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Honor Harrington has the series within a seriesPreston of the Spaceways, often mentioned in the context of warning against stupid heroics. To be told one is "playing Preston of the Spaceways" is not a compliment.
The parody was firmly entrenched by the time Robert A. Heinlein wrote The Rolling Stones in The Fifties: Roger Stone and, later, Grandma Hazel help support the family by writing a deliberately over-the-top three-vee serial in the Captain Space Defender mold.
The Doctor Who New Adventures novel The Highest Science has the Doctor discover a triangular video cassette showing "Captain Millennium" battling "Libidia, Queen of the Virenies", which he considers to be So Bad, It's Good. (And when it ends on a cliffhanger with the Captain's assistant being threatened by an evil robot, he concludes it's "almost like real life, in a glamourised sort of way".)
Captain Video, the original TV space hero, was Played Straight in his billing as an "electronic wizard! Master of time and space! Guardian of the safety of the world!" All this while being the face of the No BudgetDu Mont network. His future space uniform was made out of an Army surplus uniform, and one of his weapons was made out of car parts.
Tom Paris: (making a Dynamic Entry as the hero) Captain Proton: Spaceman First Class, protector of Earth, scourge of intergalactic evil... at your service.
Captain Zoom, a Made-for-TV Movie, deconstructs this trope pretty thoroughly. Note that Captain Zoom is a parody of Captain Video, above - Captain Zoom is set on the Du Mont network, which Captain Video really ran on.
Homestar Runner has "Space Captainface, pretender of the galaxies", Strong Bad's alter ego as head astronaut/poster boy for Strong Badia's space program, the Strong Badian Association of Some Aluminum Foil.
Atomic Betty, to add to the retro-futuristic appeal of the show.
Ben 10 and specially it sequels are known to play this trope straight. The Plumbers are a secret Space Police that deals with different inter-planetary issues, they travel between planets fighting against the bad guys with a different set of weapons or alien superpowers. It's clear that Ben wants to be like this, as he wanted to join in the first series a special organization that was mostly a lighthearted parody of this (They were portrayed rather cartoonish but still capable and useful) and in the flashforward episodes he is seen as a straight example of this trope. The sequel series Ben 10: Alien Force and Ben 10: Ultimate Alien shows a very diverse set of Plumbers with many of them falling squarely on this trope.
With the increasing Space Opera elements in the series, this is seen as a logical progression, inter-planetary travelling became a standard of the series, and many of the villians in the show are classical sci-fi enemies that must be dealt with a regular space hero.