It'll be fabulous, believe me, Jerry. It's Grapes Of Wrath in outer space! Oh, it's got heart, it's got laser battles, it's got a timely message of interstellar poverty—!
("Life of the Party")
A space opera
is a work set in a far future space faring civilization, where the technology is ubiquitous and entirely secondary to the story. It has an epic character to it: The universe is big, there are lots of sprawling civilizations and empires, there are political conflicts and intrigues galore. Frequently it takes place in the Standard Sci Fi Setting
. In perspective, it is a development of the Planetary Romance
that looks beyond the exotic locations that were imagined for the local solar system in early science fiction (which the hard light of science revealed to be barren and lifeless
) out into an infinite universe of imagined exotic locations.
Space opera has a lot of romantic elements: big love stories, epic space battles, oversized heroes and villains, awe-inspiring places, and insanely gorgeous women.
Expect to see a dashing hero cavorting around in sleek, cigar-shaped Retro Rockets
, Green Skinned Space Babes
, Crystal Spires and Togas
civilizations full of Space Elves
, Wave Motion Guns
capable of dealing an Earth-Shattering Kaboom
on a daily basis, and an evil Galactic Empire
with a Standard Sci-Fi Fleet
, including an entire universe full of beat-up mechanical objects
capable of being resurrected with Percussive Maintenance
Note that this is quite different from the original definition of space opera, which was derogatory. It arose from a long line of similar terms for substandard genre fiction: 'horse opera' was bad Western
fiction and 'soap opera' (so named because soap operas began as hour-long ads for soap) was hackneyed drama. The phrase was coined in 1941 by Wilson Tucker to describe what he called "the hacky, grinding, stinking, outworn space-ship yarn". (It's said that before 1975 or so, the only author who ever intentionally set out to write a space opera was Jack Vance
, who wrote a novel about an opera company in space.) Weirdly, this means that many works which were originally touted as examples of 'serious' science fiction, such as the Lensman
series, are today held up as prime examples of Space Opera
. As more authors and writers came to embrace the space opera style, the term came to lose many of its negative connotations. Assisting that process were writers who regarded all tales of action and adventure in space as bad, and so tried to pejoratively label it all "space opera"; they succeeded with the label, but not with keeping it pejorative.
is an older variant, which is basically Heroic Fantasy In Space
— or on a Dying Earth
of some sort. While works such as John Carter of Mars
and various fantasy novels set on a planet are Planetary Romance
, characters like Buck Rogers
and Flash Gordon
essentially codified the Space Opera
concept in the popular imagination by the late 1930s.
is probably the most famous modern example of space opera. (Indeed, The Empire Strikes Back
was an important moment in changing "space opera" from an insult to a more neutral genre descriptor, due to the involvement of writer Leigh Brackett
.) In Star Wars
, technology is either magic
(the Force) or slightly faster versions of today's gadgets (blaster rifles
, hovercars, space ships) and the characters would be right at home in a fantasy novel (evil emperor
The genre is useful for long story- and character-arcs
but also expensive to film. Unless you do it in animated form, like dozens of anime
The opposite of Space Opera would probably be Hard Science Fiction
. In recent years, however, there has been a trend towards incorporating hard sci-fi elements into
space opera, as in Starship Operators
, the 2000s Battlestar Galactica
or especially Revelation Space
— in fact, "New Space Opera" has gained some currency as a term referring to works that combine fast-paced adventure plots with some degree of hard SF rigor.
See also Two-Fisted Tales
, Pulp Magazine
, and Wagon Train to the Stars
. In many ways, this is the science fiction equivalent
of High Fantasy
Note that while many more famous space operas go to the "ideal" side of the Sliding Scale of Idealism Versus Cynicism
, more recent ones are harder
and more cynical: Babylon 5
, Battlestar Galactica
being most prominent in Live-Action TV
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- Dragon Ball gradually worked its way into this, starting with Dragon Ball Z. Though the series initially concentrated on Earth-based stories, the Saiyan Saga was where things began to exhibit a more galactic scope.
- Star Wars is perhaps the most famous modern example (as noted in the main description), with its grand and fantastical tale of heroic rebels fighting against the evil Empire set "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away..."
- Foundation, by Isaac Asimov, an extremely influential series inspired in part by Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and which in turn partly inspired Star Wars.
- The Culture books by Iain M. Banks, although again it does have a society changed by technology - in particular near-perfect medicine and a lack of the need for money due to massive technological advances.
- Parodied and lampshaded in Jack Vance's Space Opera, which is a space opera about - yes - a touring Opera company.
- Many of Vance's works - such as The Demon Princes- are more straightforward examples.
- John Maddox Roberts' Space Angel has larger-than-life characters, epic space battles, exotic worlds, and an alien species that inhabits the cores of galaxies. Not a planet in the core of a galaxy, mind you - the whole core.
- BALADA by Solea Razvan, the first book's tagline is: When the universe is at war, which side are you on?; nuff said.
Live Action TV
- Star Trek, perhaps the most famous example in television, with its grand tales of interstellar exploration, romance, intrigue, and war. Though there is (some) serious consideration of how technology and science would change society (not surprising, given that creator Gene Roddenberry originally envisioned using the setting to address social issues that could not have been dealt with in a normal drama back in the 60s). Coincidentally, there was in fact a Star Trek Opera performed on stage in New York.
- The Stargate Verse is a borderline example. Technically the center-of-operations is on a single planet (Earth in Stargate SG-1, the Atlantis base in Stargate Atlantis), but with the instant wormholes provided by the Stargate, the bases function like a spaceship or space station in a standard Space Opera, as far as most story purposes go. Both series also have the Big Universe, Big Empires, Big Heroes, and Big Villains elements in spades, and it gets bigger yet once Earth has a space fleet. However, many individual episodes, especially in early seasons, feel more like Planetary Romance. Stargate Universe, the second spin-off, is probably closer to a traditional Space Opera.
- Warhammer 40,000 is overloaded Up to Eleven with adventure, battles, intrigue, and fantasy (including Space Elves, Orks, and even Gods), all in a setting where mankind possesses a galaxy-spanning empire with planet-spanning cities and a population in the trillions. However it's also overloaded with about as much cynicism, grimness, and darkness as you can get (hence the common description "grimdark").
- Traveller was the first RPG set in the Space Opera genre, and set the standard for those that followed. It's in the "semi-hardened" category of Space Opera and an incredible amount of work went into the Backstory including fairly realistic science and social science. Traveller is flexible enough that a wide variety of flavors of Space Opera can be played, since the setting is a Framing Device of sorts.
- The forgotten board game Imperium was used as a source for some of the Traveller universe. It depicts a young and expansionist republic on earth, conquering a Vestigial Empire in space. There are a number of other Space Opera board wargames, but this one is notable for historical reasons.
- Rifts has the Three Galaxies setting, a Space Opera with the same blend of magic, technology, and plain weirdness as the main setting. As may be expected, it's way way down on the hardness scale, but it has pretty much all the elements of the Standard Sci Fi Setting.
- Despite Rocket Age only covering our solar system, the epic themes and intrigues of space opera are definitely there. Just replace The Empire with actual Nazis.
- The Halo series is a blend of this and more conventional Military Science-Fiction, with the games mostly set on the exotic and ancient artificial worlds created by the Forerunners, whose own technological feats border on the outright fantastical. Additionally, the franchise as a whole has shown plenty of the intrigue, mystery, and adventure to be had in a multi-species setting spanning the Orion Arm and beyond, filled with Lost Technology and complete with a galaxy-threatening Eldritch Abomination.
- Bungie's next IP Destiny is a more direct example, set in a distant, fantastical future where intrepid Guardians wielding the power of "The Traveler" seek to reclaim humanity's lost empire from "The Darkness". The creators themselves described the setting as "mythic science fiction" and a "mix of science fiction and fantasy", with the game being something of a throwback to the idealistic High Fantasy roots of the genre.
- The Mass Effect series could be seen as putting the Opera back into Space Operas, with lavish and often dreamy environments, exotic cultures, and tales of great personal tragedy. At the same time, it ranks suprisingly high on the Scale Of Science Fiction Hardness, is quite serious in tone, and takes place in the relatively near future (2180s to be precise). Like many other newer Space Operas, it also has Lovecraft Lite elements thanks to the series' main antagonists, the Reapers.
- The Metroid series, although this slides more towards After the End Planetary Romance in the context of individual games. Played straight with Metroid Prime Hunters and Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, as they are the only games in the franchise that internally take place on multiple planets, and the latter shows a bigger interaction with the Galactic Federation.