Cinderella is one of the oldest, best known, and most universal stories in the world. The oldest known version is the ancient Greek tale of Rhodopis, a hetaira or courtesan who, according to a legend first recorded in the 1st century B.C., married the Pharaoh of Egypt.The quintessential Rags to Royalty story, the best known versions in the western world are based on the one written by Charles Perrault in the 17th century. If, on hearing the name Cinderella, you think of fairy godmothers, glass slippers, and a pumpkin turned into a coach, you're thinking of Perrault. In 1950, Disney's Cinderella adapted Perrault's story into a movie, cementing it in people's minds as the story of Cinderella.Seven years later Rodgers and Hammerstein adapted it into a musical for a television broadcast, starring Broadway royalty Howard Lindsay and Dorothy Stickney, Edie Adams, Kaye Ballard and Alice Ghostley (as the King and Queen, Fairy Godmother, and stepsisters, respectively) and Jon Cypher (of Hill Street Blues fame) as the Prince. One particular young lady took a week off from her starring role in the most popular play on Broadway at the time to play Cinderella - Julie Andrews in her on-camera debut.The bare bones of the story are as follows: A young noblewoman's mother dies and her father remarries a woman with daughters of her own, then disappears. The girl's new step-family turns out to be cruel and vindictive, and mistreat her by making her work as a servant. This usually gives rise to a mocking nickname to do with her dirtyness (in English, Cinderella, or Cinder-girl, covered in fireplace cinders). When the local prince holds a kingdom-wide ball, they refuse to let her attend, but she calls on a spirit helper (usually representative of her dead mother) who takes pity on her and outfits her for the ball, allowing her to outshine everyone present and win the heart of the prince. There is, however, a limit to the spirit's help: Cinderella must return by midnight. On the second night of the ball, the prince contrives to keep her past her curfew, and in her rush to get away, she loses one of her slippers. The prince uses the lost slipper to track her down, and, once reunited, they marry. The vindictive step-family may or may not be punished, depending on the variation.When people want to be a bit Darker and Edgier, they may refer to the Grimms' "Cinderella" instead, in which Cinderella — or Aschenputtel — plants a twig on her mother's grave, and the resultant tree, rather than fairy godmother, helps her, and the stepsisters cut off pieces of their feet to fit into the slipper, and are later blinded by karmic birds.Presumably, the Grimms' version fits many people's idea of the dark, dangerous world of pre-Disney fairy-tales better than Perrault's, and therefore is sometimes erroneously referred to as the "original 'Cinderella'", despite being written over a hundred years after Perrault's, and about a thousand years after "Yeh-Shen". In general, because of many the long oral tradition behind most fairytales, referring to any version as the "original" is problematic and best avoided.In Britain, it's been a favourite story for pantomime for over a century, where it often adds the parts of Dandini and Buttons.In 2008, Cinderella Four By Four, a Live-Action Adaptation with Setting Update starring Darya Melnikova, was released.Gregory Maguire, best known for Wicked, also made a revisionist novel of the story called Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister, and Stephen Sondheim wove Grimm's version into the wider action of Into the Woods. There's even a retelling set in the Whoniverse, "Cinderella and the Magic Box", in the book Time Lord Fairy Tales.This story's Aarne-Thompson Number is 510A (510B is the variants where a male figure persecutes her, as in "Tattercoats", "Cap o' Rushes", "Donkeyskin", and "Catskin"; one of the most common is the squick-laden variant in which the princess is on the run because her own father wants to marry her).
"Cinderella" and its variations contain the following tropes:
- Adaptational Heroism: It's fairly common to see works where one of the two stepsisters (usually the youngest) has a Heel-Face Turn, or shows Hidden Depths that lead to a redemption. Ever After, The Fairy Godmother, and even Disney's later Cinderella sequels all do this.
- Beauty Equals Goodness: The step-sisters may be beautiful or ugly, depending on the variation but Cinderella is always the most attractive. In some instances she has superior physical beauty and this is the reason for her mistreatment; in others she is ordinary-looking or even plain but glowing with kindness, and it's the beauty of her personality that wins the prince.
- Beautiful All Along: Once she shows up in her Pimped-Out Dress.
- Cinderella Circumstances: Trope Namer and probably Trope Maker, considering its age. From Egypt to Europe to America there have been mistreated servant girls who dreamed of something more.
- Dance of Romance: This is the Trope Codifier, if not the Trope Maker itself. Cinderella meets the prince at a royal ball.
- Dances and Balls: This is not the only way that Cinderella gets to meet a prince, but one of the common ones.
- Disappeared Dad: Cinderella's father is nearly always dead or absent. If he lives, he never intervenes on his daughter's behalf.
- Either/Or Title: Perrault's title was "Cinderella, or the Glass Slipper".
- Even Evil Has Standards: In Perrault's version the youngest stepsister is less bitchy than her sister and mother because she names her stepsister "Cendrillon" ("Cinderella") instead of Cucendron . Though keep in mind, "Cendrillon" is actually a pormanteau of the french words for "ash" and "scullion," so it is not really that nicer of a name.
- Eye Scream: In Grimm's tale, the stepsisters end blinded by birds.
- Family-Unfriendly Violence: the stepsisters' fate in the Grimms' version.
- Fairy Godmother: Perrault's version is the Trope Codifier. When anyone after him (and especially after the disney adaption) thinks of one of these, they think of kindly old women in robes who say "bibi-bobiti-boo!"
- Fairy Tale: A very old tale teaching a morale and involves the supernatural.
- Gender Flip: A traditional Irish version has Cinderellis, a boy with such enormous feet he steals a giant's shoes. The story plays out fairly similarly to the usual plot line, after he gets his shoes, except for this. Ash-boy stories can also be found in Hungary, Japan, Britain, and even American variants. Hilariously, Cinderella's German name, Aschenputtel, is derived from a male hero from early Germanic folklore.
- The Girl Who Fits This Slipper: Trope Maker for the first time to use such a device.
- Glass Slipper: Cinderella's glass slipper is the Ur-Example. The prince gets hold of the slipper Cinderella loses on her way out and starts a journey to find its owner.
- Gorgeous Garment Generation: The shoes and dress that the Fairy Godmother gives to Cinderella, which disappear at midnight.
- Happily Ever After: At the end of the story, Cinderella marries the prince and leads a much happier life than before.
- Heel-Face Turn: The stepsisters at the end of Perrault's version drop their nastiness.
- Impossible Task: In many variants, the stepmother sets such a task either as the price to go to the ball (she's lying) or to do while they are at the ball.
- Impossibly Cool Clothes:
- Perrault's version gives her glass slippers.
- In the Egyptian version, her slippers are made of pure gold. The Grimms' version gives gold slippers as well.
- The Yeh-Shen version had her wearing weightless shoes made of golden fish scales.
- Inter-Class Romance: Being a noble woman the distinction is less extreme than other examples, but Cinderella's de facto status is servant.
- Karma Houdini: Depending on the versions, the stepsisters either redeem themselves or are blinded by Cinderella's birds. However nothing is said about the Stepmother and Cinderella's father (in variants where he's still alive and indifferent to Cinderella's woes).
- Basile's version also spares them punishment; although at least one translation lampshades that everyone involved thought they got off easy, since no punishment is enough for vanity. At the very least, everyone hates them now...
- Considering how diverse Cinderella stories are, there are many interesting fates for them in foreign variants. One early French version has them turn into statues; another has them so horrified by Cinderella's good fortune that they randomly all get jaundice and die. One Russian variant has them all burnt to death by a witch's fire. Japanese variants often have the stepmother inexplicably turn into a mole. A more civil Hungarian version simply has the prince throw the stepmother in prison and publicly shame the stepsisters; another has him banish them. What takes the cake is one early Persian variant where they end up dragged to Hell.
- Ladyella: The Trope Namer. Any fairy-tale story with "ella" in The Protagonist's name is likely to be a reference to this tale.
- Masquerade Ball: It's frequently used, but not ubiquitous. It explains why the Prince is so insistent on using shoe size to find a girl.
- Missing Mom: The reason why Cinderella is stuck with the stepmother.
- Neck Snap: The old Roman variation of Cinderella. One day, the governess of Zeozolla (Cinderella) wanted to marry her student/care-getter's father. Zeozolla went to her governess as she considered her present stepmother to be a very unpleasant and mean lady. Next thing you know, the governess fucking instigated Zeozolla to kill her stepmother!Cinderella: Mother, in this box is your clothes.
Stepmother: Well, can't be helped after all.
Cinderella: * puts lid on her stepmom's neck*
- Nice Shoes: Whether glass, or something else.
- Noble Bird Of Prey: The oldest recorded version has the god Horus in his usual guise as a falcon. The Grimm's version has birds ripping off the step-sisters eyes, although their species is not specified.
- No Name Given: One of the stepsister sister is named Javotte but the other characters don't have names. Cinderella's real name is rarely given, though English variants usually imply Ella is her real name. It is often a form of Mary or Katie. Madame D'aulnoy used "Finetta" in her early version.
- Basile's version, which predates Perrault, gives Zeozolla as Cinderella's real name, the Wicked Stepmother is Carmosina, and her six daughters are named Imperia, Diamente, Columbina, Pascarella, Calamita, and Fiorella.
- Only Known by Their Nickname: Usually a "Cinderella" girl has a normal life in her early years, so she presumably has a real name before people start calling her Cinder-girl. Many stories never mention the protagonist's birth name, and no one who hears the story remembers it anyway. Thus, the real name varies.
- Parental Favoritism: The step-mother's ill-treatment stems from her desire to elevate her daughters above Cinderella.
- Pimped-Out Dress: The dress is always fancy and elaborate; fit for a princess you might say.
- Princess for a Day: The dress and shoes (and in Perrault's version, other things like a stage coach) allow Cinderella to pretend to be a princess, but only until midnight.
- Rebel Prince: Many adaptations tend to give the Prince a bit of a defiant streak (usually in the form of him being AWOL from the kingdom for some time before the story, or by him simply refusing to get married despite his parent's protests), if only to give him some kind of character trait and keep him from being a Satellite Love Interest.
- Rule of Three: There are three balls in the Grimms' version. Perrault's version has two balls, and many modern versions have only one.
- She Cleans Up Nicely: As a "cinder girl", the transformation to princess is striking, both for the audience and for the characters in-universe.
- Spirit Advisor:
- Representing her dead mother, this might be a fairy godmother, a tree, or an animal (Yeh-Shen had a magic carp). Some are more closely to connect to the mother than others; the tree, for instance, is often planted on her mother's grave.
- There is a Czech movie made in the Seventies in which the spirit advisor is a simple owl called Rosalie. She looks at Cinderella every time she asks "Should I?" when she is about to get a new costume.
- Rags to Riches: To be certain her stepmother never gave her any money nor any time to earn it herself.
- Rags to Royalty: As Jane Yolen has pointed out, this is averted, at least from the way we often think about it: technically, Cinderella was already nobility and/or an heiress, just made to wear rags by her Wicked Stepmother."'Cinderella' is not a story of rags to riches, but rather riches recovered; not poor girl into princess but rather rich girl (or princess) rescued from improper or wicked enslavement."
- Rule of Three: The festival often lasts three nights.
- Sibling Triangle: The stepsisters seriously try to get the prince.
- Textile Work Is Feminine: She has to ready her stepsisters' dresses.
- The Unfavorite: Possibly the Ur-Example considering its age. Cinderella is treated like a slave while her stepsisters are treated as nobility.
- When the Clock Strikes Twelve: Ur-Example and trope codifier. The oldest use of this trope and the one people think of.
- Wicked Stepmother: If not the Ur-Example, certainly the Trope Codifier and Trope Namer (Yes, it codified a lot of these tropes). For ages stepmothers in fiction were thought to be evil and it all started by calling her step-daugter "Cinder girl".