"Workers of the world, unite!"
—The call-to-arms in The Communist Manifesto
—The call-to-arms in The Communist Manifesto
"De omnibus dubitandum" ("Everything must be doubted")Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a very polarizing German-born writer known best for writing about and advocating socialism and communism. Marx is one of the most important men to ever live, though how much of his influence is good or bad depends heavily on your own beliefs. His influence is so widespread that some people have said that the entire twentieth century is his legacy. His most well known and proverbial works are The Communist Manifesto (1848), a short pamphlet, co-written with Friedrich Engels, in response to a series of revolutions across Europe that year and the Doorstopper that is Das Kapital. Both works are by-words for socialism and communism, but neither was the first work about socialism - it was already a common word by the time it was published, and socialist thought was grounded in some of the more left-wing ideologues of The Enlightenment (which Marx cited as his main influence).The Communist Manifesto condenses Marx's idea that history is "a history of the class struggles" and that the new capitalist societies of the 19th Century while originally revolutionary (in that they toppled the corrupt aristocracies during The French Revolution and the later wars of reunification in Italy and Germany) led in turn to a new ruling class (labelled the "bourgeosie"note ) that comprised of those who owned capital and means of production that nonetheless functioned on exploitation of the vast majority of workers who did the majority of work for little pay, no protection and in deplorable conditions. In the same way the aristocrats created the bourgeosie who replaced them as the ruling class, the bourgeosie will in turn be succeeded and replaced by the newly emergent working-class who in sharp contrast to the bonded peasantry of feudalism, was urban, educated in some amount of technical know-how by their masters (necessary for them to work the machines and other tools), organized into labouring units that brought them into contact with workers from other parts of the capitalist nation, leading to the development of a new identity. They constituted in Marx's view, a new revolutionary class, nurtured in the conditions of the capitalist state, and set to pave the way for a revolt and the creation of a new socialist society. This would start a lengthy process that would lead, initially to a society, governed first by the working class directly (i.e. the Dictatorship of the Proletariatnote ) but gradually to the establishment of a classless society, and finally to the pure communist society where the state itself would wither, having no political parties and only containing a bureaucracy that handled technocratic functions of maintenance, roadworks, hygiene, sewage and transportation.note His social, economic, political and philosophical views are collectively known as Marxism. A Genre-Busting philosophy that combines historical inquiry, statistical analysis, journalism and philosophy that subsequently influenced nearly all left-wing revolutions and movements since the mid-19th century, and later expanded into fields of humanities, social sciences, linguistics, economics, art and psychology. For instance, many literary theorists used Marxist ideas look at literature and culture (film, theatre, opera) in relation to a social and historical context, resulting in many Alternate Character Interpretation and revival in the fortune of hitherto neglected works, in addition to his influence on many artists such as Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein, Jean-Luc Godard. Which is fitting since Marx was greatly inspired by literaturenote . Basically, like him or not, you have been influenced by his ideas.Despite his reputation as a prophet, with his rhetoric and tendency for visionary predictions not helping his case Marx's theories about revolutionary practice succeeded contemporary radical events (Revolutions of 1848, the Paris Commune) rather than anticipated it. They are indeed analytical think pieces about ongoing events and journalistic in character, and Marx used his regular paying job at the New York Herald Tribune's foreign desk to report on various events as and when they happened. The fact that Marx engaged with such political journalism is itself a radical departure from his background as an academic philosopher, and would later provide the model for the philosophe engagée codified by Jean-Paul Sartre. This stance was criticized by later writers (mostly, but not exclusively, grounded in analytical philosophy) since it put into question how much of Marx's ideas and practices are carefully developed theories and how much are they instinctual reactions and gut analyses of far-away events that Marx only knew by third hand. This blurring of lines meant that many of Marx's ideas, shaped by the context of the middle of the 19th Century provided an impression of a more coherent and complete view than was actually formulated. In their view, this allowed for many 20th Century revolutionaries to claim Marx based on selective interpretation. Vladimir Lenin, spearheaded the first successful Marxist revolution in The Russian Empire, and Marx's legacy is to a large extent tied to the fortunes of that event, and its highly ambiguous outcomes across the 20th Century.note Marx himself resided in London and analysed the changes in 19th Century England at the height of The British Empire and most of his works analyse Capitalism far more than it prescribed Socialism. This was the era when corporations were pretty much allowed to do anything they wanted and there were no laws which protected workers. Child labor was the rule rather than the exception, nearly all working-class men could not vote (and no women could), no laws existed to guarantee safe working conditions, most of the very large number of poor had only just enough money to live, and there wasn't a financial safety net protecting people from horrific poverty. It's also worth noting that during his age, the legacy of feudalism was still strong in the Continent, and most of the wealth was controlled by rich families who possessed it for generations. Economic conditions and inequality was far worse back then, and thanks to the Empires of Europe was now inflicted globally seeping into cultures like India, China, Algeria, Egypt and many nations in Africa and South America. It is no coincidence that Marx's ideas had a far stronger influence, and maintains a more positive and/or neutral legacy, in these colonial outposts than in their respective metropoles. This also led Marx, a German exile, to formulate an internationalist post-national outlook to counter the rise of what would now be described as globalization.Marx's influence in the Western liberal nations (what is now called the "First World") would be of a more intellectual and subtle nature. Marx is considered to be one of the founders of modern social sciences, along with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber. Unlike many other philosophers and intellectuals of his time, he insisted that social theories must be examined through a scientific method and direct on-the-ground empirical research of statistical records and figures. His philosophy of historical materialism was the first major case against the "Great Man" view of history of Kings/Emperors and Popes, and shifted attention to the largely neglected and relegated-to-a-footnote masses in history, paving the way for Annales historians such as Fernand Braudel and others. As an economist, Marx remains heterodox and outside the purview of mainstream economics who by and large reject his ideas and viewpoints. Yet Marx helped the world understand capitalism better than anyone since Adam Smith - for example, he was the first guy to develop explanations as to why the previously feudal countries of Europe became industrial economies and capitalist powerhouses note . Thanks to the influence of Das Kapital, Marx is the one responsible for the free market being known as capitalism. Much of what he wrote about how capitalism works actually stands up to scrutiny close to 200 years later.Many later historians argue, that Marx's key political influence came via indirectly promoting reform in many liberal nations, many of them intended to co-opt the thunder of radical movements. This assertion is dubious since advocates of reform existed before Marx, and he himself was opposed to steady and gradual reforms since he noted that it was akin to hoping that the existing order would "reform itself out of existence".note In the case of America, the New Deal was largely shaped to co-opt class angst and the disrepute of capitalism brought into question by the (then) international and intellectual prestige of Communism (which owed itself to its grounding on Marx's ideas). The American Communists who were in the margins during The Thirties, nonetheless promoted racial equality and organized African-Americans in the Deep South during the 30s, which ultimately bore fruit in the Civil Rights Movement which was finally accepted by mainstream liberals and some conservatives to counter the internationalist appeal of Communism. To quote W. E. B. Du Bois, Marx "put his finger squarely upon our difficulties." Marx himself fluctuated in his attitudes to reform. When the monarchies of Europe started to give way to democracy, he did say that peacefully reforming capitalism was possible in some nations such as England and the United States, but he argued that nations such as Germany and France were far too entrenched by conservative influences for any changes to take root peacefully and argued the same for other nationsnote .He actually spent much of his life outside of his homeland. Due to his open, enthusiastic association with all of the most radical people of the day, Marx essentially had no chance of ever becoming a professional academic and the Kingdom of Prussia eventually exiled him. He moved to Paris in 1843, and was kicked out of France in 1849. From then on, he mostly lived in London. Nevertheless, Marx is still an icon throughout much of Germany. A nationwide poll in 2003 saw that Germans voted him as the third-greatest German of all time, behind only West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther. To put this in perspective, Marx ranked above all of the country's great classical composers, Albert Einstein, and Otto von Bismarck. In fact, Marx has a far better reputation in Europe (and Asia, Africa, South America) than he does in the United States. People over there, even several of his critics, are more willing to admit that he actually was a smart guy who accomplished a lot, while Americans usually associate him with their old enemy the Soviet Union and their satellite nations they fought in Proxy War during the Cold War. Germany's version of him is the more accurate one: He was (probably) incorrect about how the future will inevitably lead to a classless paradise, but he was right about many other things. In any case, by taking the stances that Marx did, he is certain to remain controversial and contentious for future generations and since he never wrote for academic and mainstream respectability to start with, it would suit him just fine that his ideas are still outside the mainstream establishment more than 130 years after his death.Not to be confused with The Marx Brothers, or the final boss from Kirby Super Star. The trope Karl Marx Hates Your Guts is named after him. Also, yes, he kinda does look a lot like a grumpy version of Santa Claus, naturally inviting facetious comparisons between his prescriptions for allocating resources and Santa's giving of gifts.Please, please, PLEASE remember the Rule of Cautious Editing Judgment with this guy.
—His personal motto
—His personal motto
Notable works by Marx include:
- On the Jewish Question (1843) - A response to a fellow philosopher who suggested that the only way Jews could receive political emancipation in much of Europe was to abandon their religion. This work was then seen as a major study of how secular countries actually work, with Marx claiming that even countries without a state religion will see religious forces try to take power. Today, people usually look at it as anti-Semitic, though it should be pointed out that Marx was himself (ethnically) Jewish (he was of course an atheist in terms of actual religious beliefs). May or may not have been intended as a Stealth Parody - the jury is still out.
- Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (1844) - Not published during his own lifetime. One of his earliest works revealing his communist sympathies.
- The Holy Book (1844) - A damning critique of a then-popular group of philosophers known as the Young Hegelians.
- The German Ideology (1846) - His first with Engels. A study/critique of what German culture was like at the time. Today valued as the fullest example of his materialist theory of history.
- Wage Labour and Capital (1847) - One of his most important studies of how capitalism really works for those on the bottom.
- The Communist Manifesto (1848) - Written with Engels. His most famous work. Written in response to the Revolutions Of 1848. Needs no description.
- The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852). Essential for understanding the Marxist view of history, it starts with the famous quote, "Hegel remarks somewhere that all great world-historic facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce." (Despite much searching, no such remark from Hegel has been found.) He spends much of the essay comparing the coup d'état of Napoleon I on the 18th Brumaire An VIII ((9 November 1799) with an 1851 coup by his nephew Napoleon III. It ends with an almost equally famous quote, "Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past." about Marx's view of the place of the individual in history. In the 20th Century, this book gained renewed currency for its analysis about failure in democracy leading to an autocratic-military government with broad popular support with appeals to a romanticized past glory.
- Grundrisse (1858) - Unfinished. An examination of a wide variety of topics, namely ones tying to economics. Basically a dry run for Capital, although some Marx scholars hold that there's stuff in this book that Marx left undeveloped.
- Theories of Surplus Value (1863) - A very strong critique of the idea that more material creates more wealth. For Marx, it only means more wealth for the wealthy.
- Capital: Critique of Political Economy, also known as Das Kapital (Volume 1, 1867; Volumes 2 and 3 released posthumously) — his magnum opus. He set out to basically write down every single thought he had about economics and society with these books. Since Marx kept procrastinating finishing the thing for several years, he died before the second and third volumes were fully completed. Engels edited them after Marx's death and published them. It's massive, so much so that many modern Communist and Marxist movements advise not reading it out of necessity. The hardest parts to understand are the opening chapters of Volume 1, which consist of Marx's abstract theories about labour and value. This is a pity, because many readers never make it to the later chapters, which contain vivid and harrowing accounts of industrial conditions in 19th century England, with extensive quotes from government reports on the subject.
- The Civil War in France (1871) - Notable for being an examination of the infamous Paris Commune of 1871, the most significant socialist revolution within his own lifetime.
Marx and his works provide examples of:
- The American Civil War: Believe it or not, Marx and Engels were very interested in this war. They wrote a series of articles supporting the Union side and also pointing to slavery in the South as the chief cause of the conflict. In fact, Marx and Abraham Lincoln wrote a few letters about slavery to each other during the war. Marx also campaigned himself heavily among the English working class for the Northern Side. During the Civil War, quite a few English people were contemplating intervening on the behalf of the South, since despite shutting down the slave trade before, English mills depended on cotton from slave plantations. The English working class however and others were entirely pro-Union.
- Authors Of Quote: He is unquestionably a very quotable guy. This leads to a lot of Beam Me Up, Scotty!.
- Badass Beard: If you don't like him, it also counts as Beard of Evil. Others note ironically that it makes him resemble an Old Testament prophet or Santa Claus.
- Belief Makes You Stupid: Or, at least, belief makes you think there is eternal paradise awaiting you in the next life so you don't try to improve your lot in this one, and is only supported by the ruling classes to keep the workers from doing something with their dangerous free time, such as organizing, thinking and discussing real solutions to their lives.
- Bread and Circuses: According to Marx, the capitalist economy functions on the most elaborate and complex version of this. He famously defined the ideology of a given society as stemming from the base (capital) and the super-structure (owners of capital) built on top of it, with the ideology ensuring that Status Quo Is God. This ideology can include anything and everything from appeals to religion, imagined past glory, military adventurism, racist hostility to immigrants and others stealing your jobs and women and when all else fails, Conspicuous Consumption, all of which to ensure that the working class are divided from uniting for their common interests.
- Commie Land: He wanted these to happen, but lived decades before the first one was born, and probably wouldn't have liked it.
"For as soon as the distribution of labour comes into being, each man has a particular exclusive sphere of activity, which is forced upon him and from which he cannot escape. He is a hunter, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a critic and must remain so if he does not wish to lose his means of livelihood; while in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, to fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticize after dinner, just as I have in mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic."
- Indeed, it's an irony that Marx spent most of his life analyzing capitalist society and how it functions and how a revolution could be possible but he never really defined how a communist society would be like. The one description of this society however is radically different from how communism turned out to be:
- Marx's main idea was that the Communist Revolution would take place in developed nations like England, France and the United States and that he felt that the Communist state required a proper nurturing and development of economic infrastructure and social upheaval before it can be possible. Indeed, Leninism modified and differed with Marxism on this very point and he had to justify why a poor feudal nation like Russia with huge swathes of the population suffering from illiteracy would set up a Communist utopia. Marx noted that his ideas were popular in Russia towards the end of his life and wondered if revolution could take root there, but he was highly cautious and skeptical about it.
- Corrupt Corporate Executive: He pretty much believed that all of them were this by default. He considered profit to be theft.note
- Corrupt Politician: To Marx, almost all politicians were either in it for their own power or just puppets of the rich. He made an exception for Abraham Lincoln however, regarding him as an exceptional politician for describing reality in material terms that ordinary people could understand and relate to. But he generally regarded most of the rest, be they conservative/liberal/self-proclaimed socialists as either corrupt or naive self-deluding puppets of interest-holders.
- Deadpan Snarker: His works are full of many sarcastic attacks on the rich. Several of which are pretty funny, really. Some notable quotes of his:
M. Proudhon has the misfortune of being particularly misunderstood in Europe. In France, he has the right to be a bad economist, because he is reputed to be a good German philosopher. In Germany, he has the right to be a bad philosopher, because he is reputed to be one of the ablest of French economists. Being both a German and an economist at the same time, we desire to protest against this double error...
- "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce."
- "The rich will do anything for the poor but get off their backs."
- "Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form."
- His critique of Proudhon's The Philosophy of Poverty was called The Poverty of Philosophy* and opens with this:
- Evil Lawyer Joke: Marx considered law to be the most powerful social force besides the economy; without the law of property and contract the basis of the capitalist system could not exist. His opinion of the law in general was not high; for him it existed, in the last instance, to defend the bourgeois system.
- Fair for Its Day: Please do remember that he wrote all of this during a time when most of the workers had no voting rights. Direct, militant action and revolution were the only way that they had a chance to getting better conditions. Most of Europe did not see universal suffrage until after World War I, actually.
- Famous Last Words: Completely and utterly defied.(to his housekeeper, who stood by him as he was dying) Go on, get out! Last words are for fools who haven't said enough!
- Many people initially thought his belief that workers whose rights are not protected will revolt and take over their country was just a laughable prediction that could not possible come true. Then it happened.
- Marx also pointed out that capitalism would eventually cause periodic crises even in advanced economies. Most didn't believe that could happen, until it did (although this had already happened-albeit of a smaller size-in his own lifetime).
- Flame Bait: Marx and his views in general (he was himself no stranger to heated debate and kicked out of his place of residency more than once for his views), but for added fun say something like "Marx was right" in the US or ask whether a Marxist revolution can happen prior to industrialization in Marxist circles. If you get out alive, you will hear some very interesting arguments.
- Foregone Conclusion: Marxist's analysis of history posited that a worker's state is ultimately inevitable, as capitalism will invariably destroy itself by producing economic conditions leading to a socialist revolution.
- Full-Circle Revolution:
- The reason for the decline of his reputation and overall controversy is that self-calling Marxist revolutions ended up becoming corrupt tyrannies with power in the hands of a few power-hungry leaders who oppressed the majority and violated human rights to stay in charge becoming the embodiment of People's Republic of Tyranny.
- In his defense, Marx never really defined how a communist society would actually be like. He spent most of his life analyzing capitalism and inequality. Marx was an observer and recorder of the revolutions in his time and place, starting from The French Revolution to Revolutions Of 1848, and he noted this very trend in his own lifetime of revolutionaries failing to consolidate their early gains and sustain their momentum, and likewise on taking power find out that their lack of experience leads them to make a chain of short-sighted compromises and misteps. In either case the Communist revolutions of the 20th century differed sharply from Marx in that they took root in underdeveloped countries while Marx felt it would better fit developed nations.
- Good Republic, Evil Empire: He certainly believed that democracies and republics, where people have at least some say in how the government runs the country, were better than countries run by monarchs, which are oppressive by their very nature. He thought that it would lead to the majority having more power — as he put it, "Democracy is the road to socialism." However, he also thought that Democracy Is Flawed, because the rich will corrupt the system and manipulate it for their benefit, and that eventually a more sophisticated form of democracy would have to take shape.note
- Harsher in Hindsight: Marx did always support the existence of a strong state, and the manifesto declares that this state has to take charge of everything from social services to banks. Some Russians with bright ideas took this to heart during the early days of the twentieth century. When they developed this thought further, another tyranny was inevitable.
- This viewpoint led to a crass break with the anarchists, who vouched for a no-state solution. Marx however did believe that even in the end point of socialism, where the state would wither away, some form of government would exist to look after roads, electricity, mass transit and other public utilities. Marx felt that this would be merely a technical function and purpose and not really be tied to politics and class interests.
- Hyper-Competent Sidekick: Friedrich Engels, his best friend and patron, was this to him. During his life he supported him financially so that Karl could focus exclusively on his academicand political work. He also helped him publish his books, and after his death actually undertook the gargantuan task of organizing all of Karl's unpublished, unfinnished manuscripts to complete Das Kapital's second and third volumes (especially the third one) and publish the completed and revised work along with his posthumous writings (the main one being Theories of surplus-value). Engels was also a key figure in the organization of the international labour moveent, and after Marx died he actively promoted the reading and study of his theories, helping in no small measure to spread his work, even at the expense of his own (Engels was also a socialist thinker, publishing a number of books, mainly about sociology). It's more than fair to say that Marx couldn't have achieved much without his friend, and Marx didn't hide that fact, thanking him by quoting his works numerous times in Das Kapital and praising his talent and efforts.
- Hypocrite: Marx, during his decades in London, lived on money Engels gave him. Where did that money come from? It was profit from the factory Engels owned. Yes, the man who many times wrote about how wrong it was to exploit the labor of others survived off of doing just that.
- Of course Marx and Engels would call this an example of the dialectic, an example of the contradictions of capitalist society that create its opposite. Neither Marx nor Engels advocated personal austerity on behalf of a great cause like later communists tried to do for party discipline and among people at large and failed miserably. Marx borrowing money from Engels is simply because his heavy intellectual labor did not have the benefit of modern university grants and he was a serious workaholic, who worked all by himself in the libraries of the British Museum scouring for records. Communism is about solidarity, helping out a friend.
- History Repeats: The overall theme of his works is that the rich and powerful will always find ways to manipulate and oppress the masses - no matter how different events are, this is usually a or the key cause. This has been subject to Flanderization however. In The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte he criticized the excessive adulation of the revolutionaries for The French Revolution noting that many of them uncritically sought to act out the parts of their forbears without realizing that the situation had changed drastically in the 50 years after that event, mostly because they totally misunderstood the history of that time. This led to an iconic paragraph:Karl Marx: Hegel remarks somewhere that all great world-historic facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce. Caussidière for Danton, Louis Blanc for Robespierre, the Montagne of 1848 to 1851 for the Montagne of 1793 to 1795, the nephew for the uncle. And the same caricature occurs in the circumstances of the second edition of the Eighteenth Brumaire.
- Inherent in the System: Economic crises, Marx argued, was an inherent feature of Capitalism, rather than the rare exception economists said it would be.
- He noted that the many economic crises in his lifetime were always seen as rare special events that everyone Didn't See That Coming but he argued that they demonstrated the fundamental instability of capitalism, where after each crisis someone comes up with a way to temporarily provide a stopgap solution until the next one comes along. He noted that crisis in capitalism differed from crises in feudal times in that it comes from surplus of wealth (what Thomas Piketty would call r>g), which was inevitable since capitalism was all about encouraging wealth and capital accumulation in the hands of the few, and as mechanization increases and the hunt for cheap labour continues, the gap would widen and keep widening and economic crises would become bigger as time passes.
- He also argued that socialists should Let No Crisis Go to Waste and suggested that such economic crises was a proper time to mount a revolution or reform, and since these crises are inevitable features of capitalism, there's always an opportunity and potential for change. Fittingly, sales of Marx's works always go up during times of economic downturn.note
- Insistent Terminology: There are many (so-called) Marxists who believe that other (so-called) Marxists, such as Vladimir Lenin, Josef Stalin, Mao Zedong, and Che Guevara, were not really Marxists. It's pretty much a Flame Bait subject. It's accurate in that Marx himself certainly didn't refer to his ideas as Marxist and he often assumed or expected people would read his works with the same attention to context and detail that he read everything so would make references to complex ideas assuming his readership were familiar with it. The other thing is that before the October Revolution, not all of his works were published, and only after the USSR came in, that his earlier works, (called "Young Marx" by academics) were unearthed, showing a more humanistic and analytical side than his later works did. So the views people had about him began to change as his older works were published. The Soviets for their part could hardly be blamed for not reading all his books since they went by what was published.
- The Man Is Sticking It to the Man: And absolutely unapologetic to it.
Karl Marx: "There is something in human history like retribution; and it is a rule of historical retribution that its instrument be forged not by the offended, but by the offender himself. The first blow dealt the French monarch proceeded from the nobility, not from the peasants. The Indian revolt does not commence with the Ryots, tortured, dishonored and stripped naked by the British, but with the Sepoys, clad, fed, petted, fatted and pampered by them."
- Marx pointed out that while Aristocrats Are Evil and oppressed the peasants, he noted that the peasants outside of a few rebellions never quite toppled the aristocracy, that task fell to the bourgeosie that was nurtured and patronized by the aristocracy whose manners they observed at first hand, learned from and then surpassed due to close contact. When describing the Indian Mutiny of 1857, he formulated this viewpoint:
- Marx himself did all his research in the British Museum, worked as a freelance journalist as the London Correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune, and used his column to criticize capitalism, the American South, English capitalists and supported colonial rebellions in India, Ireland and elsewhere (the only Western writer of his day to stand on the side of the anti-colonialist rebels). His viewpoint was that the systems of the government are there to be exploited to subvert their order, since the system of government exists to exploit the population. So it's totally okay to bite the hand that feeds you.
- Morally Bankrupt Banker: To him, they were the worst of them all, since they had an even greater opportunity to manipulate the money. His second point in the Communist Manifesto argues for the abolition of inherited wealth and a heavy progressive income tax.
- The Needs of the Many: A huge advocate for this trope, noting that the majority of the people were working poor laborers at that time, he argues that the massive wealth and the goods from the wealthy class (capitalists) should be redistributed among the working class majority. Ironically enough, he's highly critical to utilitarianism (at least Bentham's version of it), stating that human nature is too dynamic to be limited to a single utility and noted that Bentham fails to take into account of the changing character of people. Instead, most of his communist ethical views were closer to Immanuel Kant and deontology.
- No Poverty: Creating a world where this was true was one of the biggest reasons why he supported the socialists.
- Pet the Dog:
- Marx had a sympathetic view of women since he believed they were one of the greatest examples of what happens to the oppressed, as they were forced into the roles of housewives, cheap factory workers, and prostitutes. An early feminist, he called for more equal rights for women, and he believed that socialism and communism would lead to this equality.
- Many people only knowing The Theme Park Version of Marx might not guess it, but in the Communist Manifesto he says "The Bourgeoisie has been a truly revolutionary class in the past" - and he means it. Marx argues that Capitalism is/was a huge advance over what came before and it is/was absolutely necessary to create the conditions for a communist revolution.
- Reign of Terror: Marx and Engels had contradictory views of the original Terror of the revolution and the use of revolutionary violence.
- Engels saw the Terror as "useless cruelties" perpetrated by deeply paranoid people, Marx likewise referred to Robespierre as a "terrorist with his head in the clouds" but they also regarded Thermidor as a major reversal of the Revolution's progressive policies and saw the Jacobin Republic and its government as providing true democratic mobilization to France.
- Marx likewise criticized the Paris Commune for not going further, and taking over the Parisian Banks and distributing wealth and property, and effectively arming themselves to protect themselves from the inevitable reactionary counterforce (which was incredibly bloody, killing 30,000 people in a single weeknote . It's certainly true that Marx believed that in a revolutionary context, sometimes Violence Is the Only Option, especially in countries with strong and deeply entrenched reactionary forces, but he certainly didn't advocate this as a first resort nor did he completely advocate against democratic participation.
- Religion Is Wrong: Marx was inspired by the work by German Academics in advancing textual criticism of the Bible which showed that it was a religious text shaped by circumstances rather than divine truth. This led to him view all religion as a function of the rich and powerful to control the masses, grounded in his readings of classical antiquity, and the cynicism of Ancient Romansnote .
- His most famous quote is actually quite nuanced: Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. i.e. one mustn't get rid of religion without getting rid of the conditions that make people turn to religion in the first place.
- Indeed, Marx in On the Jewish Question, The German Ideology, The Holy Family criticized the Young Hegelians a rabidly atheistic group for their arguments that religion was the only force blocking progress and that as soon as everyone became atheist all of society's problems would be solved. He pointed out that the United States of America had entered the Second Religious Revival and was also an aggressively capitalist and certainly progressive society by the standards of the 19th Century. In other words, while Marx was an atheist and proponent of science and secular education it would not be fair to see him as fundamentally anti-religious in the 21st Century sensenote .
- Incidentally, Marx's comparison of religion to opium was echoed by Charles Kingley, an Anglican priest who is sometimes seen as a founder of Christian socialism. Four years after Marx he noted that, We have used the Bible as if it were a mere special constable's hand book, an opium dose for keeping beasts of burden patient while they were being overloaded, a mere book to keep the poor in order and lamented the role of religion in preserving social inequality rather than relieving it.
- The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized: He heavily implied, if not outright stated, that this would happen at least in nations like Germany, Russia and other parts of Europe without consistent liberal institutions and infrastructure. But to him, this would count as a Necessary Evil since a world without revolution, of mass poverty, illiteracy, imperialism, Urban Segregation and oppression of minorities was far less civilized than the worst revolutionary excess.
- Rich Idiot with No Day Job: Too many of them, from his point of view. Though one can say that the same applies to Friedrich Engels who was a wealthy factory owner with the free time and security to indulge in non-academic theoretical research without the benefit of research grants. Marx's view of pure communism essentially involved a classless society where everyone had enough wealth to do their own thing.
- Seinfeld Is Unfunny: Though many people today think of him as a dangerously misguided individual, the modern understanding of social science and economics - both liberal and conservative - owes an enormous debt to him and his theories. Similarly, his critiques of capitalism and advocacy of communism can seem less applicable in the modern world (not that he is no longer relevant). However at the time he was writing, the conditions for the working class, especially in England (where he wrote Das Capital), were truly appalling, and much of the ideas and movements that would improve and reform it - and, ironically, blunt so much of communism's appeal - were still considered seditious. A year before he began his studies at the University of Bonn, England transported several Dorsetshire men to Australia for forming a union. Ultimately, what Marx didn't reckon on was the dynamism of democracy in order to effect change. Remember, Marx was writing during a time when there was no minimum wage, no worker protection, no welfare system, no laws against child labor, no anti-trust or anti-monopoly laws, no laws demanding truthful advertising, no laws banning unsafe products, no laws guaranteeing rights to women and minorities (and, in a lot of cases, for Europeans and men, too), and, for most of the world, no voting rights for most people. We have come a LOOOOOOOOONG way since Marx's time, and he is arguably Vindicated by History.
- Screw the Rules, I Have Money!: Marx claimed the most wealthy people use their money and power to work around the rules.
- Socialism: The very face of it.
- Slavery Is a Special Kind of Evil: Marx was a staunch defender of the Union in the American Civil War and thought of Slavery as even worse than capitalism.
- Take That: On surplus value: "The production of too many useful things results in too many useless people."
- There Are No Good Executives: Actually an Averted Trope! Believe it or not, he did think that some of them (particularly those who became wealthy on the basis of their own skill and then donated a lot to philanthropic causes) were actually not so bad. The problem, for him, was that most of them were not like that.
- To be more precise, he (and Engels, his best friend, patron and a wealthy businessman) believed that the capitalist system was the cause of misery and oppression, and that executives were a part of it, not individually evil, but that they kept an evil system in place.
- Violence Is the Only Option: Initially he couldn't see that socialism could possibly be brought about by democratic reforms rather than working-class revolts.
- To be fair, he lived at a time when most of Europe didn't have universal suffrage and the Continent was deeply oppressive with the Austrian Empire instituted by Metternich and his successors being in effect a Police State, Bismarck's Germany being a conservative militarist nationnote , and the Risorgimento despite its early aspirations ultimately stopping short of Garibaldi's radical vision. As the 20th Century would prove, these nations have fairly recent traditions of Democracy and they only accepted liberalism and social democracy after much revolutionary and counter-revolutionary bloodshed had been spilled.
- In the case of England and the United States, however when he grew a bit older he supported peaceful democratic means of bringing about socialism, largely because he saw the growing popularity of social democratic parties in democratic societies as proof that better working conditions for the poor could be brought about peacefully and castigated Communists for not engaging in Parliamentary politics. In the case of the United States, he backed the Republican party of Lincoln's and supported its "free soil, free labour" and abolitionist ideas. The reason he moderated on his position so quickly is mainly because he was never big on violence in the first place, unless (he felt) it was absolutely necessary and that he disliked other left-wing groups which advocated violence without having a vision or ideology in place, or still others who wanted revolution out of adventurism.
- War for Fun and Profit: "I do not like money. Money is the reason why we fight."
- What the Romans Have Done for Us: Marx was not one to deny that capitalism and the bourgeois class were definite improvements over feudalism and farm-run societies. He also saw himself as a man of The Enlightenment and he criticized and rejected early advocates of socialism who wanted to return to the Good Old Ways and go back to the farm as naive and anti-modern. Indeed, it was Marx's opinion that communist and socialist ideas would take root in economically developed nations once workers gained political experience, education and technical skills, which he noted were the Required Secondary Powers of running a capitalist society.
- Working Class People Are Morons: Discussed in Das Kapital, in a paragraph where he argues with Adam Smith, who argued that people of the working class would become morons if they were suffering from monotonous labour over time. Smith, and therefore Marx, argued that public education was necessary to hinder this.
- You Are What You Hate: Marx loved to use these types of criticisms. Notably, when some people accused the socialists of wanting to turn all women into prostitutes by advocating free love, Marx shot back that it was actually them who forced women into selling their bodies to make ends meet.