Ingmar Bergman (1918 – 2007) was a Swedish director, regarded as one of the true greats in the history of film. Between writing, directing, and producing, he was nominated for thirteen Academy Awards, winning for Best Foreign Film three times: The Virgin Spring (1960, the inspiration for the American The Last House on the Left), Through a Glass Darkly (1961), and Fanny and Alexander (1983). Another of his famous films is The Seventh Seal, a Trope Codifier for Chess with Death.His films have a reputation for being gloomy and surrealistic. Although he generally tells identifiable "stories," straightforward plot descriptions will rarely give any real indication of what his movies are "about": even criticism of his works tends to sound like psychobabble. Bergman himself even stated that he didn't so much care if the audience understood what he was going for, as long as they felt something. Despite being (rather unjustly) a poster child for True Art Is Incomprehensible, the list of filmmakers who regard him as being among the best directors ever is long, including Woody Allen, Stanley Kubrick, Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg, Ang Lee and Francis Ford Coppola. There's a reason so many of his films have been released in America by The Criterion Collection. However, it should be noted that in his lifetime Bergman's films were generally box-office successes, not only in Sweden and Europe, but also in America. His film Scenes from a Marriage was the most popular TV show of its age and according to legend was a cause for a spike in divorce rates after the film's release. Cries and Whispers was likewise released in America by none other than Roger Corman who managed to distribute it so well that it became a box-office success there. He was pretty much a household name in The '60s and The '70s across the world.Not to be confused with, nor any relation to, Ingrid Bergman (though he once directed her, in Autumn Sonata; people on set got them confused).
Works by Ingmar Bergman with their own trope pages include:
- The Seventh Seal (1957)
- The Virgin Spring (1960)
- Persona (1966)
- Hour of the Wolf (1968)
- Cries and Whispers (1972)
- Fanny and Alexander (1982)
- Anti-Hero: In almost all of his films, the heroes posses glaring personal flaws; either having to do with the way they treat others, the way they look at the world or their inability to see the ramifications of their actions.
- Crapsack World: Bergman's work is associated with drama about life and death.
- Deliberately Monochrome: Black-and-white is used to great effect in his work.
- Devil in Disguise: In Fanny and Alexander and The Devil's Eye, a rigid religious morality and those people who embody it are shown to destroy a true impulse for goodness in people.
- Dramedy: Although he is best known for his existential dramas, Bergman is surprisingly good at getting laughs, even making some outright comedies. Even some of his dower pictures, like The Seventh Seal have some laugh-out-loud moments.
- The Grim Reaper: Death is prominent subject in his work. To the point that the Grim Reaper is actually a character in The Seventh Seal.
- Not So Stoic: Almost every film features a very stoic person breaks down in every possible way – existentially, mentally, physically, sexually.
- Shallow Parody: Ingmar Bergman parodies are usually just spoofing the Death playing chess scene from The Seventh Seal and the two women in extreme close-up talking to each other while not looking each other straight in the face from Persona. It's such a Pop-Cultural Osmosis that most parodists haven't even seen the entirety of these films and just keep basing their Le Film Artistique spoofs on these two scenes.
- Spiritual Successor: Lars von Trier. Woody Allen is also a huge fan and has made a homage to Bergman's work several times: Interiors, Shadows And Fog,...
References in Popular Culture:
- Animaniacs: The episode "Meatballs or Consequences", mainly through the use of the Chess with Death motif (though the Warners request that they play checkers instead) and The Grim Reaper having a thick Swedish accent.
- The Muppet Show: "Silent Strawberries"
- Mystery Science Theater 3000: "A Joke By Ingmar Bergman"
- Sparks: The Seduction of Ingmar Bergman, a musical written for Swedish radio about Bergman getting swept into his own personal Hollywood nightmare after the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.