In Liar Game, during the Contraband game, Yokoya enforced a point-based loyalty scheme to guarantee loyalty from the members of his team that they would spy on the other members and report any dishonesty to him, where he would give more money to the snitch. Fukunaga suspects that Yokoya didn't even keep count; he just wanted the members to feed him as much information of the others as possible.
This occurs to Lina Inverse in the first Slayers movie. The character in question isn't evil and doesn't plan on hurting Lina per se, but it's definitely not a case of Moving The Goalposts. Needing Lina to risk her life by going back in time hundreds of years in order to save a much younger version of himself, his love, and a group of elves from a mazoku, the elderly ghost of an adventurer promises Lina to show her the location of "the fountain of growth", which she interprets, and is led on to believe, will finally make her tall, curvy, and stacked. In reality, the ghost has lied, and the fountain in question is the reverse of the fountain of youth, aging things that touch its waters to death, making Lina's trials and tribulations completely meaningless (in her eyes). However, since Lina was particularly dumb for believing him, and since he's really the ancestor of her (not-yet-encountered-yet-at-the-time) love and life-long partner Gourry, it worked out in her favor anyways.
There was a slight instance of this in the Battle City arc of Yu-Gi-Oh!; Arcana, one of Marik's servant's, is promised a reunion with his lost love upon fulfillment of a mission; Marik even put a mannequin shrouded by curtains in the room to persuade him. He fails his mission, and the last thing he sees before Marik kills him is that he never intended to keep his end of the deal.
To make it even worse for Arcana, Yugi continually told him during the duel that this was likely the case. Arcana actually seemed to have doubts once or twice, but never enough to truly believe him until the end.
When Cologne first appears in Ranma ½, she traps Ranma in her female form via a special pressure point that makes her unable to stand any sort of heat, including hot water. Eventually she reveals she has a special pill that can cure Ranma of her affliction, but the only way to even get it would be to master a speed based attack. Ranma ultimately is able to do so and succeeds in getting the pill from Cologne, only for Cologne to reveal that at the last minute that she'd substituted the real pill for a candy drop.
There was a Rugrats comic story where Chuckie had all but one of the collectible Reptar cards, and Angelica claimed she would give him the one he was missing if he performed a series of chores for her. When he finished them all, it turned out the card she gave him was a phony drawing.
In the Gunslinger comic, one of the villains ask an addict for information on the heroes, implying that they will give him "metal" in exchange. After they are finished, the addict asks if he is getting gold or silver, the villain replies 'lead' and shoots him. (This is a visual re-telling of the incident from the original source, the novel Wizard And Glass.)
In Power Girl (Issue #12 to be exact), super-villainess Satanna wants Mad Scientist Dr. Sivana to make her a super-weapon to kill Power Girl (Kryptonians being rather hard to kill). Sivana wants some bouncy-bouncy in exchange. Despite her disgust, Satanna complies, and afterwards Sivana points out that they are both "bad guys," and as long as he got his, he doesn't care that she doesn't get anything. So not only has she debased herself for nothing, he adds injury to insult by making his robots beat her up and throw her out of a fourth-story window. So not only is Sivana a complete pig, he's made Satanna's list—he'll be showing up in revenge-oriented tropes in the near future.
The obscure French comic book "38e parallèle" features the story of the French expeditionary force in The Korean War. An officer promises his commando a treasure behind the enemy lines; it was actually an undercover operation seeking a Vietcong agent.
Subverted in one Marvel comic. A skrull promises a human "the most beautiful woman in the galaxy" to betray his species. He accepts, but then turns back when somebody points out to him, "Even if the Skrull was going to keep his promise, what's beautiful to a reptilian alien?" Then we see a beautiful Skrull woman waiting to be given away to some lowly human (out of love for the invading skrull). The Fridge Logic is, Skrulls are shapeshifters. He could send the ugliest woman, and she could change into the most beautiful.
Subverted in the second issue of The Batman Adventures, the animated Batman spin-off comic from the 1990s. The Joker hijacks a cable television outlet and uses it to broadcast himself onto a closed-circuit TV set delivered to Selina Kyle's apartment. After revealing that he knows Selina is Catwoman, Joker tells her that he has concocted a foolproof plan for stealing the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London, and asks her if she'd like to attempt the feat. Selina, who relishes this ultimate test of her burglary skills, still feels suspicious, even asking Joker, "What's the catch?" Turns out, Joker also wants her to snatch something else for him while she's in London (we're never told exactly what this is, but it's apparently microcircuitry or something similarly electronic). Once Selina has heard all the details, she goes through with Joker's plan—but Batman outsmarts her and manages to prevent her from swiping the jewels, and Catwoman barely escapes capture. She does, however, manage to acquire the technology Joker requested, and sends it to him at the end of the comic. (In the next issue, it's finally revealed that whatever Joker had Catwoman steal for him allows him to override every other TV station in Gotham City, so that he can broadcast his sadistic variety show on every channel.) But even though Catwoman didn't get what she wanted, Joker didn't care: she managed to get him on TV, and whether or not she also got the Crown Jewels was irrelevant.
In "The Pied Piper Of Hamelin", the town offers a handsome reward for ridding them of the rats. When the piper succeeds flawlessly, they flatly refuse to pay him and boot him out of the town. It turns out pretty badly for them.
"You're just a toy, Sebastian. A little toy I like to play with."
The Collector does this in Demon Knight, enticing one of the heroes to the evil side with promises that include a bunch of hot dancing women. The Collector congratulates him on his wise choice, and...
"One more thing: I lied". (Women revert to demon form, and lunge)
The Collector does this to everyone who listens to him. Another character agrees to betray the others and removes the barrier keeping the demons at bay in exchange for his own freedom. As he is about to leave, the Collector admits he lied, and the demons tear the guy apart.
In Parts The Clonus Horror, the clones are told that they are preparing for a trip to America, which is portrayed like paradise.
The Island is based on "The Clonus Horror" and has a similar lie. The clones are told that they are preparing for a trip to "The Island," the only haven from a "virus outbreak."
In Conan the Destroyer, the reward that Queen Taramis promises to Conan for his assistance is a lie.
In Nacho Libre, Ignacio and his wrestling partner Steven seek a guru for advice on winning matches. The guru tells them to climb a cliff to an eagle's nest, break open an egg and drink its yolk which contains powerful nutrients. After doing so, they lose their next match anyway.
Played with in the Buffy spin-off novel Pretty Maids All In A Row: The novel focuses on Spike and Dru, who are hired by a demon to do a job for him, with the promised reward being a powerful magical artifact Dru has decided she wants. A third of the way through, there's a flashback revealing that this artifact was stolen off the demon sixty years ago — but then two-thirds of the way through, there's another flashback revealing that thirty years ago the demon took it back. Finally, when Spike and Dru come to claim the reward, he admits that when he hired them he'd already given it away to somebody else he wanted a favour from. Final score: Double Subversion.
In the Philippa Gregory book The Boleyn Inheritance, Norfolk did this to Jane Parker/Rochford/Boleyn with a promise of setting up another marriage for her. This ended not just with him denying her the prize, but offering a brutal, scathing commentary on her personality, and leaving her to be thrown in jail and executed while he got off scot-free.
The Millennium Trilogy plays with this. In "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo," Henrik Vanger's "dirt" on Wennerström is not nearly as damning or damaging as was implied when the promise was made; however, Wennerström gets his just deserts in the end anyway, and Blomkvist still gets the otherwise sizable payday promised.
In Sergey Lukayenko's first published novel Knights Of The Forty Islands, several hundred children are kidnapped and put into an artificial environment consisting of small islands connected by bridges. They are given swords and are told that anyone who conquers all islands gets to go home. The thing is, the captors know full well that Humans Are Bastards and that even children can be turned into monsters given the right conditions, meaning there is no way for any one group to realistically conquer such a large area, and alliances are doomed to fail. Also, all the captives are actually duplicates, so the captors have no intention of sending them back home.
In Sommerset Maugham's story "A Friend in Need", a wealthy businessman tells the narrator about an incident in which he promised a Remittance Man a position at the firm if he could successfully swim a treacherous length of water. The Remittance Man drowned to death, and the business man then casually reveals that he never had a position open in the first place.
In one of the stories in Alvin Schwartz's Scary Stories series, two girls perform a series of escalating bad deeds on their mother and brother in the hopes of collecting a magic drum from a gypsy girl. After they have driven away the rest of their family with their behavior, the gypsy girl tells them they will never be naughty enough for her standards, and leaves.
Septimus Heap: Flyte: After having been destroyed by the Undoing of the Placement, DomDaniel reveals that Simon Heap was just a delivery boy to be discarded one he had done his job.
The premise of the US Office episode "Scott's Tots." Michael made a promise to send some kids to college, but by the time they graduated high school he reneged on said promise. In this case, Michael had ridiculously optimistic expectations about what his life would be like by the time the kids graduated, so it wasn't an intentional lie.
Burn Notice: Sam is trying to clear out an office temporarily so Michael can steal some information from one of the office computers. So posing as an office manager, he tries to herd everyone into a meeting room to work on "team work activities". It's not until he promises cake do people start listening to him. They're very grouchy later when they find out he lied.
Chuck: In "Chuck vs the Wedding Planner" the team sets up an elaborate con Wedding reception, including a cake made of fondant, icing... and Styrofoam.
Subverted on Boy Meets World. When Mr. Feeney has trouble getting Shawn to attend his SAT preparation class, he makes up lie on the spot about there being delicious cake at the class. But later we see Shawn at the class, and he is in fact eating a big piece of cake.
On Twilight Zone, a talkative man bets another member of his exclusive club a fortune that he can't remain silent for a full year. He succeeds by having his vocal cords severed in secret, but the man he made the bet with admits that he's flat broke and could never have paid the agreed-upon sum.
The crew on Farscape once visited an agricultural world where tomorrow was always a rest day, but it never came because the workers' memories kept getting re-written as to what day it was.
In a Mr Show sketch, John goes off to meet his friends, under the impression they set him up on a blind date. They just wanted him to come to an intervention for another friend of theirs. He claims "You don't have to trick me, you're my friends." It turns out they pull this trope on him every time they have an intervention. Interestingly enough, he gets increasingly angrier the further back in time they flashback to.
A song written by songwriter Ed Pickford, and popular with many folk singers, is Pound a Week Rise. The workers of the coal mines are fed up and want a raise. When they confront the then chairman of the National Coal Board (Lord Robens), he tells them that he used to be a miner and knows how hard it can be so he makes them a deal. If he can get their output to break records, he'll give raise their pay by a pound per week (hence the title). When they finally accomplish this, he laughs at them, denies them the raise he promised and yells at them to get back to their jobs.
The Child Ballad "The Golden Vanity" takes this and puts a rather...dark spin on it. The captain promises the hero (the ship's boy) money and his daughter, if he will swim to the enemy vessel and drill holes in it, but when the hero sinks the enemy ship, the captain leaves him in the ocean to drown.
This trope is actually very popular in the traditional songs of many countries.
According to The Other Wiki, in the non-Bowdlerized ending to the song "Big Rock Candy Mountain", the candy is a lie.
Portal: Trope Namer ("THE CAKE IS A LIE" being written on walls in various places by Doug Rattmann, an employee turned test subject). Note that there actually was cake—it just wasn't for you. YOU ARE GOING TO BE THE CAKE!
Moreover, note the wording by GlaDOS: "There will be cake" (and similar vague statements, like "cake will be served" and "cake ... will be available"). It's not until later (when her lies become more transparent) does GLaDOS suggest that Chell will be the one to eat it ("Okay, the test is over now. You win! Go back to the recovery annex for your cake.")
This is later spoofed in Tales of Monkey Island Chapter 4: The Trial and Execution of Guybrush Threepwood, when Judge Grindstump asks Guybrush on what grounds the latter is not guilty of spreading the Pox of LeChuck, after which one of the four reasons listed is "The Pox is a lie!"
Likewise referenced in the game adaptation of X-Men Origins: Wolverine: in one level, the player can use a portal device to access a hidden room which contains a cake; doing so unlocks the Achievement "The Truth".
The iPod game "Highborn" references this by promising that there will be cake at the end of the tutorial. There is none.
Referenced in Minecraft—one of the Achievements is to bake a cake, and its name is "The Lie".
Also referenced in Bookworm Adventures: one of the loading screen messages reads "Lying about cake...".
Averted in the fan prequel Portal: Prelude. At this time, Aperture Science was staffed by real people, and when you complete the test, you really are about to be given cake... But then the scientists put a hold on the party until after they turn GLaDOS on. Without the Morality Core ready to be installed. It should be obvious what the player has to do after this...
Also averted in Portal: The Flash Version. However, based on the context of that game, GLaDOS likely wasn't even finished (perhaps even created) at that point.
Of course, this does not happen in the PC Mappack. You see the cake, then it disappears when approached, turning out to be no more than a hologram.
Referenced in Dragon Age: Origins. Due to the Qunari having never invented cookies, Sten's time in Ferelden led him to developing a sweet tooth. He's naturally very upset that they were lying about having cake at the ending celebration.
In the Neverwinter Nights mod Tales of Arterra, if you complete the obstacle course in Vannik the Red's hideout you find a large chest containing a sheet of paper: "Congratulations! Your reward is knowledge! Word: bamboozled. Synonyms: hoodwinked, befuddled. Definition: to be deceived. Example: The foolish adventurer was bamboozled into thinking there was loot at the end of the obstacle course!"
In Bully, Gary prompts you to follow him through the school's basement, promising nothing specific, just having something to show you.
In Morrowind, a woman's ring landed in a pond. She wants it back, and she'll nookie you for it. Except that she just wanted you down at the bottom of a hill so she could rob you from the high ground.
Similarly, in Oblivion, a mage offers to recommend you for membership to the Arcane University if you retrieve his magical Ring of Burden from the bottom of a well. Turns out he was just hoping you'd drown while down there.
Which is absolutely hilarious, in an Idiot Ball / Fridge Logic manner if you're an Argonian, seeing as the entire race can breathe underwater.
In Baldur's Gate 2, the player is offered a quest with a 10,000 gp reward—big money at that point in the game—by Jierdan Firkraag. Once you reach the quest area, however, you're manipulated into killing several knights, and you find out that Firkraag is not only a dragon in disguise, but trying to destroy your reputation as payback for some half-explained slight.
Several other characters do this as well, Kangaxx the Demi-Lich and the Chromatic Demon from Watcher's Keep come to mind.
By the time of the Chromatic Demon, CHARNAME has apparently become Genre Savvy to this, as (s)he observes in the diary: "As I expected, the Chromatic Demon attacked me as soon as I released it from its prison..."
As a rule of thumb, almost every evil guy who gives you a quest in the Baldur's Gate series will end up fighting you. Which doesn't mean you shouldn't do the quest, since you will find the reward they promised you over their dead body anyway, as well as valuable loot that's probably more useful than the money.
Flonne in Disgaea tells Laharl that she will give him something good if he helps find her pendant. The something good is a chance to do a good deed, and her heartfelt thanks. Laharl thinks this is a horrible copout, of course, but Flonne genuinely thinks that it's a good reward.
In Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga Prince Peasly says he will give you something of around 99,999,999 Mushroom coins for defeating the Big Bad. In the end, he gives you only 99 by the exchange rate between Beanbean coins and Mushroom coins.
Worse, prior to that you run into the same problem, but even though the exchange rate is bad the first time, it's still good enough that Peasley's bet is a fantastic deal. Meaning that either someone is lying, or the Mushroom Kingdom's economy crashes every time she gets kidnapped.
So, about every two weeks then? There goes that triple-A credit rating...
The tutorial in Mercenaries 2 is basically one of these.
In the episode The Tomb of Sammun-Mak of Sam & Max, the great-grandpas of Sam and Max (Sameth and Maximus) are entrusted by M. Papierwaite to find and deliver an artifact called The Devil's Toybox. Having done so, they find out the promised reward is to have Maximus sacrificed in a Summoning Ritual
Warhammer Online has a quest in which a goblin tells you to run through the PVP zone of a much lower level to look for "shinies". This triggers the in-game mechanic of turning people too high for a given zone into a chicken—and if you actually do make it through alive, the goblin roundly mocks you for believing him. You do get a humorous title for it, though.
In The Seventh Guest, Stauf promises that the guest who brings Tad to him will have their wish granted. This is not quite what happens...
In Red Dead Redemption, this happens twice. First, Captain DeSanta promises to give Javier Escuela and Bill Williamson to Marston in exchange for helping him fight the rebels. Instead, he tries to have him executed. Later, Agent Ross reneges on his promise to leave Marston and his family alone after his old gang are dead by sending the US army to kill them.
At the beginning of Tales of Monkey Island Chapter 4, Guybrush thinks there would be "ice cream cake" when Flotsam's citizens arrive. Instead, he is summoned to court on civil and criminal charges.
Stranglehold has Mr. Wong sending Tequila after the Golden Kane and the Zakarovs in order to rescue Billie, Tequila's wife and Wong's daughter, and Teko, Tequila's daughter. Billie is murdered by Jerry, Tequila's undercover partner, on Wong's orders after both Zakarovs are taken down because Damon threatened Wong with forcing her to testify against Wong in court and because Wong is a colossal dick who would rather Off The Offspring than let her live with Tequila. As for Teko, Wong kidnaps her in a bid to kill both her and Tequila as part of Wong's own revenge for his son, and Tequila manages to rescue her.
The deal that Yomiel made with the blue people's government in Ghost Trick was that he would use his manipulator powers for their benefit and they would a) help him with his revenge plot and b) work to create an artificial life for him, allowing him to live, grow old, and die like a normal human. Of course Sith only wanted the Temsik fragment, so they never got past part a).
Kingdom Hearts, anyone? It contains a plethora of this trope. Let's see...
Hades promises Cloud assistance in exchange for his services, and it turns out he lied. Both in the first game and Chain of Memories.
Subverted with Ursula; in the first game she planned on keeping her promise, for once, but she would have done it in a way that mirrored the Jackass Genie trope. In the sequel, she still planned on keeping her promise, but it was more along the lines of Loophole Abuse. It was played straight in the third game.
Throughout the first three sections of Haunting Groundthe protagonist is helped by a mysterious man called Lorenzo, who promises her (through his many letters/memos/notes) that his only intention is to help her escape the Castle. However, once the first three antagonists have been dealt with, Lorenzo reveals his true intentions; to steal Fiona's Azoth from her all for himself.
Gamesoft's mobile phone version of Oregon Trail has this exchange between two characters:
Kid: I'm hungry.
Mother: There's cake in Oregon.
Kid: THAT'S A LIE!
The Bananas Are a Lie in Chapter 3 of Mother 3. Sometimes Fassad actually electrocutes his monkey as a "reward" instead. Or eats the banana himself.
In Heir, the Pale Man is fighting the Golems to win the throne. Instead, he gets a knife in his gut.
In Beauty And The Beast The Enchanted Christmas, Forte promises a musical solo for his henchman Fife in exchange for performing many of the tasks that would help Forte challenge/endanger Belle. Near the end of the movie when Forte gets confronted by Belle, Beast and the gang, Fife finds the pages for his solo to be blank.
In Invader Zim, the kids have to sell candy bars to raise money for new desks. Zim goes to great lengths to sell the most in order to win the secret ultimate prize, which turns out to be...absolutely nothing. It was just a trick to motivate the kids.
Averted quite well in The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack, when Peppermint Larry offers K'nuckles and Flapjack 100 pieces of candy for a candy wrapper with a plus/X on it. They get their candy when Flapjack provides a forged wrapper, but the original wrapper was meant to lead Larry to the fabled Candied Island.
However, in another episode, a mechanical fortune-telling genie promises to tell K'nuckles and Flapjack the location of Candied Island if they can beat him in a guessing game. He's obviously lying, which was intended, as the genie was meant to be creepy, sadistic, and manipulative. At least, until K'nuckles destroys him with a giant screwdriver. By hitting him with it. Repeatedly. (Or does he?)
In an episode of Chowder, the titular character is promised some cake if he goes to a party. When he gets there, there is no cake. He even says, "The cake was a lie!"
In The Emperors New School, Kuzco, Malina and Kronk go on a quest to capture a Shuaka, which is supposed to give them a pot of gold. The Shuaka tells them that in order to get the pot of gold, they'd have to perform a series of tasks. It turned out there was no gold, and he was just getting them to do his chores for him.
Kid: Uh, we were to understand there'd be pie and punch?
Kyle: There isn't any.
So the kids leave.
Again invoked with the kids trying to start a group for protecting films from being altered on re-release, using a poster offering a "Free Hat" (they have Tweek make simple hats out of folded newspaper, but he only makes a few). Which gets misconstrued to be a criminal called Hat McCullough.
Penguin: No, the cake is real, and extremely rich. But you're not really a space ranger at all! You're a toy! Andy's toy!
In one episode of The Simpsons, Homer intentionally gained weight until he became at least 300 lbs. heavy. When Marge decided to tell Homer to stop and Lisa went to tell him Marge was calling, she said Marge baked a cake. After Marge's failed attempt to dissuade Homer, he still asked about the cake.
In another episode, Springfield Police Department started a fake boat giveaway to lure lawbreakers. When it was Homer's turn, he was forced to pay fines and still had to be told the boat was a lie.
In Dave The Barbarian, Fang tricks Dave into entering a Mongrel Hordes Boot Camp, by saying they were going to a hat show.
In Gravity Falls, some fliers promised tourists free pizza with admission to the opening of the wax museum. Grunkle Stan claims that it was a typo.
Jack Thompson promised 10,000 dollars to a charity of Take Two Interactive chairman Paul Eibeler's choice if anyone would make a certain video game (based around saying how violent games make people violent), then failed to deliver when the game was made not once, but multiple times. Penny Arcade made the donation when he revealed he wouldn't, with the check note saying "For Jack Thompson, Because Jack Thompson Won't." Jack Thompson promptly tried to force them to rescind the check by threatening them with lawsuits. That's right, not only did Jack Thompson lie about donating to charity, he tried to stop other people from donating to charity to make up for his lie. You can read all about that story here.
In a 1996 ad campaign to promote Pepsi Stuff, commercials for the film True Lies claimed that if anyone collected 7,000,000 points, Pepsi would give that person a Harrier jet (featured in the movie). A man by the name of John Leonard redeemed a check equivalent to the amount of the 7,000,000 points, but Pepsi refused on the grounds that the jet was not really being offered. After a lawsuit was filed, a federal judge sided with Pepsi.
In an earlier example dating back to around the 1930's, shaving cream manufacturer Burma Shave put out a promotional contest in which they promised a half-pound jar of their product to anyone who sent them the ripped-off fender of their car. It was meant as a joke, but after receiving dozens of fenders from participants—even those taken from toy cars—the company made good on its promise. When it made a later attempt in 1955 at an even sillier announcement in hopes that people would only find it amusing and not actually try to fulfill it—in this case, announcing that 900 empty jars would net the sender a free trip to Mars—someone actually did anyway. Burma-Shave obviously couldn't fulfill the promise this time, but they did provide the "winner" a free trip to Moers, Germany. Which just so happened to be pronounced similar to "Mars."
Burrell Smith (who designed the hardware for the original Macintosh) would often promise to be your best friend in order to get you to do something. This relationship, however, only lasts a few milliseconds.
Happens all too often when you're a toddler. Your parent will promise you a reward if you do something or go through something, and once that's over with they take back their word. This even happens to kids, teenagers, and even adults, and it encourages kids to engage in rebellious behavior—and they wonder why there's so many rebellious teenagers around.
Although the exact amount is disputed, Thomas Edison reportedly promised $10-50,000 ($1.1 million today) to anyone who could solve the crippling inefficiencies in his prototype automobile motors and electrical generators. When Nikola Tesla solved them both, Edison refused to honor his agreement.
Jodee Berry, a former Hooters waitress in Panama City, Florida, won a contest for most beer sales held by her boss, who announced that the grand prize was a new Toyota. On the day of the presentation, she was blindfolded and led to the restaurant's parking lot to receive her prize...which turned out to be a ToyYoda! She quit immediately and won an undisclosed settlement against Gulf Coast Wings, Hooters parent company, a year later. Part of the settlement included a Toyota car of her choice.
Swedish-Finnish journalist, writer and talk-show host Mark Levengood once said this happened to him. His mother told him that if he did not start smoking before his 18th birthday, she would pay for his drivers license. When he turned 18 and asked for his reward, his mother lit another of her cigarettes and told him she had never planned to pay his driving lessons. "The important thing was that you did not start smoking, and it did succeed, didn't it?"
After Portal popularized the phrase "the cake is a lie," Atheists co-opted it for the purpose of invoking "Religion Is Wrong," by characterizing all religion as promising an eternal reward for participation. As Steven Dutch points out in the "Consolatory" and "Nominal Religion" sections of this article, people who treat religions this way completely miss the point of them.
During the Warring States Period of Ancient China, Qin advisor/strategist Zhang Yi promised King Huai of Chu 600 square miles of land if the latter breaks up his alliance with the State of Qi. When the king does that, Zhang Yi told him that he'd only get 6 square miles of land instead; this prompted Chu to attack Qin but without their alliance with Qi, who decided to aid Qin in retaliation of Chu's "betrayal", led to their defeat.