Within its shade, we live and die.
Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer,
We keep the Red Flag flying here."
Revolutionary or Democratic?
- Arise, the workers of all nations!
Arise, oppressed of the earth!
For justice thunders condemnation:
A better world's in birth!
It is time to win emancipation,
Arise, you slaves, no more in thrall!
The earth will rise on new foundations:
We, who were nothing, shall be all!—The Internationale
- [Either] all the six-year-olds gang up together and ask the grown-ups nicely to share their money with you (democratic socialism) or where you threaten to break the grown-ups' things unless they share their money with you (revolutionary socialism).
(Some) Tenets of (Some) Socialists
- Those who do not move, do not notice their chains-Rosa Luxemburg
Types of Socialism
- I believe Socialism is the grandest theory ever presented, and I am sure it will someday rule the world.-Andrew Carnegie
- Utopian socialism: A 19th-century socialism developed by thinkers such as Saint-Simon. Belief in idyllic, small communities usually. Historical examples of the kind of thing utopian socialists aim for would be the ashram hermitages of India (most famously Mahatma Gandhi's Sabarmati Ashram) or the early kibbutzim of British Mandate Palestine and later Israel.
- State Socialism: A strain that emphasizes government ownership of industry and central planning. The difference between this and Leninism being that State Socialism is often practiced in democratic countries. A good if debatable example would be post-war Britain, especially under Clement Atlee. There is a fine line between this and Social Democracy.
- Social Democracy: Social democracy is a more moderate kind of socialism that seeks to use democratic rather than revolutionary means to achieve its goals. It advocates policies such as full employment and the right to work, the welfare state, and ensuring some equality of outcome through redistribution of wealth. Examples of this form include Postwar Consensus politics in Britain and the Nordic model in Scandinavia. The main difference with State Socialism is that, while the values of Socialism are there, modern Social Democracy actually has no interest in reforming Capitalism into Socialism but rather updating and modifying the Capitalist model to create a more equitable society, making its status as a Socialist ideology hotly debated. Worth noting that in Europe, where it is most popular, Social Democracy parties independent of the major Socialists groups still caucus with those socialists in domestic legislatures, and are usually members of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, which is itself under the blanket of the Party of European Socialists in the European Parliament. Most modern socialist parties in practice adhere to some version of social democracy.
- As an aside, the term "social democracy" in the early twentieth century used to refer to Marxists; it should not be confused with the modern usage of the term; although the German SPDnote was founded in 1875 as a Marxist party, it gradually shifted into a state socialist and then social democratic party following the Second World War.
- Libertarian Socialism: Imagine Anarcho-Syndicalism but less extreme, with the barest minimum of a State as supported by the Libertarian ideal. Government maintains trade relations and protects its people, but it does not interfere with their lives, which are meant to assume a cooperative instead of competitive way of living.
- An alternative concept of "libertarian socialism" includes the existence of the welfare state in that barest minimum to provide an equal playing field for all, therefore making force and fraud (at least directed against another individual) less attractive or pointless (this concept would be a Berserk Button for the more right-wing libertarians, who do not want a welfare state to exist). In this concept, personal freedom and privacy are paramount - the apparatus of the state that seeks to control individual behavior would be dismantled. For example, all drug laws would be repealed and replaced with truth-in-labeling on drugs laws - because it is not the business of the state to protect people from themselves but only from others who might seek to deceive or harm them.
- "Libertarian socialism" or "libertarian communism" have also been used interchangeably for different forms of anarchist socialism. Indeed, the word libertarian itself was first used by an anarcho-communist for his ideas.
- Religious socialism: Given the powerful attraction of socialism and the equally powerful attraction of religion, it was perhaps inevitable many people would find themselves true believers in both. Religious socialism is their attempt to reconcile socialist theory with religious theology.
- Christian socialism: Christian socialists feel that...well..."love of money is the root of all evil" (1 Timothy 6:10). It is felt that Jesus's teachings, when implemented, most properly lend themselves to the socialist way of government, and that the Christian virtues of charity, mutual forgiveness, and "giving until it hurts" are best expressed through socialism and social movement. A significant strand is Catholic liberation theology, which analyzes faith from a perspective critical of capitalism.
- Buddhist socialism: Buddhism and socialism have, it is claimed, similar ends: the finding of sources of unhappiness through inquiry, and then destroying it. Similarly, hoarding is seen as a human vice, as contrasted to the natural state whereby organisms take only what they need to survive. Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, has said "capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability...For this reason I still think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhist".
- Islamic socialism: Islamic socialists hold that the principles of the Qu'ran are compatible with social reform, pointing to the doctrine of zakāt (charitable giving), among others. Islamic socialists point to Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī, a companion of the Prophet, who protested against the inequality of the Umayyad Caliphate. It often incorporates pan-Arabism, the belief that the Arab world should be a single united nation. Gamal Abdel Nasser was a notable Islamic socialist, as was Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia. Colonel Gadaffi also espoused a kinda-sorta version of it in his Green Book, though in practice it was so removed from any kind of socialism as to be unrecognisable.
- Chavismo: Officially Bolivarianism, or Bolivarian socialism, Chavismo is the name commonly given to the policies of the late Hugo Chávez. Chavismo nominally involves anti-imperialism, participatory democracy, economic self-sufficiency, an ethic of patriotic service, equitable distribution of natural resources, and anti-corruption. Proponents claim it is a dynamic new movement that provides a much-needed counterweight to the influence of the IMF and United States in South America. Critics say it is at worst a sham ideology designed to keep Chávez's PSUV in power, and at best a well-meaning but incompetent program which is turning Venezuela into a Banana Republic. There is not much middle ground.
- Kemalism: Based around the ideas supported by the Turkish Republic's father Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. It is basically somewhere between State Socialist and Social Democracy, with a healthy emphasis on state ownership. It doesn't have any real popularity outside of Turkey (though Arab Spring revolutionaries are saying they look towards Turkey's model of government), but over there it is the dominant force in left-wing politics.
- Zapatismo: Zapatismo is the ideology of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacionalnote (EZLN), a revolutionary socialist group based in Chiapas, in the southern part of Mexico, which wages a primary nonviolent "war against the Mexican state". It synthesizes elements of libertarian socialism, anarchism, feminism, and Marxism with a strong anti-globalization ethic, indigenous rights, and traditional Mayan beliefs, along with participatory democracy and the sovereign right of the people to resist unjust rule (including, explicitly, the EZLN's if necessary). It has established several "autonomous municipalities" in Chiapas which it effectively governs according to their own principles. They're not bad at it either. The EZLN's leaders do not reveal their identities, instead using noms de guerre and wearing balaclavas in public appearances. The most famous is "Subcommandante Marcos", who has been called a "modern Che Guevara".
- Eco-socialism: Eco-socialist argue that capitalism and globalization are responsible for the destruction of the environment and the uprooting of native communities. Eco-socialism generally involves strong protections for the environment along with general anti-capitalist and anti-globalist principles. Rather than simply being a "green" movement or arguing for fair trade or corporate responsibility, the eco-socialist argues that capitalism is inherently destructive of the environment.
- Nationalist socialism: Not to be confused with National Socialism (see below), several nationalist movements have proclaimed socialist principles.
- Arab socialism: Arab socialism is generally an explicitly secular version of Islamic socialism (see above), advocating anti-Islamic principles, anti-imperialism, social justice, and pan-Arabism.
- Related to the above is Ba'athism. Ba'athism nominally espouses Arab nationalism and Arab socialism, pan-Arabism, anti-imperialism, and social justice. In practice, Ba'athist movements have functioned as state capitalist or fascist ones, and have never won democratic elections - both Iraq and Syria pursued privatization and personality cultism with Ba'athists in power. The Ba'ath party ruled Iraq from 1968 until the invasion in 2003, whilst it still governs Syria, currently embroiled in civil war. Ba'athist governments seem to have a proclivity for using chemical weapons on their own citizens. It is currently banned in Iraq.
- Irish republican socialism: Irish republican socialism blends socialist principles with Irish republicanism; the belief that the British must be removed from the North of Ireland, either democratically or violently, and a United Irish Republic established. Many Irish Republican movements, both violent and otherwise, have been socialist; the SDLP, Sinn Fein, and the Marxist-Leninist Irish Republican Socialist Movement, which incorporated the Irish National Liberation Army, a North Irish paramilitary group, which disarmed in 2009.
- Basque socialism: Socialism as practiced by Basque nationalists, who want independence from Spain.
- Armenian socialism: A type of socialism heavily tied to Armenian social justice and nationalism. It's adherents include the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (whose main goals include promoting Armenian genocide recognition, gaining reparations from Turkey, especially claimed lands to form a united Armenia and establishment of socialism) and the Armenian Secret Army For The Liberation Of Armenia (A militant group active in the 20th century that sought justice from Turkey and establishment of a united socialist Armenia).
- Kurdish Socialism: Socialism as practiced by the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). Originally, the party was created for militant action against the Turkish government to gain self determination for Kurds living in the area. The main goal of the libertarian socialist PKK is to establish a democratic confederalist Kurdistan. This type of socialism has resurfaced recently in the Kurdish people's fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Although it has been classified by western countries as a terrorist group, the PKK's fight against ISIS have caused western perception towards it to change drastically.
Marxism and Communism
- Let us finally imagine, for a change, an association of free men, working with the means of production held in common, and expending their many different forms of labour-power in full self-awareness as one single social labour force.
- Marxism: A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" - the status quo whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "dictatorship of the proletariat", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is not an anti-democratic theory; To Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal templatenote .
- Communism: This is the general term for what is basically the Anarcho-Syndicalist period after the full revolution, dictatorship included (or skipped). Funnily enough, the importance of this part of it has really died away as many "Communists" now focus on the State Socialist period (Leninists, Stalinists, Trotskyist, etc.) and the Anarcho-Communists have frankly even less influence than the other strains.
- Leninism: The socialist transitional period between capitalism and communism is a period of state socialism, which in the case of the first socialist revolution, Russia, was the totalitarian USSR. Leninism is the version of Marxism developed by V.I Lenin during the run-up and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Because Russia was viewed as too backwards for true Marxism, Lenin saw education through violence and terror as an accepted and necessary means of building socialism, and of a certain supremacy of intellectuals who must educate the servile masses. Lenin thus developed the idea of a "vanguard party": nominally an organically arising organization of the most politically active and educated of the proletariat who will take the idea of socialism to the rest of the masses, in practice Lenin and his clique. "Dictatorship of the vanguard party" replaces "dictatorship of the proletariat". Funny that. Later Leninist movements have sometimes claimed themselves to be the revolutionary vanguard. Leninism emphasizes so-called "democratic centralism", a strictly majoritarian means of intra-party organization, violent dismantling of the old regime, punishing former capitalist oppressors, and a cultural shift to a proletarian culture, such as through Socialist Realism.
- Stalinism: To be extremely basic, Leninism is internationalist in outlook while Stalinism is isolationist ("Socialism in One Country" being a popular slogan). Previously Leninist states often became Stalinist over time, and never reached anything close to the ideal of stateless communism, though whether this is an inevitable process or a result of Soviet hegemony is debatable. Stalinism relied upon the idea of the vanguard party for its legitimacy; after all, if the vanguard is the most intelligent and adept section of society, who could possibly question its wisdom? It's modern adherents (yes, they exist) generally encourage socialist insolationism, rapid industrialization (or re-industrialization), a strong central state, and the entrenched authority of the vanguard party. Many, such as George Orwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality.
- Trotskyism: Imagine Leninism as functionally democratic and you basically have this, so it's easy to see it as a particularly hardline version of State Socialism. As Trotskyites were internationalists, they became bitter opponents of Stalinism. Trotskyism grew out of Leon Trotsky's response to the brutality meted out by the Soviet bureacracy under Stalin.
- Anarcho-Communism: These are Communists that believe that the transitionary State Socialist period is completely unnecessary, that society can jump straight from capitalism with a state to the inherently anarchic communism. Anarcho-Communists generally favor revolution as the primary tactic for the downfall of capitalism, but many favor the General Strike, like the Anarcho-Syndicalists. Generally this synthesizes the anarchist belief that authority is bad, and argues that establishing a system of government to bring about a system of free association is ultimately self-defeating.
- Mao Zedong Thought: Uniquely, Mao Zedong's variant of communism focuses on the divide between the urban and the rural. Maoism argues that the agrarian peasantry, not the urban proletariat, are the truly revolutionary class that will transform the world towards socialism. It focuses on rural insurgency, anti-Confucianism, and the ending of urban oppression of rural areas. Although nominally revered by the modern Chinese Communist Party, it has practically been discarded by most modern Communists, though it still has adherents in nations undergoing rapid transformation from rural to urban, who feel their way of life is under threat. Maoist revolutionary/terrorist movements still exist in India, Nepal, and Peru.
- Socialism with Chinese characteristics: The current official ideology of the Communist Party of China, first articulated by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. It blends several ideological strands of Marxism and socialism, adds some new ones, and also emphasizes Chinese nationalism. In essence, the primary argument is that China adopted socialism as a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, thus it is still in the first stage of socialist development. In order to build communism, therefore, China must become a developed and industrialized nation; justifying the adoption of capitalist policies in order to build up the country. Critics say that this version is no more than an ideological veneer for state-capitalist development, noting the poor quality of public services in China. Others have gone so far as to claim it more resembles a watered-down fascism than socialism.
- Juche: The ideological organization of North Korea, Juche is something of an enigma. "Juche" translates as "independent spirit", and was supposedly devised by Kim Il-sung during his lifetime. It emphasizes the transcendent wisdom of the Kim family, the need for a uniquely Korean socialism, the role of humans in driving history (and the corresponding need for a Great Leader to bring about socialism), and militarism. It has almost no adherents outside North Korea (and quite possibly few within it too), apart from the most disaffected zainichi Koreans in Japan. Functionally, most international observers agree that Juche is largely for the benefit of foreign observers, and that North Korea's system of government most closely resembles ethno-fascism.
- Instead of the conservative slogan: "A Fair Day's Pay for a Fair Day's Work", we say instead: "Let's Abolish the Wage System".-Industrial Workers of the World
- Collectivist Anarchism: A form of anarchism very similar to Anarcho-Communism. However, in contrast to the Anarcho-Communists, Collectivist Anarchists do not see the abolition of money as essential to the revolution. Collectivist Anarchists would continue to have money after the revolution and focus more on collectivizing property and the abolition of private property. However, most Collectivist Anarchists believe that money after the revolution would be a temporary thing and would eventually disappear and no longer be used.
- Anarcho-Syndicalism: The idea that if people are left to their own devices, they will essentially co-operate. Anarcho-Syndicalists often emphasize individual liberties being incompatible with the state as the reason for anarchism, as well as the idea that for there to be Socialism the state must not exist because the state naturally allies itself with big business. The primary tactic advocated by Anarcho-Syndicalists is the General Strike, in which all workers in all industries refuse to work for their masters anymore in order to transform society. This tactic is shared by many Anarcho-Communists. Anarcho-syndicalists are also known for their vehement opposition to strange women lying in ponds distributing swords as a basis for a system of government.
- Mutualist Anarchism: A form of Market Socialism where money is issued by a mutual bank cooperatively run by all who use the money and bank. In addition, labor is done through worker cooperatives run democratically by the workers rather than businesses run by businessmen/women. Like with other forms of anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism involves an abolition of private property in favor of possession. This was the form of anarchism supported by Proudhon. Mutualist Anarchists often support transferring from capitalism to anarchism through workers establishing a mutual bank and outcompeting capitalists.
- Individualist Anarchism: A form of anarchism very similar to Mutualist Anarchism. Individualists, like Mutualists, tend to support a mutual bank and a market-based system, but they tend to focus more on self-employed people or having small businesses run and operated by a small number of people rather than large industries with many workers who run the industries. Both are run by the workers, but Individualist Anarchists tend to be in favor of ones in which few workers are involved, more like mom and pop stores than factories. They do still support the abolition of private property and are opposed to what they call usury: rent, interest, and profit. While Individualists are socialists, they favor the free market, but with the caveat that capitalism can never have a truly free market. To Individualist Anarchists, usury hurts the free market and prevents it from working properly, which creates much of the problems in capitalism. Even more than Mutualists, Individualists tend to be in favor of outcompeting capitalism instead of overthrowing it through revolution. This is in part because many Individualist Anarchists are Anarcho-Pacifists as well and are against all violence and coercion.
- Green Anarchism: Overlays with green politics, which are generally regarded as left-wing. The basic idea here is that states and capitalism are central in destroying the environment.
- Anarcho-Primitivism: An extreme form of Green Anarchism that sees civilization and advanced technology as oppressive and exploitative. Anarcho-Primitivists advocate a return to nature and tribal hunter-gatherer life.
- Listen...the only people we hate more than the Romans are the fucking Judean People's Front!.-Reg, of the People's Front of Judea, Monty Python's Life of Brian
- National Socialism: Wikipedia really says it best here.
"Nazism was founded out of elements of the far-right racist völkisch German nationalist movement and the violent anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture that fought against the uprisings of communist revolutionaries in post-World War I Germany. The ideology was developed first by Anton Drexler and then Adolf Hitler as a means to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, though such aspects were later downplayed in the 1930s to gain the support from industrial owners for the Nazis; focus was shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes."
- There were left-wing elements in the Nazi Party's early days, but these had been expelled or marginalized by the time Hitler actually seized power. Gregor Strasser, for instance, advocated a staunchly proletariat, anti-capitalist approach to economics and social order during the Party's rise through the '20s. For this among other reasons, however, Strasser fell out with Hitler and was ultimately murdered. By 1933 (if not before) the Nazis were "socialist" in name only.
- Fascism: Despite its support for government control of big business and the finance industry, fascism is extremely hostile to socialism and egalitarianism. Socialists generally consider it to be an extremely statist form of capitalism, whereas historians consider it to be either an ideology that combines influences from both, or something different entirely.
- Liberalism: Including the Democratic Party, and especially the administration of Barack Obama. Modern liberals are frequently Keynesians (ie. they support some degree of government intervention in the economy, especially during times of recession) but liberalism is still a fundamentally individualist ideology, and American liberals are broadly supportive of capitalism and favor its continuation; it cannot possibly be emphasized enough that the Keynesian economic theory is not by its nature necessarily socialist. Keynes himself stated: "The class war will find me on the side of the educated bourgeoisie"-in sum, his goal was to save capitalism from itself. At most there may be some overlap with Social Democracy, but whether that deserves to be considered socialist itself (or something in between) is not widely agreed on either. It should be noted that outside of the US, "liberalism" has different connotations and usually means something like "moderate libertarianism" by American standards. The best way to explain why liberals are not socialists is to say that liberals want to amend the capitalist economic system to make it more fair for everyone, while socialists believe that capitalism is essentially beyond saving and want to replace it.
Socialism and its Strands in Practice
- We are formenting world-wide fire,
Banks and prisons we shall raze to the ground!
For from the taiga to the British seas,
The Red Army is strongest of all!-White Army, Black Baron, a marching song of the Reds with Rockets
The planned economy, part 1: productionSince 1928, the Soviet Union had organized its economy centrally, which was run by a state planning committee (in the Soviet Union, it was called Gosplan) which was part of the state bureaucracy. They made the Five-Year Plans and decided which part of the economy should produce which amount of products. While the numbers of mined coal, produced steel etc. looked good (at least on paper), in practice certain problems cropped up again and again. Since the people in production had no real incentive to work harder (as long as they could avoid punishment), they would instead look for ways to "fulfill the plan" in a way that saved work. (As explained below: Even when they received more money for more work, this didn't automatically mean they could buy more stuff with it. On the other hand, the fact that laziness is its own reward remained true even in Socialism.) For example, if workers in a window pane factory had the order to produce X tons of panes, they would make ridiculously thick panes (less of them necessary to make a ton). If the order was like "produce X square meters of panes", they'd make panes too thin, which would be too brittle. And maybe steal some of the glass for themselves and trade it on the Black Market. Since there also was no market research that deserved the name, sometimes the clothes factories would take perfectly fine cotton from Central Asia and turn it into clothes so ugly even the not really spoiled Russian ladies wouldn't want to buy them. And while the Soviet Union managed to build up an impressive heavy industry (especially interesting for the war hawks among the Soviet leadership, since heavy industry also means weapons), this achievement became less meaningful after new inventions like computers were made, which they had trouble to reverse engineer.
The planned economy, part 2: saleIf a car salesman in a capitalist society has ten customers who demand a certain model, but only nine such cars, he can demand higher prices. Not everyone considers this fair, but this is the way it works in capitalism. Now in planned economies prices are fixed by the state, so this way doesn't exist for those selling products. So how would they solve this dilemma? This joke explains it: A woman applies for a job in a state-run shop. The responsible manager asks her:
- "Are you married?""Yes.""How many children do you have?""Three ones.""Are your parents and parents-in-law still alive?""Yes.""Do you and your husband have siblings?""I have four of them, he has five ones.""Sorry, then we can't give you the job."Woman: "But why?"Manager: "See, we actually have to sell some wares over the counter!"
Some Famous Socialists:
- I entirely agree that people should have the greatest freedom compatible with the freedom of others. There was a time when employers were free to work little children for sixteen hours a day. I remember when employers were free to employ sweated women workers on finishing trousers at a penny halfpenny a pair. There was a time when people were free to neglect sanitation so that thousands died of preventable diseases. For years every attempt to remedy these crying evils was blocked by the same plea of freedom for the individual. It was in fact freedom for the rich and slavery for the poor. Make no mistake, it has only been through the power of the State, given to it by Parliament, that the general public has been protected against the greed of ruthless profit-makers and property owners.
- Clement Attlee
- Tony Benn
- Aneurin Bevan
- Russell Brand
- Hugo Chavez
- Noam Chomsky
- Jesus Christ (if you believe the Christian Socialists)
- Eugene V. Debs
- John Dewey
- Tommy Douglas
- Albert Einstein
- Che Guevara
- Woody Guthrie
- "Big Bill" Haywood
- François Hollande
- Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
- Helen Keller
- Martin Luther King, Jr., and several other Civil Rights Movement leaders
- Jack London
- Nelson Mandela
- Golda Meir
- Jawaharlal Nehru
- George Orwell
- Robert Owen
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Bertrand Russell
- Bernie Sanders
- Upton Sinclair
- Possibly John Steinbeck
- Norman Thomas
- H. G. Wells
- Oscar Wilde
- Howard Zinn
- Fidel Castro
- Vladimir Lenin
- Rosa Luxemburg
- Mao Zedong
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
- Pablo Picasso
- Pol Pot
- Jack Reed
- The Rulers Of North Korea
- Jean-Paul Sartre
- Josef Stalin
- Leon Trotsky
For more information on Socialism, please consult Wikipedia. They can say it much better than here. Please note that this article barely scratches the surface.
To bear it onward till we fall;
Come dungeons dark or gallows grim,
This song shall be our parting hymn..."