
- Dilton Doiley. First appeared in February, 1948.
- Professor Elmer Benjamin Flutesnoot. Appeared c. April, 1948.
- Marmaduke "Big Moose" Mason. First appeared in 1949.
- Sandy the Golden Boy/Sanderson Hawkins. First appeared in December, 1941. He would later assume The Sandman identity.
- Seven Soldiers. First appeared in Winter, 1941.
- Wonder Woman. First appeared in December, 1941.
- Suzie. First appeared in July, 1942.
- Two-Face. First appeared in August, 1942.
- Spirou and Fantasio. Fantasio first appeared in September, 1943. He was elevated to co-protagonist in October, 1944.
- Vandal Savage. First appeared in Winter, 1943.
- EC Comics, a publisher of many groundbreaking comics such as Tales From The Crypt and MAD, debuted in 1944.
- Superboy. First appeared in January-February, 1945.
- Suske en Wiske.
- Wiske first appeared in March, 1945.
- Suske first appeared in December, 1945.
- Katy Keene. First appeared in Summer, 1945.
- Black Adam. First appeared in December, 1945.
- Millie the Model. First appeared in Winter, 1945.
- Rip Kirby. First appeared in March, 1946.
- Blake and Mortimer. First appeared in September, 1946.
- Lucky Luke. First appeared in September, 1946. Set in The Wild West.
- Buck Danny. First appeared in January, 1947. The early storylines were set in World War II.
- Black Canary. First appeared in August, 1947.
- Mickey Mouse Comic Universe
- Eega Beeva. First appeared in September, 1947.
- Rhyming Man. First appeared in April, 1948.
- Ellsworth Bheezer. First appeared in October, 1949.
- Nero. First appeared in October, 1947.
- Alix. First appeared in September, 1948.
- The Riddler. First appeared in October, 1948.
- Princess Iron Fan. 1941 animated feature film. The first Chinese feature-length animated film.
- The Lost Letter. 1945 Soviet cel-animated feature film.
- The Czech Year. 1947 Czechoslovak animated feature film.
- The Humpbacked Horse. 1947 Soviet animated feature film.
- The Emperor's Nightingale. 1949 Czechoslovak animated feature film.
- On 25 February, 1940, an Ice Hockey game is televised. The first broadcast of its kind. The game was between the New York Rangers and the Montreal Canadiens.
- On 28 February, 1940, a Basketball game is televised. The first broadcast of its kind. The game was between the teams of Fordham University and the University of Pittsburgh.
- On 10 March, 1940, a performance of the Metropolitan Opera of New York City is televised. The first of its kind. The show included excerpts from the Pagliacci and four other operas.
- A 1941 decision of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allows American Television Stations to broadcast Commercials. On 1 July, 1941, ten stations incorporate commercials to their programs. The first known television commercial was one for Bulova watches. Broadcast during a Baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies.
- Truth or Consequences, the popular radio show, was simulcast on radio and television for a single day on 1 July, 1941. To attract viewers to the station showing it. The game would not return to television until 1950.
- CBS Television Quiz debuted in 2 July, 1941. Becoming the first regularly scheduled Game Show. It was cancelled in May, 1942. In favor of war-related programming.
- By a 1942 decision of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the minimum weekly programming time required of American stations is lowered from 15-hours to 4 hours for the duration of World War II. Most stations switch to limited programming.
- The Voice of Firestone Televues, a television program featuring highlighted selections from opera and operetta, debuted in 1943. Later known as "The Voice of Firestone", it would become an early Long runner. Broadcast in 1943-1947, 1949-1959, and 1962-1963.
- Missus Goes a Shopping, a Game Show, debuted in 1944. Broadcast by the Columbia Broadcasting System, it is considered a pioneer of its genre.
- NBC broadcast hours of news coverage on 8 May, 1945. In celebration of Victory in Europe Day. The network was preparing to resume full service, following years of limited programming during World War II.
- Moscow TV center resumed regular broadcasting on 15 December, 1945. It had went on hiatus during World War II.
- The BBC Television Service resumed broadcasting on 7 June, 1946. It had went on hiatus in 1939 due to the outbreak of World War II.
- Regular network service by Du Mont started on 15 August, 1946.
- The 1946-47 television season is generally regarded as the first season in the United States (NBC and Du Mont), with 1949-50 being the first full season on all four networks at the time.
- Pinwright's Progress, a British television Sitcom, is considered the pioneer of its genre. Debuted in 1946.
- Boxing from St. Nicholas Arena, an American sports program, debuted in NBC. Running from 1946 to 1948. It was revived by Du Mont from 1954 to 1956.
- Meet the Press. Television adaptation of the radio show. Debuted in 1947.
- Queen for a Day. First Simulcast for radio and television in 1947. Continued in this format from 1948 onwards.
- Break the Bank. Television adaptation of the radio show. Debuted in 1948.
- Candid Camera. Debuted in 1948.
- The Ed Sullivan Show. Debuted in 1948.
- Winner Take All. Television adaptation of the radio show. Debuted in 1948.
- The Aldrich Family. Television adaptation of the radio show. Debuted in 1949.
- Captain Video. Debuted in 1949.
- The Lone Ranger. Television adaptation of the radio show. Debuted in 1949.
- Ripley's Believe It or Not!. Television adaptation of the comic strip feature. Debuted in 1949.
Several of the music performers and composers of the era would enjoy long-lasting careers.
Works that are set in this time period are:
Live Action TV