Literature: Aesop's Fables
Aesopos (Greek Αἴσωπος, shortened to Aesop in modern English) was a slave, later freedman, living somewhere in Asia Minor in the sixth century BC. If, that is, he existed at all.But European fables — mostly Beast Fables — have a marvelous tendency to accrete onto the collections claimed to be his. Being fables, they have rather obvious morals, which are sometimes (but not always) explicitly pointed out at the end.Aesop's most famous fables are:
- The Grasshopper and the Ants: A grasshopper is lazy and does nothing during spring and summer, while the ants work. When winter arrives the ants survive because they harvested food and had built a warm home, while the grasshopper dies from cold and starvation.
- The Tortoise and the Hare: A tortoise and a hare decided to hold a race. The tortoise wins because the hare fell asleep during the race and wasn't in time to cross the finish first.
These fables are the Trope Namers for:
- An Aesop
- Androcles' Lion
- Ass in a Lion Skin
- Country Mouse and City Mouse — the same fable.
- Crying Wolf
- The Farmer and the Viper
- Heal Thyself
- Honest Axe
- Leonine Contract
- Sweet and Sour Grapes
- Who Will Bell the Cat?
Tropes in these fables:
- Beast Fable
- Bigger Is Better: The frog thinks so in "The Frog and the Ox".
- Broken Aesop: "The Moon and her Mother" has the Moon's mother deny making her daughter a dress, because it could never fit her because she keeps changing size. In one accompanying illustration◊, the "moon" part is her head, so the dress's size shouldn't be a problem.
- Bystander Syndrome: The attitude of the ass in "The Ass and The Old Peasant".
- The City vs. the Country: The Country Mouse visits her friend the City Mouse. While at first impressed by his lavish lifestyle, she soon changes her mind once she learns about the cat living in the same house.
- Clever Crows: One tale involves a crow, dying of thirst, finding a pitcher of water with the water level just out of reach of the bird's beak. So, it uses several pebbles to raise the water level and save itself.
- Consummate Liar: One of the two travellers in "The Apes and the Two Travellers", the other traveller is an inversion of this.
- Cunning Like a Fox: The Ur-Example.
- Dirty Coward: One of the soldiers in "The Two Soldiers and the Robber".
- Downer Ending: A couple, such as "The Wolf and the Lamb" and "The Crab and the Fox".
- Everything Talks: "The Two Pots".
- Forgiven, but Not Forgotten: The story of "The Man and the Serpent" where the man asks the serpent to put aside their differences and "forget and forgive", but the serpent rejects, saying that he will never forget the death of his son and he won't forget the loss of his tail. This leads to the lesson that "Injuries may be forgiven, but not forgotten."
- Getting Crap Past the Radar: The fable "The Man his Wife, and The Boy Outside", sometimes explicitly named "Adulterer and Husband". Numbered 350 in the Perry index.
- Gladiator Games: "Androcles and the Lion"
- Jerkass Gods: Jupiter could sometimes come off as this for example in one story where he judged the animals' children, to find out which one was most beautiful, and coldly laughed at an ape's attempt. The ape's reaction was to say that Jupiter could have his judgement but to her, her offspring was the most beautiful of all.
- Liminal Being: The bat, in one fable, tried to be a bird or a beast according to what it brought it. The birds and beasts unite in the end to agree that it's expelled from both.
- Manipulative Bastard: The depiction of the fox in the various fables are often this.
- Readers Are Morons: Some of the fables (usually the more famous ones) outright stated the aesop of the story in the form of a sentence at the end of the story.
- Wicked Weasel: Since the cats hadn't arrived to Europe yet, the weasels took the roles usually reserved for the felines.