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Major World Cities
The major cities of the world and their appearances in fiction. This page is based on the 2012 classifications and rankings of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) think tank group from Loughborough University in England, the earliest group to attempt such a categorization from way back in 1998. Expect some of these to show up in a World Tour.

    open/close all folders 

    Alpha++, Alpha+, Alpha and Alpha- 

Alpha++

  • London, England, United Kingdom: Largest city in the European Union and a center of finance, culture, politics etc. in the Old World, as well as a hotspot of diversity. It is also the most visited city in the world in terms of international arrivals and the first to host the Olympic Games thrice (1908, 1948 and 2012).
  • New York City, New York, United States: The Big Applesauce itself, the largest city in the United States, London's counterpart in the New World, and arguably the reigning cultural and financial capital of the world, as well as home of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Its position on one of the world's largest natural harbors made an excellent point-of-entry for traders and immigrants alike.

Alpha+

  • Hong Kong, China: The largest economic powerhouse in the Far East. Formerly a part of The British Empire until 1997, Hong Kong remains an enclave of capitalism in an otherwise communist state (an example followed by Macau 2 years later), while the British experience bequeathed the island-city with a unique culture and government system.
  • Paris, France: Capital and largest city of France, and a global leader in culture and business. Its historical experiences also shaped the modern world through such events as The Enlightenment and The French Revolution. Today it is home to some of the most visited museums and landmarks in the world.
  • Singapore: The powerhouse of Southeast Asia, the modern island-city of Singapore was founded by the British in 1919 as a trading post for the East India Company and later grew as a center of commerce and multiculturalism under a rather conservative democracy.
  • Shanghai, China: Most populous city in the People's Republic of China and its financial powerhouse. Strategically located at the mouth of the Yangtze River, Shanghai was among the first Chinese cities opened to foreign trade, enjoying a period of prosperity before going into a slump when trade was limited to other communist countries, then made a resurgent comeback during the Deng Xiaoping years.
  • Tokyo, Japan: Arguably the center of the universe, capital and largest city of Japan, and center of the world's most populous metropolitan area (at 37.8 million), as well as a center of business and culture.
  • Beijing, China: Capital of China for 800 years, second-largest city after Shanghai, and center of education, politics and culture. Best-known for its imperial complex, long closed to outsiders until the early 20th century.
  • Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: The largest city in Oceania and the oldest colonial settlement in Australia, originally founded on a natural harbor as a penal colony before transforming into the premier financial center of the Asia Pacific region.
  • Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Largest city of the UAE. Once a dusty little emirate capital, the discovery of oil propelled Dubai into a massive facelift, one that was briefly interrupted by the financial meltdown of 2008 but has since been making rebounds.

Alpha

  • Chicago, Illinois, United States: Third-largest city in the USA and the urban heart of the Midwest. Built on the southwestern shores of Lake Michigan, the city grew into a major transportation hub, with more roads and railroads leading into it than any other city in America. Besides being a commercial center, it is also a heavyweight in American gastronomy and music.
  • Mumbai (Bombay), India: The "Pearl of the Arabian Sea", the largest city in India and its unofficial second capital. Patched together from seven islands by a British reclamation project, Mumbai grew into the financial heart of Southern Asia, and is also the center of India's entertainment industry (Bollywood).
  • Milan, Italy: Second-largest city in Italy, as well as the financial and industrial heart of northern Italy. Milan is also the world's fashion and design capital.
  • Moscow, Russia: Capital and largest city in Russia, as well as the northernmost and coldest metropolis in the world. Moscow is, for centuries, both the heart of Russian culture and politics, the latter which ruled Russia from the imposing Moscow Kremlin.
  • São Paulo, Brazil: Largest city in the Americas, a financial powerhouse in South America, and land of capricious weather. It is famous for its culinary delights, the largest fleet of helicopters in the world, and its insane traffic jams.
  • Frankfurt (am Main), Germany: The financial heartland of continental Europe, fifth-largest city of Germany, and home of the hot dog. It is also distinct from other German cities by its abundance of skyscrapers and autobahn exchanges.
  • Toronto, Ontario, Canada: The largest city in Canada and, surprisingly for a city in the interior, a hotspot of ethnic diversity, with almost half of its 2.6 million residents coming from outside Canada.
  • Los Angeles, California, United States: Second-largest city in America and a hotbed of multicultural diversity. The city is both a powerhouse of West Coast finance and the home of Hollywood, the birthplace of modern television and film industry.
  • Madrid, Spain: Capital and largest city of Spain, as well as the political, economic, cultural and even geographic center of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Mexico City, Mexico: Capital of Mexico, largest city in North America, and the oldest capital city in the New World, built by the Spanish over what was Tenochtitlan, seat of the Aztec Empire.
  • Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Capital (formal; The Hague serves as the seat of government) and largest city in the Netherlands, as well as its commercial and cultural center, famous for a city center lined with canals and a liberal atmosphere which includes legalized prostitution and marijuana consumption.
  • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Capital and largest city of Malaysia (though nearby Putrajaya is now home to the federal executive and judiciary, while KL remains the legislative and royal seat). This little metropolis on the Klang Valley grew from a frontier town built by Chinese tin miners to the heart of the Malay Peninsula, culminating in an economic boom best symbolized by the Petronas Towers, the tallest twin buildings in the world.
  • Brussels, Belgium: Capital and largest city of Belgium, the home of sprouts, peeing boys, and the seat of many an international political organization, most prominent of which is The European Union.

Alpha-

  • Seoul, South Korea: The 2000-year-old heart of the Korean Peninsula and capital and largest city of the South. Following the devastation of the Korean War, Seoul experienced a massive economic boom, culminating in hosting the 1988 Summer Olympics, and is also the birthplace of the Korean music craze.
  • Johannesburg, South Africa: Largest city in South Africa and the economic powerhouse of Sub-Saharan Africa, built near some of the largest gold and diamond mines in the world.
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina: Capital and largest city of Argentina and second-largest in South America. Known as the "Paris of the South", Buenos Aires is also known as a center of commerce and culture.
  • Vienna, Austria: Capital and largest city of Austria, home to a fifth of the country's population, and second-largest Germanophone city in the world after Berlin. The city is best-known for its palaces and centuries of musical heritage.
  • San Francisco, California, United States: The cultural and financial hub of northern California, located at the mouth of the Golden Gate. The "City by the Bay" is well-known for its streetcars and its liberal atmosphere, attracting hippies, gay couples and the like.
  • Istanbul, Turkey: Largest city in Turkey, straddling Asia and Europe, divided by the Bosphorus strait. The city's long history as capital of four empires (Roman, Byzantine, Latin and Ottoman) and a major stopover of the Silk Road left a legacy of multiculturalism felt even until the present.
  • Jakarta, Indonesia: Capital and largest city of Indonesia, founded 1600 years ago as seat of the Sunda Kingdom and expanded its influence under the Dutch. Today it is a bustling metropolis of 9.6 million people.
  • Zürich, Switzerland: Largest city in Switzerland, established by the Romans over what used to be a group of prehistoric settlements. It is also home to many of the world's largest banking institutions.
  • Warsaw, Poland: Capital (and largest city) of Poland, majority of which was built from scratch after it was near-totally flattened by the Nazis during World War II. Much of the city's income comes from heavy industries, a legacy of Soviet influence.
  • Washington, District of Columbia, United States: Capital of the United States, established in 1791 on the banks of the Potomac River. Besides serving as home to the USA's three branches of government, Washington also plays host to several other international organizations, and boasts a wide array of landmarks, many of which are located on the National Mall, an axis of greenery from the Potomac to the Capitol.
  • Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Second-largest city in Australia, capital of Victoria state, and Sydney's long-time rival, as well as the first capital of Australia immediately upon independence. Melbourne is also Australia's cultural capital, being the birthplace of Australian dance and film industry.
  • New Delhi, India: Capital of India and its largest metropolitan region, built near the historic capital of several Indian empires.
  • Miami, Florida, United States: The most populous metropolis in the southeastern USA and home to the largest concentration of banks in the Union and the second-largest Hispanophone majority (after El Paso, Texas), most of which were descended from Cubans fleeing Fidel Castro.
  • Barcelona, Spain: Second-largest city in Spain and capital of the Catalonia region, famous for its avant-garde architecture and hosting the memorable 1992 Summer Olympics.
  • Bangkok, Thailand: Capital and largest city of Thailand as well as the most visited city in Southeast Asia, as well as an economic power in the region's mainland half. It is well known for its street life, cultural landmarks, and its red-light district.
  • Boston, Massachusetts, United States: State capital and largest city in New England. Boston is also one of the oldest colonial-era settlements in America, has played a prominent role in the American Revolution, and is also home to several prestigious educational institutions, including Harvard University, the oldest institute of higher learning in America.
  • Dublin, Ireland: Capital of the Republic of Ireland and largest city in the entire island, as well as a center of education, arts, commerce and industry.
  • Taipei, Taiwan: Capital and largest city of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the beating financial and cultural heart of Taiwan island.
  • Munich, Germany: Capital of Bavaria state and third-largest city in Germany. Famous for its architecture, a highly-successful football team (Bayern Munich FC) and the best-known Oktoberfest in Germany.
  • Stockholm, Sweden: Capital of Sweden and the largest city in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the home to Swedish culture, media and economy, and is the venue for the Nobel Prize awarding ceremonies (save the Peace Prize, which is handed in Oslo).
  • Prague, Czech Republic: Capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. The city waxed and waned together with the Holy Roman Empire, and the city center largely escaped the ravages of World War II, which makes for good sightseeing.
  • Atlanta, Georgia, United States: State capital and largest city in Georgia, as well as the unofficial capital of the "New South", being a center of racial tolerance (being the heart of the Civil Rights Movement — Martin Luther King, Jr. was born there and served as a local Baptist pastor throughout his life) and the South's economic blooming, spurred on by hosting the centennial Olympic Games in 1996.

    Beta+, Beta and Beta- 

Beta+

  • Bangalore, India: Capital of Karnataka state, dubbed the "Silicon Valley of India" for its leading role in India's IT industry.
  • Lisbon, Portugal: Capital and largest city of Portugal, situated on the northern side of the mouth of the Tagus River, as well as the oldest capital city in Western Europe.
  • Copenhagen, Denmark: Capital and largest city of Denmark, as well as the second largest city in Scandinavia and cultural, political and economic center of the country.
  • Santiago, Chile: Capital and largest city of Chile, known for a well-preserved city center and the vineyards located in its outskirts.
  • Guangzhou, China: Capital of Guangdong province and third-largest city in China. Once known as Canton, the city grew into one of China's most important trade posts, and during the post-Mao years also became a financial hub.
  • Rome, Italy: The "Eternal City", capital and largest city of Italy. For centuries it served as the beating heart of the Roman Empire, and is now both home to the Italian government and the Roman Catholic Church (within the confines of the Vatican City).
  • Cairo, Egypt: Capital of Egypt and largest city in Northern Africa. Cairo is a center of Islamic learning and worship, and is also the oldest entertainment exporter in the Arab world, as well as home to the legendary Pyramids and Sphinx of the Giza Plateau to the southwest.
  • Dallas, Texas, United States: Third-largest city in Texas, having grown on the back of its cotton and oil industries. Together with the slightly smaller city of Fort Worth and a few other cities and towns, Dallas forms the largest urban area in the South.
  • Hamburg, Germany: Second-largest city in Germany and a city-state in its own right, as well as a mercantile power back in the days of the Hanseatic League and remains the largest port in Germany.
  • Düsseldorf, Germany:: Capital of the state of Nordrhein-Westfalen and center of the Ruhr Valley metropolitan area, which was the heart of the German industrial renaissance, now a center of the arts.
  • Athens, Greece: Capital and largest city of Greece, as well as the birthplace of democracy and classical culture, as well as host to the largest passenger port in Europe. It is also a historic city, with such landmarks as the Parthenon (temple to Athena, the city's namesake patron goddess), and hosted both the inaugural Olympic Games in 1896 and its homecoming in 2004.
  • Manila, Philippines: Capital and largest city of the Philippines, located at the crossroads of several Pacific trade routes. It is actually composed of sixteen cities and one municipality, all centered around the eponymous Spanish-era city, said to be the most densely-populated in the world.
  • Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Second largest city of Canada and second largest Francophone city in the world after Paris, as well as, until The Seventies, the chief commercial center of the country.
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States: Largest city in Pennsylvania, a center of arts and culture, and once the largest city in America by the 1770s. The city also played a role in the American Revolution, when American independence was signed there on July 4, 1776.
  • Tel Aviv, Israel: Second-largest city of Israel as well as its economic center, boasting the largest Middle Eastern economy outside Dubai, as well as a bastion of liberal politics and culture.
  • Líma, Peru: Capital and largest city in Peru, founded by the Spanish to also serve as capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. It is also home to the National University of San Marcos, the oldest functioning university in the New World.
  • Budapest, Hungary: Capital and largest city in Hungary, being a regional capital since Roman times. It is also one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, with its dramatic setting on the Danube River, as well as host to several hot springs.
  • Berlin, Germany: Capital and largest city of Germany. Long the seat of several empires, the city fell into ruin at the end of World War II and later literally divided by a concrete wall throughout the Cold War, but after the fall of the wall in 1989 and reunification a year later, rebounded as a center of culture, politics, media and science.
  • Cape Town, South Africa: Second-largest city in South Africa and the legislative capital. Situated at the Cape Bay, the city was the very first European settlement in Southern Africa, and later grew into a multicultural haven.
  • Luxembourg City, Luxembourg: Capital and largest city of the tiny Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, as well as the financial seat of both the country and the European Union.
  • Houston, Texas, United States: Largest city in Texas, largely fueled by its several railroad and ship connections, further bolstered by the discovery of oil. It is also home to NASA's control center.
  • Kiev, Ukraine: Capital and largest city of Ukraine, as well as the heartland of Ukrainian culture since Russian times. The city is also the most pro-European part of the deeply politically-divided country.
  • Bucharest, Romania: The "Little Paris" of Eastern Europe, capital and largest city of Romania. The city is notable for its eclectic mix of classical, socialist and modern architectural styles at the city center.
  • Beirut, Lebanon: Capital and largest city of Lebanon. Built on the Mediterranean shore, Beirut once thrived as a major seaport until it was devastated during the Lebanese Civil War, but has since rebounded and regained its prosperity.

Beta

  • Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Largest city of Vietnam, known as Saigon until after The Vietnam War. The city thrives both as a Khmer and French port city, which continues even after the emergence of Hanoi to the north.
  • Bogotá, Colombia: Capital and largest city of Colombia, known as the "Athens of South America" for its abundance of universities.
  • Auckland, New Zealand: Largest city of New Zealand as well as the largest Polynesian city, as well as a favorite destination for East Asian migrants.
  • Montevideo, Uruguay: Capital and largest city of Uruguay, established on the northeastern banks of the Río de la Plata as a Spanish fort amidst the Spanish-Portuguese race for lands in South America.
  • Caracas, Venezuela: Capital and largest city of Venezuela, thriving largely on the country's oil industry.
  • Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. Despite its location in the middle of the desert, Riyadh evolved from a trade post by way of being the ancestral home of the kingdom's ruling family.
  • Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Largest city of western Canada, which thrived both as a port city and a center of forestry and tourism, as well as one of the largest film production centers in North America. Its dramatic location between the sea and the Rocky Mountains also made it the host of the 2010 Winter Olympics.
  • Chennai (Madras), India: Largest city of southern India and a thriving automotive center.
  • Manchester, England, United Kingdom: Second largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city suddenly grew in prominence during the Industrial Revolution, and even long after the industries have gone, it thrived on as a center of culture and business.
  • Oslo, Norway: Capital and largest city of Norway, as well as the fastest-growing in Europe. Besides being a center of government and commerce, Oslo is also a major maritime power, as well as a center of arts and tourism.
  • Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: State capital and largest city of northeastern Australia, as well as the third-largest nationwide. Besides playing a role as an Allied Forces HQ during World War II, Brisbane is otherwise a pretty peaceful metropolis.
  • Helsinki, Finland: Capital and largest city of Finland, as well as the country's center of government, culture and finance.
  • Karachi, Pakistan: State capital of Sindh and largest city of Pakistan, as well as its economic center and erstwhile national capital. Despite the government's move inland, Karachi remains one of South Asia's largest economies, and is one of the most diverse places in Pakistan.
  • Doha, Qatar: Capital and largest city of Qatar. Besides being a center of government, Doha is also a bustling economic and educational giant in the Persian Gulf.
  • Casablanca, Morocco: Largest city of Morocco and the nation's economic and cultural heart, as well as the home to the largest port in northern Africa and the setting of an unforgettable 1940s romance film.
  • Stuttgart, Germany: State capital of Baden-Württemberg and sixth-largest city of Germany, as well as the heart of the Swabian peoples of southwestern Germany.
  • Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: Second-largest city of Brazil and the nation's undisputed cultural and tourist capital, and in 2016 will host the first Olympic Games in South America.
  • Geneva, Switzerland: Second-largest city of Switzerland, situated on the shores of the same-named lake, known for its thriving businesses and being the home of several branches of the United Nations and The Red Cross.

Beta-

  • Guatemala City, Guatemala: Capital and largest city of Guatemala and the most populous in Central America.
  • Lyon, France: Regional capital of Rhône-Alpes and second-largest city of France. Lyon is known for its well-preserved city center, a once-thriving silk industry, and home to some of France's best dining experiences.
  • Monterrey, Mexico: State capital of Nuevo León and third-largest city of Mexico, as well as the richest and most Americanized in the northern half of the country.
  • Panama City, Panama: Capital and largest city of Panama as well as the most cosmopolitan in Central America. Founded by the Spanish as the Pacific end of an inland trade route, the city prospered even further with the construction of the Panama Canal.
  • San José, Costa Rica: Capital and largest city of Costa Rica, as well as one of the most European-like cities in Central America.
  • Bratislava, Slovakia: Capital and largest city of Slovakia. Besides being a political, financial and cultural hub, Bratislava for centuries was the crossroads of many empires and races.
  • Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States: Largest city of Minnesota and, together with the smaller state capital Saint Paul forms the fourteenth-largest metropolis in America and largest on the Midwestern prairie. Once the world's largest flour manufacturer, the Twin Cities continues to thrive as a lumber center and a trade post between Seattle and Chicago.
  • Tunis, Tunisia: Capital and largest city of Tunisia, built near where the once-mighty city of Carthage stood.
  • Nairobi, Kenya: Capital and largest city of Kenya, as well as the largest in eastern Africa, founded by the British as a trading post between Uganda and the Indian Ocean coast.
  • Cleveland, Ohio, United States: Second-largest city of Ohio. Once a mighty industrial port city by the shores of Lake Erie, Cleveland fell into disrepute for its financial woes and a river once so polluted it even caught fire, but has since made great rebounds, among which is housing the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
  • Lagos, Nigeria: Largest city of Nigeria and all of Africa, as well as a thriving business hub, having largely prospered on the back of the country's oil industry, and a center of the arts.
  • Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Capital and second-largest city of the UAE. Once a small fishing village, the discovery of oil propelled Abu Dhabi to unprecedented riches, but nevertheless has a more laid-back atmosphere than Dubai to the east.
  • Seattle, Washington, United States: Largest city of Washington state. Founded in the 1850s, Seattle made brief trysts with fame as the main stop for the gold rush of the 1890s and host of the 1962 World's Fair, before making a full bloom as home of grunge rock and such global corporate icons as Boeing, Microsoft, Starbucks and Amazon.
  • Hanoi, Vietnam: Capital and second-largest city of Vietnam, as well as the nation's political heart for a thousand years, and features a mix of ancient and modern lifestyles.
  • Sofia, Bulgaria: Capital and largest city of Bulgaria. Founded by Thracians some 3,000 years ago, the city thrived under the Romans as regional center, and has since slipped into quietude until it was reestablished as national capital in 1879.
  • Riga, Latvia: Capital of Latvia and largest city of the Baltic States, renowned for its abundance of Art Noveau works.
  • Port Louis, Mauritius: Capital and largest city of Mauritius, as well as a mercantile center and the financial heart of southeastern Africa.
  • Detroit, Michigan, United States: Largest city of Michigan. Once a thriving industrial center, the city fell into a long economic decline despite remaining the automotive capital of America — a void now being slowly filled with the entertainment business.
  • Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Largest city of Alberta and a business giant in central Canada, as well as home to the Calgary Stampede, one of the world's largest rodeo festivals and the self-proclaimed "Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth".
  • Denver, Colorado, United States: Capital and largest city of Colorado, sitting roughly at one mile (1.609 kilometers) above sea level (thus the nickname "Mile High City"). Founded as a gold rush town, Denver continued to flourish long after the mines dried up as an important crossroads between the Midwest and the Rockies.
  • Perth, Western Australia, Australia: State capital and largest city, as well as reputedly one of the most isolated cities in the world. Despite its location, the city thrives largely on its mining industry.
  • Kolkata (Calcutta), India: State capital of West Bengal, third-largest city of India and the last capital of the British Raj, as well as host to the largest port in India. Once the economic, cultural, scientific and political jewel of India, Kolkata fell into decay (one lampshaded through the work of Albanian-born nun Mother Teresa) before making a comeback in the 2000s.
  • San Diego, California, United States: Second-largest city of California, sitting next to the Mexican border. Built as the first Catholic mission in California, San Diego once thrived as the command center for the Pacific fleet during World War II, and has since reinvented itself as a center of biotechnology and its burgeoning beach scene.
  • Amman, Jordan: Capital and largest city of Jordan, as well as one of the world's oldest continually-populated cities. In contrast to most major Middle Eastern cities, Amman is a pocket of modernity (having been made capital as late as the early 20th century) and one of the fastest-growing economies in the Arab world.
  • Antwerp, Belgium: Second-largest city of Belgium, de facto capital of Flanders, and home to the country's largest port.
  • Manama, Bahrain: Capital and largest city of the island-state of Bahrain, as well as a strategic financial center, being located at the middle of the Persian Gulf.
  • Birmingham, England, United Kingdom: Second-largest city of the United Kingdom and an industrial powerhouse, having tried for almost every trade available at the time of the Industrial Revolution, before turning its attention to the services sector during the last quarter of the 20th century.
  • Nicosia, Cyprus: Capital and largest city of Cyprus, bordered by a series of walls that exist to this day and still divided into Greek and Turkish sectors, a legacy of the two countries' feud.
  • Quito, Ecuador: Capital and second-largest city of Ecuador, as well as the highest capital in the world. Besides being a financial and political hub, the city boasts one of the best-preserved Spanish-era cities in the world.
  • Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Second-largest city of the Netherlands and home to the largest port in Europe. After being flattened at the end of World War II, Rotterdam banked on its port to help regenerate the city and turn it into a hotspot of diversity.
  • Belgrade, Serbia: Capital and largest city of Serbia, featuring a unique combination of Slavic, Ottoman, socialist and modern sensibilities.
  • Almaty, Kazakhstan: Largest city of Kazakhstan and former capital until the government moved inward to more geographically-centralized Astana. Despite this, Almaty remained the country's leading economic and cultural hub.
  • Shenzhen, China: The city directly to the north of Hong Kong, Shenzhen rapidly grew from a small village to the place where China's economic resurgence got off to a good start.
  • Kuwait City, Kuwait: Capital and largest city of Kuwait. Long a prosperous trading post between the Middle East and southern Asia, Kuwait City experienced a massive surge of relevance after the discovery of oil, and continues to thrive even after suffering the brunt of the Gulf War.
  • Hyderabad, India: State capital of Telengana and fourth-largest city of India, known for its melding of Muslim and Hindu cultures, as well as a historic pearl trade and an IT industry on the upsurge.
  • Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom: Capital and second-largest city of Scotland, as well as a noted educational center with a well-preserved city center.

    Gamma+, Gamma and Gamma- 

Gamma+

  • Zagreb, Croatia: Capital and largest city of Croatia. Founded in the Roman era, the city flourished throughout the medieval period, and bloomed into a powerful city in the 19th century.
  • Lahore, Pakistan: Provincial capital of Punjab and second-largest city of Pakistan, as well as a center of culture in the nation, having been a crossroads of various kingdoms throughout the centuries.
  • Saint Petersburg, Russia: Second-largest city of Russia and northernmost city with over 1 million people, founded in 1703 as seaside imperial capital, thus accounting for its more European atmosphere compared to the rest of Russia.
  • Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Second-largest city of Saudi Arabia, as well as the largest port in the Red Sea and the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city (closed off to non-Muslims) 70 kilometers (43 miles) to the east.
  • Durban, South Africa: Third-largest city of South Africa, largest of KwaZulu-Natal state and second-largest manufacturing hub after Johannesburg, as well as home to the largest Indian population outside India.
  • Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Capital of the Dominican Republic and largest city of the Caribbean islands. It is also the oldest colonial settlement in the Americas and seat of the first Spanish dominion in the New World.
  • Baltimore, Maryland, United States: Largest city of Maryland, famous as the birthplace of the "Star-Spangled Banner".
  • Islamabad, Pakistan: Capital of Pakistan and, together with nearby Rawalpindi, the third-largest urban area in the country. Having been built up from scratch during The Sixties as a more centralized, more protected alternative to coastal Karachi, the city also grew into the national center of education.
  • Guayaquil, Ecuador: Largest city of Ecuador and its commercial hub, fueled by the country's largest port.
  • St. Louis, Missouri, United States: Second-largest city in Missouri and once a major port town on the banks of the Mississippi River. Best known as the cradle of jazz and blues, as well as the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which opened up the West to the USA (commemorated with an iconic steel arch).
  • San Salvador, El Salvador: Capital and largest city of El Salvador and a major Central American financial center.
  • Cologne, Germany: Fourth-largest city of Germany and largest in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and a major cultural center of the Rhineland, as well as a trade crossroads for centuries.
  • Phoenix, Arizona, United States: Capital and largest city of Arizona, as well as the most populous state capital in the USA. Founded between two rivers in the middle of the desert, Phoenix thrived as a farming community, then an industrial hub after World War II.
  • Adelaide, South Australia, Australia: State capital and largest city of South Australia, fifth-largest in Australia, and one of the few colonies that never had penal settlements, as well as a city of many festivals.
  • Bristol, England, United Kingdom: Eighth-largest city of England and the heart of southwestern England. Once an industrial city, Bristol has since reinvented itself as center of technology-based industries, as well as a cultural leader in the region.
  • Charlotte, North Carolina, United States: Largest city of North Carolina, second-largest in the southeastern USA, and sixteenth-largest overall, as well as the second-largest banking city after New York City.
  • George Town, Cayman Islands: Capital of the Cayman Islands and largest city of the British Overseas Territories, and thus the nexus of the islands' status as offshore financial havens.
  • Osaka, Japan: Third-largest city of Japan (after Tokyo and its twin city Yokohama) and second-largest urban center, as well as the heart of the Kansai region, famous for being a center of Japanese culinary culture.
  • Tampa, Florida, United States: Third-largest city of Florida and a major financial center at the west coast of the peninsula-state.

Gamma

  • Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom: Largest city of Scotland and once a major seaport and industrial center, as well as a leading shipbuilding city.
  • San Juan, Puerto Rico: Capital and largest city of Puerto Rico and the second-oldest colonial settlement in the New World (after Santo Domingo), and home to half of the island's population.
  • Marseille, France: Regional capital of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, second-largest city in France and third-largest urban area (after Paris and Lyon). Marseille once thrived as the main trade post of France, and was also the birthplace of the French National Anthem, named in its honor.
  • Guadalajara, Mexico: State capital of Jalisco and second-largest city in Mexico, an industrial center, and home to mariachi.
  • Leeds, England, United Kingdom: Third-largest city of the United Kingdom and the cultural, financial and industrial heart of the West Yorkshire region, which once thrived as a milling town
  • Baku, Azerbaijan": Capital of Azerbaijan and largest city among the states of the southern Caucasus and a growing economic and cultural center, also known for its harsh winter winds.
  • Vilnius, Lithuania: Capital of Lithuania and second-largest city in the Baltic States, known for its well-preserved old city.
  • Tallinn, Estonia: Capital of Estonia and a center of culture in the Baltic States.
  • Raleigh, North Carolina, United States: State capital of North Carolina and an early example of American urban planning, as well as part of a "triangle" of educational institutions with the nearby cities of Durham and Chapel Hill.
  • Ankara, Turkey: Capital and second-largest city of Turkey, built over an old settlement and chosen because of its centralized location in the Asian half.
  • Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom: Capital and largest city of Northern Ireland. Once a major shipbuilding city on the island of Ireland, the city saw much violence throughout The Troubles, but has since been seeing rejuvenation.
  • San Jose, California, United States: Third-largest city of California and the oldest civilian Spanish town of the state, and the prime city of the Silicon Valley, home to many of the world's largest technology companies.
  • Colombo, Sri Lanka: Capital and largest city of Sri Lanka, established as early as 2,000 years ago as a major crossroads of the Indian Ocean maritime routes and later established as capital of the island by the British.
  • Valencia, Spain: Regional capital of the Valencian Community and third-largest city of Spain and one of the oldest, founded by the Romans in 138 BCE.
  • Cincinnati, Ohio, United States: Third-largest city of Ohio, former boomtown, and the first major city founded after the American Revolution.
  • Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States: Largest city of Wisconsin, famous for its brewing industry and the home of Harley-Davidson.
  • Muscat, Oman: Capital and largest city of Oman, famous for its cityscape which strives to preserve its traditional look.
  • Ljubljana, Slovenia: Capital and largest city of Slovenia, located at the center of the country, known for its greeneries.

Gamma-

    Highly Self-Sufficient and Self-Sufficient 

Highly Self-Sufficient

  • Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • Porto Alegre, Brazil
  • Strasbourg, France
  • Gaborone, Botswana
  • Chengdu, China
  • Richmond, Virginia, United States
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Tijuana, Mexico
  • Austin, Texas, United States
  • Qingdao, China
  • Nassau, The Bahamas
  • Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • Lille, France
  • Curitiba, Brazil
  • The Hague, Netherlands
  • Hartford, Connecticut, United States
  • Wrocław, Poland
  • Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Nuremberg, Germany
  • Lusaka, Zambia
  • Kampala, Uganda
  • Bilbao, Spain
  • Douala, Cameroon
  • Abidjan, Ivory Coast
  • Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Hangzhou, China
  • Poznań, Poalnd
  • Wellington, New Zealand
  • Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • Dakar, Senegal
  • Querétaro, Mexico
  • Dresden, Germany
  • Newcastle upon Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • Skopje, Macedonia
  • Nanjing, China
  • Tirana, Albania
  • Chongqing, China
  • Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Self-Sufficient

  • Florence, Italy
  • Pretoria, South Africa
  • Toulouse, France
  • Aarhus, Denmark
  • San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • Bremen, Germany
  • Nashville, Tennessee, United States
  • Bologna, Italy
  • Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • Nagoya, Japan
  • Sacramento, California, United States
  • Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • Luanda, Angola
  • Dalian, China
  • Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • Puebla, Mexico
  • Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • Minsk, Belarus
  • Linz, Austria
  • Tbilisi, Georgia
  • Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • Maputo, Mozambique
  • Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • Xiamen, China
  • Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • Leon, Mexico
  • Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  • George Town, Malaysia
  • Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • Abuja, Nigeria
  • Hanover, Germany
  • Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Bern, Switzerland
  • Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Ciudad Juárez, Mexico
  • Alexandria, Egypt
  • Bordeaux, France
  • Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • Cali, Colombia
  • Greensboro, North Carolina, United States
  • Genoa, Italy
  • Medellín, Colombia
  • Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
  • Montpellier, France
  • Córdoba, Argentina
  • Wuhan, China
  • Graz, Austria
  • Jerusalem, Israel / Palestine
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • Rochester, New York, United States
  • Nice, France
  • Busan, South Korea
  • Windhoek, Namibia
  • Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Recife, Brazil
  • Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • Hamilton, Bermuda
  • Reykjavík, Iceland
  • Naples, Italy
  • Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
  • Ludwigshafen, Germany
  • Kingston, Jamaica
  • Brasília, Brazil
  • Johor Baharu, Malaysia
  • Xi'an, China
  • Macau, China
  • Fukuoka, Japan
  • Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • İzmir, Turkey
  • Nottingham, England, United Kingdom
  • Des Moines, Iowa, United States
  • Campinas, Brazil
  • Chisinau, Moldova
  • Haifa, Israel
  • Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Yerevan, Armenia
  • Cebu, Philippines
  • Labuan, Malaysia
  • Salvador, Brazil

Other


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