Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 30 July 2007) was a [[UsefulNotes/{{Sweden}} Swedish]] director, regarded as one of the true greats in the history of film. Between writing, directing, and producing, he was nominated for thirteen UsefulNotes/{{Academy Award}}s, winning for Best Foreign Film three times: ''The Virgin Spring'' (1960, the inspiration for the American ''Film/TheLastHouseOnTheLeft''), ''Through a Glass Darkly'' (1961), and ''Fanny and Alexander'' (1983). Another of his famous films is ''The Seventh Seal'', a TropeCodifier for ChessWithDeath.

His films have a reputation for being gloomy and surrealistic. Although he generally tells identifiable "stories," [[LeFilmArtistique straightforward plot descriptions will rarely give any real indication of what his movies are "about"]]: even criticism of his works tends to sound like psychobabble. Bergman himself even stated that he didn't so much care if the audience understood what he was going for, [[EmotionalTorque as long as they felt something]]. Despite being (rather unjustly) a poster child for TrueArtIsIncomprehensible, the list of filmmakers who regard him as being among the best directors ever is long, including Creator/WoodyAllen, Creator/StanleyKubrick, Creator/MartinScorsese, Creator/StevenSpielberg, Creator/AngLee and Creator/FrancisFordCoppola. There's a reason so many of his films have been released in America by Creator/TheCriterionCollection. However, it should be noted that in his lifetime Bergman's films were generally box-office successes, not only in Sweden and Europe, but also in America. His film ''Scenes from a Marriage'' was the most popular TV show of its age and according to legend was a cause for a spike in divorce rates after the film's release. ''Cries and Whispers'' was likewise released in America by none other than Creator/RogerCorman who managed to distribute it so well that it became a box-office success there. He was pretty much a household name in TheSixties and TheSeventies across the world.

Not to be confused with, nor any relation to, Creator/IngridBergman (though he once directed her, in ''Autumn Sonata''; people on set got them confused).

!!Works by Ingmar Bergman with their own trope pages include:
* ''Film/SummerWithMonika'' (1953)
* ''Film/SawdustAndTinsel'' (1953)
* ''Film/SmilesOfASummerNight'' (1955)
* ''Film/TheSeventhSeal'' (1957)
* ''Film/WildStrawberries'' (1957)
* ''Film/TheVirginSpring'' (1960)
* ''Film/ThroughAGlassDarkly'' (1961)
* ''Film/WinterLight'' (1963)
* ''Film/{{Tystnaden}}'' (The Silence) (1963)
* ''Film/{{Persona}}'' (1966)
* ''{{Film/Hour of the Wolf}}'' (1968)
* ''Film/{{Skammen}}'' (The Shame) (1968)
* ''Film/EnPassion'' (The Passion of Anna) (1969)
* ''Film/CriesAndWhispers'' (1972)
* ''Film/ScenesFromAMarriage'' (1973)
* ''Film/FaceToFace'' (1976)
* ''Film/TheAutumnSonata'' (1978)
* ''Film/FromTheLifeOfTheMarionettes'' (1981)
* ''Film/FannyAndAlexander'' (1982)
* AntiHero: In almost all of his films, the heroes possess glaring personal flaws, either having to do with the way they treat others, the way they look at the world or their inability to see the ramifications of their actions.
* CerebusSyndrome: In a lot of his film things start relatively optimistically but always shift for the worse. And worse. And even worse. ''{{Film/Hour of the Wolf}}'', ''Film/{{Skammen}}'', ''Film/EnPassion'', ''Film/CriesAndWhispers'', ''Film/FaceToFace'', ''Film/TheAutumnSonata'', ''Film/FannyAndAlexander'' are all examples. In the beginning of each of the films listed the situation appears somewhat regular. But it rapidly deteriorates.
* CrapsackWorld: Bergman's work is associated with drama about life and death. ''Skammen'' was especially notable for being set in an unnamed war torn nation showing what war does to people and human relations.
* CrisisOfFaith: He made an entire trilogy about "the Silence of God" and it crops up in a lot of his movies. He was raised in a family of Lutheran priests and had a difficult relationship with his father. He eventually did become an agnostic and in his view the movie ''The Silence'' was the point where he stopped asking everyone HaveYouSeenMyGod and religion, while still a part in his films, stopped being as prominent in his later films.
* DeliberatelyMonochrome: Black-and-white is used to great effect in his work. He came to colour film later than other European film-makers and only used it sporadically, making exclusively colour films only in TheSeventies and TheEighties.
* DevilInDisguise: In ''Film/FannyAndAlexander'' and ''Film/TheDevilsEye'', a rigid religious morality and those people who embody it are shown to destroy a true impulse for goodness in people.
* {{Dramedy}}: Although he is best known for his existential dramas, Bergman is surprisingly good at getting laughs, even making some outright comedies. Even his most dour pictures, like ''Film/TheSeventhSeal'' have some laugh-out-loud moments.
* TheGrimReaper: Death is prominent subject in his work. To the point that the Grim Reaper is actually a character in ''Film/TheSeventhSeal''.
* MoneyDearBoy: Money is why he did nine commercials for the soap brand Bris in 1951 (he still cared enough that they came out rather artsy). It was necessary because the Swedish film industry was on strike at the time to protest the high taxes applied to it. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5wFxWbYifs One]] was also his first work with Bibi Andersson.
-->"The primary reason I wanted to make the commercials was that I was given free rein with money and I could do exactly what I wanted with the product's message. Anyhow, I have always found it difficult to feel resentment when industry comes rushing toward culture, check in hand."
* NotSoStoic: Almost every film features a very stoic person breaks down in every possible way existentially, mentally, physically, sexually.
* OneOfUs: Bergman was a huge movie buff and contrary to many people's beliefs he actually really liked mass popular culture. He was a huge fan of Golden Age Hollywood, B-Movies, action films, westerns and later on really loved ''Film/JurassicPark'' in general. Bergman was also quite happy that Creator/RogerCorman distributed ''Film/CriesAndWhispers'' and he loved the fact that his films were popular in the States. [[invoked]]
* ProductionPosse:
** Includes cinematographer Sven Nykvist.
** Also quite a few actors, among them Creator/LivUllmann, Creator/ErlandJosephson, Creator/HarrietAndersson, Creator/BibiAndersson, Creator/MaxVonSydow, Creator/IngridThulin, Creator/Gunnar Björnstrand and Creator/GunnelLindblom.
* SequelGap: A whole '''thirty years''' between ''Scenes From a Marriage'' (1973) and ''Saraband'' (2003). The gap is a major PlotPoint in ''Saraband''. [[invoked]]

!!References in Popular Culture:

* ''WesternAnimation/{{Animaniacs}}'': The episode "Meatballs or Consequences", mainly through the use of the ChessWithDeath motif (though the Warners request that they play checkers instead) and TheGrimReaper having a thick Swedish accent.
* ''Series/TheMuppetShow:'' "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqv_qYBgEk0 Silent Strawberries]]"
* ''Series/MysteryScienceTheater3000:'' "[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pGZbfNADNs A Joke By Ingmar Bergman]]"
* Music/{{Sparks}}: ''The Seduction of Ingmar Bergman'', a musical written for Swedish radio about Bergman getting swept into his own personal Hollywood nightmare after the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.