Greece is not the word. At least in Greek, where the country is called Elláda (note: Greek D is pronounced like the English th in they, so it's pronounced like Ellátha/Elládha. In this article, we also use accents áéíóú to indicate the stress, like it is in Greek). The formal title is the Hellenic Republic. Geography and Climate Greece's area is 131,940 square kilometres (or 81,984 square miles), making it slightly bigger than the US state of Mississippi and slightly smaller than the state of Louisiana. The highest peak in Greece is Mount Olympus (Ólimpos), nearly 3,000 metres high (nearly 10,000 feet) and famous for having been the place where the Gods lived, according to ancient mythology. Greece is famous for its numerous islands. It is estimated that there are between 1,000 and 6,000 of them in all; of these, only about 200 are inhabited. The largest islands are (in order) Crete (Kríti), Euboea (pronounced and in Greek Évia), Lesbos (Lésvos), and Rhodes (Ródhos). The climate is predominantly Mediterranean, but contains a variety of 'micro-climates', mainly influenced by the mountainous ranges. Temperatures generally range from about 0 degrees to 40 degrees (Celsius) in summer. Snow is rare in low-lying areas, but more common at high altitudes. People The official language of Greece is Greek. According to the most recent 2011 census, there are nearly 11 million people in Greece. Ethnic Greeks make up about 94% of the population, but there is also a large minority of Albanians (4%). The remaining 2% of the population are assorted ethnicities such as Bulgarians, Romanians, Ukrainians and Pakistakis, to name but a few. Greece received 80,000 Armenian refugees in addition to a million and a half Anatolian Greeks in the 1923 population exchange with Turkey, but due to gradual emigration the number of Armenians these days is between 20 and 35 thousand. The state religion is the Greek Orthodox Church. About 98% of the population subscribe to this church, according to the 2001 census. In terms of Catholics, most live on the Cyclades and Ionian Islands. There used to a large Jewish presence in Greece, especially in cities like Thessaloníki. Sadly, due to events we all know about, most Jewish people in Greece were murdered in the 1940s in extermination camps such as Auschwitz. There are now only about 7,500 Jewish people left in Greece. Ancient Times Greece is a democratic state, famous for its history. As Ancient Greece, it was the birthplace of democracy, The Spartan Way (or the name source), Zeus etc., most of the Older Than Feudalism tropes still popular in Western fiction (okay, except for all the biblical and Roman ones) and the Olympic Games. In the last case, they were competed naked. No, women weren't allowed to participate (or watch). Byzantine Era Greece was at the heart of the Byzantine Empire, who despite its distinct Hellenicity continued the traditions of Rome long after the western Empire had fallen, and was the birthplace of Orthodox Christianity. The Empire was defeated gradually by the Ottoman Turks, and the Byzantine capital is now known as Istanbul, from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", (eis tin Pólin) meaning "to the city". Okay, fine, I'll say it. Istanbul, not Constantinople. 19th and 20th Centuries In the 1820s, the Greeks rebelled and created a kingdom of their own which gradually grew in size until, at the end of World War I, it was to include a restored Constantinople and some Greek populated cities on the Turkish coast. This led to a bitter war between Greece and its allies, and Atatürk's resurrected Turkish army. The allies, however, were fatigued after WWI and thus didn't have their hearts in it, and gave up halfway through the war, giving the Greek army no choice but to retreat from Anatolia. In the end, the solution to the war was a "Population Exchange", in which thousands of European Turks and Asiatic Greeks were booted out (and in the case of Smyrna in Turkey, the Greeks were booted out quite violently along with some leftover Armenians when the Turkish army set fire to their quarters), and so the principle of Istanbul, not Constantinople was re-affirmed forever more. Like any of Europe's bucket of ethnic conflicts and past expulsions, the best rule is to not mention this. During World War II, the Italians attempted to invade Greece, and found themselves bested and humiliated, necessitating Germany turning up to bail them out. After the war, Greece plunged into a Civil War, narrowly evading the attentions of the Reds with Rockets. Military Junta 1967—1974 "Regime of the Colonels" Following the end of the civil war, the ensuing eighteen or so years were full of political instability and frequent government changes. Just check out the amount of times the Prime Minister and government changed in the 1949--1967 period. Granted, most of those years were spent under Konstantínos Karamanlís of the National Radical Union and caretaker PMs in between. But the prospect of a Center Union victory (a more liberal party) by Georgios Papandreou (grandfather of the recent Papandreou with the same name) in an upcoming was too great for the conservatives to handle. On the night of 20/21 April, Brigadier General Stylianós Pattakós (still alive today, at the age of 101) and two Colonels, Geórgios Papadópoulos and Nikólaos Makarézos, seized control of the government in a coup d'etat. Rounding up all the political leaders and taking control of Athens through surprise and confusion (the tanks at strategic points helped as well), they declared much of the constitution suspended. This meant that they could now arrest pretty much anyone they wanted without a warrant and tried in a military court. Most of those political prisoners mentioned above were either sent to concentration camps scattered around Greece or sent into exile. For example, Karamanlís escaped to France during the seven years. The King at the time, Constantine II, initially worked with the regime but in December of that year, he attempted to organise a counter-coup to get rid of the military rule and replace it with a civilian one. Needless to say, his plan failed due to bad planning. He was forced to escape to Italy on the royal plane with his family and the former Prime Minister Kóllias in tow. While he remained king as he never abdicated before fleeing, he was eventually stripped of his monarch and head of state position in 1973. The colonels themselves claimed they were trying to save Greece from the threat of communism, using the term "anarchocommunists" for any left-leaning person. Life under the Junta was extremely restrictive — freedom of thought and freedom of the press were abolished. Brutal torture of political prisoners was common. Music by 'communist' composers such as Mikis Theodorakis was banned. The junta was eventually abolished due to a number of reasons. There had been a heavy anti-Junta movements throughout those seven years, culminating in a takeover of the Athens Polytechnic by students, who broadcast their own radio station with the famous call "This is the Polytechnic. You are listening to the radio station, of the free students, of the free Greeks. Down with the Junta". The Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 was the final nail in the coffin for the regime. The Army rebelled against the leadership and Greece was returned to a civil government in July 1974. Kóstas Karamanlís returned from France and became Prime Minister from the first free elections in almost a decade. The monarchy was overwhelmingly (some 70% voting against) abolished by a referendum in December 1974 and a new Republican constitution was written and enacted in 1975. Modern Greece Greece is now a modern, democratic country. Since 1975, the two main parties in Greece have been the centre-left party, PASOK (Panellínio Sosialistikó Kómma, Pan-Hellenic Socialist Party) and the centre-right Néa Dimokratía (New Democracy) party. Other minor parties include SYRIZA (the Coalition of the Radical Left, a left-wing party) and KKE (the Communist Party of Greece, also left-wing). Recent economic turmoil and financial problems in Greece have led to the extreme right-wing and (some say) Neo-Nazi party Golden Dawn to be elected for the first time. This party made headlines in June 2012 when one of its candidates, Ilías Kasidiáris, punched and slapped KKE politician Liána Kanélli on live television. This party's ugly side was revealed in September 2013, when members were allegedly involved in the murder of a hip hop musician called Pávlos Fýssas. This led to the subsequent arrest of key party members and its future in Greek politics is (thankfully, for some) uncertain. Greece's parliament, the Voulí ton Ellínon ('Will or Desire of the Greeks'), is unicameral (has only one chamber) and has 300 members. Until 2012, either PASOK and ND always had a majority (151/300) in the parliament; from 2004 to 2009 ND was in power and from 2009 to 2012, it was PASOK. However, due to the perceived bad management and popular discontent at Prime Minister Giórgos Papandréou's actions, PASOK was very badly defeated in the June 2012 election. It only won 38 seats overall. SYRIZA was catapulted into the opposition, with an up-to-then unprecedented 71 seats. ND, however, was the winning party, with 129 seats (79 by direct election, + 50 party list seats for being the biggest party). PASOK entered into a coalition with ND and DIMAR (an offshoot left-wing party that split in 2010 from SYRIZA). DIMAR left the coalition in June 2013, leaving current Prime Minister Antónis Samarás with only a tiny majority of 153/300. Greece is a member of the European Union since 1981 and of NATO since 1952. The current Greek Prime Minister (Prothypourgós) as of 2013 is Antónis Samarás of ND. He has served as minister in various different departments over the last twenty years. His position as the leader of this party is interesting though, considering he had been effectively responsible for them losing power in 1993. Culturally, 2004 was a good year for Greek sport - as well as hosting the Olympics in Athens, the Greek football team (which had never before won a match at a major tournament) pulled off a spectacular shock by winning the 2004 European Championships, defeating hosts Portugal in the final. Sadly for the Greek team, the defense of their crown in Austria/Switzerland in 2008 was more of a reversion to type - they lost all of their group games. For those of you wanting an answer to that ancient question,note Greece's estimated per capita GDP in 2008 was $32,100. However, that was before the credit crunch and the debt problems Greece is now suffering from, not helped by large-scale tax evasion.
Greece in fiction:
Fictional Greek people