Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva), officially known as the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country to the east of the Baltic Sea. It is the southernmost of the three "Baltic Republics": itself, closely related Latvia, and Estonia. Lithuanians (and Latvians) are descended from the Balts, an incredibly ancient group of tribes who gave their name to the Baltic sea. Lithuanians as a people first emerge from the fog of history in the early 1000s, in the records of German abbeys. Shortly after, crusaders start to attack the pagan Lithuanians, conquering related Baltic peoples like the Latvians and the Prussians (how this word went from meaning "Baltic tribe" to "For hyu, Tommy, ze var is ofer!" is a story too complex to recount here). In 1253, the Lithuanians beat off the crusaders morally (by becoming Christian, although, overall Christianization of Lithuanians happened only in late 14th century) and physically (with swords). In the 14th century, it was the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the largest country in Europe at that time (but please don't tell the Belarusians, who insist the Grand Duchy was the precursor to their country, not Lithuania). It stretched deep into the lands of the Rus Slavs, and was Catholic, where they were Orthodox. This caused what might charitably be called a spot of bother with Orthodox Muscovy (now Russia). Much bloodshed ensued, until a Lithuanian guy found himself King of Poland. Eventually, the two nations would unite in a vast Commonwealth. This mixed up the idea of nationality to no end, causing many problems in the future. "Poland" became a grand idea of liberty that you could be part of whether you were Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Latvian, or German... but not if you were a serf. Anybody who was anybody in Belarus converted to Catholicism and assimilated into Polish culture and language. It was entirely normal for a Belarusian from Lithuania to call themselves Polish (such a man, Tadeusz Kościuszko, was only able to resolve this confusion by leaving all three of his native countries to become an American hero instead, though he later returned to defend all three countries from Russian aggression). Lithuania fell victim to the same plague as its partner, Poland: every noble wanted to run the country, which caused quite enough trouble until some of the nobles were bought and became convinced that Germans, Russians, and Swedes should run the country (mainly to keep the monarchy weak; it backfired, badly). In 1795, the Polish-Lithuanian state was dissolved. All of Lithuania as it was then (the vast majority of it as it is now, the Klaipeida/Memelgebiet still being part of Germany at the time) went to Russia. This wasn't so fun, especially for the Jews. The end of World War One saw Lithuania become independent, first as a German puppet-kingdom (which was better than nothing), then as a republic, but there were problems. One was that Lithuania's only seaport was a German-speaking city (Memel/Klaipeida) that had been part of the German Empire until Lithuania basically invaded it. The Germans, though then powerless, were not pleased. The bigger one was that Vilnius was the ancient capital of Lithuania, and had always been. It was Lithuania's greatest city and always would be. Any Lithuanian could tell you these facts, and the fact that everybody in the city who wasn't Polish was Jewish deterred them not in the slightest. The Polish army, however, did. And the biggest of all was that the country was taken over by a nasty fascist dictator named Smetona. In 1939, the Nazis and the Commies were looking down their shopping list to see if there was anything they had missed above the big underlined "Poland". There was: for Germany, Memel, for the USSR, the rest of Lithuania. Germany used military force to force a handover of the port. Shortly afterwards, World War 2 began and the Lithuanians decided that it was time to join the jump on Poland and
The Lithuanian flag
Gold symbolizes its fields of grain, green for the landscape, and red for all the blood shed for Lithuania.