Matsuda of Death Note tends to evoke the response, "Matsuda, you idiot!" whenever he says or does almost anything, particularly during the first half or so of the series, and it's generally Played for Laughs.
In Young Justice, Robin would often be put in the role of explaining things for the benefit of his teammates (and the audience.) The exchange "How do you know that?" "Well, I was trained by the world's greatest detective," quickly morphed into someone saying "We can tell you were trained by the world's greatest detective" every time he pointed out something glaringly obvious.
Batman (and later Dick Grayson in his role as Batman) gets "I thought you'd be taller" absurdly often from people who have never met him before. Despite being 6'2". (Perhaps Batman's legendary reputation means people expect him to be ten feet tall. It makes a bit more sense for Dick, who's around 5'10".)
Similarly, in Ed Wood, everyone says this about Bela Lugosi when Ed mentions Bela's involvement in his next movie. Heartbreakingly subverted later in the film with Bela's death, and Ed having to quietly confirm his friend's passing.
Dante Hicks in Clerks gets two, one because of and one despite the "I assure you we're open" sign he has to write on a bedsheet with shoe polish because the shutters were gummed shut. For the rest of the day, people ask him "What smells like shoe polish?". Dante is also the catcher for the phrase "You open?", which almost every customer asks before entering the store...in spite of, again, the big honking sign out front.
All the main Predator films have the titular creature being called "one ugly motherfucker", usually upon being seen without the mask (in the second, Harrigan stops midway but the Predator completes the sentence; in Predators, it's said in Russian).
In a very meta case, Ciaphas Cain only ever refers to himself as a "Hero of the Imperium" (no bold) facetiously - the bombastic announcements of his status as a HERO OF THE IMPERIUM! is purely an invention of this wiki (though they do reflect the rest of the Imperium's opinion of him).
For Ace Rimmer, we have this one: "What a guy!" Always said with complete and absolutely sincere admiration.
Ace's regular counterpart Arnold Rimmer has "Smeghead!". This has gone so far that Chris Barrie, his actor, has stated that people in Real Life will use this phrase if they recognize him on the street. Another is "Smeeee heeeee". To which he responds "You got a problem?!"
Prior to his makeover, Tommy of 3rd Rock from the Sun was often told "cut your hair, you look like a girl!" In one episode, he passed himself off as a girl and was told "put some makeup on, you look like a boy."
At least once per series, someone will ask the Doctor, "Doctor who?" when he introduces himself. This is often played with.
In "Love and Monsters", when discussing the Doctor, one guy subverts the normal caught phrase and asks "Doctor what?".
"The Wedding of River Song", the series 6 finale, closes with Dorium's head shouting this after Eleven. He says that "Doctor who?" is "The first question! The question that must never be answered! Hidden in plain sight! The question you've been running from all your life!"
The ending of "Asylum of the Daleks" turns this phrase Up to Eleven. Thousands of Daleks, tier upon tier and circle after circle, in the hall around the Doctor start chanting "Doctor who?" in unison, much to the Doctor's delight. Oswin has wiped anything related to him from their knowledge.
Come "The Bells of Saint John", the Doctor shows up on Clara's doorstep — in full monk dress — and she asks him the question. He gives his usual response of "Just the Doctor", but then quickly asks her to ask it twice more, since he just loves it when people ask him that.
When someone enters the TARDIS, the standard reaction is to wonder at how it is Bigger on the Inside, usually with those exact words.
This was lampshaded/parodied back in the 70s. When Benton enters, the Doctor prompts him with "Aren't you going to say 'It's bigger on the inside'?" and Benton replied, "Well, it's pretty obvious, isn't it?"
Donna's first encounter with the TARDIS is when she materializes inside it, so her moment of realization comes when they land and she steps out, seeing for the first time that it's... smaller on the outside.
In "The End of Time", when Wilfred Mott sees the inside of the TARDIS he looks expectedly shocked and awed. Before giving him a chance (they're in a hurry) the Doctor says, "Yes, it's bigger on the inside," to which Wilf replies, "No, I just thought it'd be... cleaner". (A possible Call Back to the days when the console room was minimalist white with silver/grey console.)
Played for drama in "The Waters of Mars". As the Doctor goes into A God Am I mode, he brings the astronauts to Earth in the TARDIS. One says, "What is that thing? It's bigger on the inside! Who the hell are you?" before running away in terror.
Subverted again with Eleven and Amy's boyfriend Rory:
Doctor: It's a lot to take in, isn't it? Tiny box, huge on the inside, what's that about? Let me explain...
Rory: It's another dimension.
Doctor: Basically, it's another dimens... What?
(Rory explains in length how he figured it out, and the Doctor cuts in, clearly annoyed.)
Doctor: I like the bit when someone says "it's bigger on the inside". I always look forward to that...
In the season 6 episode "The Doctor's Wife", upon being given the form of a human lady, the TARDIS is revealed to think this of humans and the Doctor in terms of a soul. Also, as the TARDIS takes repossession of the Police Box from House, the Doctor explains that House's problem is that he's "just so small on the inside!”
Subverted one more time in the season seven Christmas special, when Clara Oswin Oswald first enters the TARDIS. You can see the Doctor’s anticipation for the Catchphrase, and then she says (to his visible chagrin)…
Clara: It's smaller on the outside.
The Doctor: Okay, that is a first.
Another which gets less used and is more specific to the Tenth Doctor is "Help me," which wakes him out of a coma in "The Christmas Invasion" and to which he replies "Two words I never refuse" in "The Next Doctor", setting up a tragic irony in "Waters of Mars".
The Doctor often gives a good "Oh, Rory!" as a reaction to Rory, whether it be him acting dumb, kind or just so... human.
Whenever Captain Jack meets someone new:
Jack: Captain Jack Harkness, and who are you?
The Doctor: Stop it.
Jack: Just saying hello!
"Yes, we know who you are," after Harriet Jones introduces herself. Even the Daleks get in on it, as do the Sycorax.
Spaced had some lasting an episode, such as Daisy being told to "Get off your arse!" on three separate occasions, or when Mike is dressed in jogging gear and everyone he met told him "Nice outfit". Over the series, people asked Brian the tortured artist what his work was about, then reply to his answer with a suggestion that didn't fit:
In the TV series The Saint, right before the opening credits, somebody would always refer to "... the _____ Simon Templar." (Fill in the blank with 'illustrious', 'infamous', or something like that.) Which would cause Simon to glance up and note the halo appearing over his head.
The opening of every episode of That Girl, in which someone calls attention somehow to Ann Marie, usually by saying something that ends in them speaking the show's title. (i.e. "I think the best one for this job is...that girl!")
Due South: Eventually, everyone else takes over explaining that Fraser came to Chicago on the trail of the killers of his father and, for reasons that don't need exploring at this juncture, remained attached as liaison with the Canadian Consulate. Thank you kindly.
In Game of Thrones, if someone is meeting Jon Snow for the first time, there's at least a 50/50 chance that they will respond with some variation of "You must be Ned Stark's bastard."
John Munch: "Shut up, John." Usually in response to a conspiracy theory.
'Allo 'Allo!: Nearly every character on the show has a Catch Phrase. Sometimes they are directed at s specific person, the one and only.
René keeps getting "Oooooh, René!" from Yvette. Maria, Mimi or Madame Edith are little less hammy, and it's mostly "Oooh, René". Lt. Gruber often exclaims "Ooh, René" as well.
René from his wife: "What are you doing holding that serving girl in your arms?" Whenever he's caught in a compromising position with one of the waitresses.
Madame Edith, whenever she catches her husband René hugging his mistress, gets: "You stu-pid woman! Can you not see that <insert ridiculous explanation>?"
Herr Otto Flick from Gestapo always says to Helga: "You may kiss me." She kisses him very passionately. He seems to like it, yet he remains poker-faced.
Sanctuary's Henry Foss has "Well done, Henry," which he usually gets from Magnus whenever he accomplishes something particularly noteworthy or helpful. Other characters eventually pick up on this, sometimes even imitating Magnus's English accent in the process. The phrase always makes Henry smile or laugh, and sometimes he gives people expectant looks or encourages it with "Three words, please," or a similar phrase.
Whenever the eponymous protagonist of El Chavo del ocho hits someone, that person will angrily shout him "¡¡Tenía que ser el CHAVO del Ocho!!" ("It had to be El CHAVO del Ocho!!")
Alternately, they use a line from Death Note for anything Tzeentch does: "Just as planned"
Around these parts it's "I touched that!" since the general theory is that rather than actually having insanely convoluted plans, he just takes credit for everything anyone does ever and claims it's part of his plan.
It's hard to hear the Tyranids be mentioned without someone adding "Om-nom-nom-nom." at some point.
Mentioning the Imperial Guard will similarly bring any or all of up the topics of flashlights and laser sights, cardboard/t-shirt armour, Tank Goodness, and testicular fortitude.
If 1776 is to be believed, no one could refer to John Adams as anything other than "obnoxious and disliked". As a historical note, the phrase comes from Adams himself - it was his own description of how he was perceived by his Congressional colleagues in his later career.
Likewise the opening number and throughout has Adams the constant recipient of, "Sit down, John! For God's sake sit down!"
Cyrano de Bergerac: Christian. Everyone around him says: "He’s fair!". And Le Bret: Only Cyrano says to him: "Never scold".
Though, it worked pretty damn well with Tela, even on Paragon Shepards as she countered the Shut Up, Hannibal! right back with an excellent Shut Up, Kirk!. Though she stated their methods were the same not the goal.
Fable: "The Chicken Chaser? Do you chase chickens?"
Note that you only get this reaction if you keep your default title. If you get a different one, townsfolk will instantly develop a new stock reaction to address you with.
Namecalling abound whenever a Special Infected spawns in Left 4 Dead. "Boomer!"
"When something smells, it's usually the Butz." Larry Butz from the Ace Attorney games, that is.
Memry from Ghost Trick. Her eccentric behavior earns the following series of remarks a few times:
"Odd girl." "I agree." "Me, too."
Dante's "Jackpot!" from Devil May Cry seems to be one of these, as both Vergil (in unison with Dante during DMC3) and Nero (in 4) adopt it while finishing off that game's Big Bad (Trish also sets up Dante's use of it in the first game, right before he takes out Mundus). Given Dante's words in 3 ("Remember what we used to say?"), it's implied he coined the phrase alongside Vergil, back when they were still close in their childhood.
In Harvester, the protagonist, Steve, has amnesia. Most of the characters don't believe him and assume it's some kind of prank because, "You always were a kidder, Steve."
Fate/stay night: Everyone calls Kotomine Kirei a "fake priest." For Tohsaka, it's because he's sort of like a double agent between the Church and the Mage's association. For Shirou, it's because he hates him.
Whenever it's suggested that Kinzo from Umineko no Naku Koro ni did something crazy, everyone responds with "I wouldn't put it past Father."
Any time the titular amorph of Schlock Mercenary tackles someone is invariably followed by, "You're faster than you look."
Homestuck has "He is already here" and variations thereof. The phrase has been connected to both Jack Noir and Lord English.
Damara Megido gets "1F YOU GO 4NYWH3R3 N34R H1M, 1 W1LL FUCK1NG K1LL YOU!" from two different Pyropes, and in the earlier acts, the phrase "insufferable prick" follows Dave Strider around for some reason.
And from the Alpha Kid's sprites we have Dear, Sweet, Precious Fefeta.
In the Mortal Kombat parody sprite cartoon, someone will always call Baraka "the ugliest mofo they've ever seen." Also, "Shut yo spittin' ass up!" after Kabal goes on his rants.
In Ultra Fast Pony, Fluttershy's catch phrase "I'm just so shy!" catches on with the other characters. In later episodes, if she doesn't comment on her shyness, someone else (like the narrator) will do it for her.
On Steam Train, it's common for Ross to be the scapegoat when something goes wrong.
Danny: Goddamnit, Ross!
From Welcome to Night Vale, we have "John Peters—you know, the farmer..." which is said every single time his full name is mentioned.
Subverted once, when its revealed that he's been replaced; "John Peters- you know, the imposter?"
In the American Darkstalkers cartoon series, every single character, at some point or another, remarks that Rikuo is "strangely attractive for a fishman".
In the last episode, he wearily replies, "So I've been told..."
Everyone seems compelled to ask Phineas and Ferb "Aren't you a little young to be _____?" But it's also a Catch Phrase, because they always respond with "Yes. Yes, we are." (On other occasions, this or variations of this will be done by other characters - for example, someone asking if Candace is a little old for something.) It's played with when a contractor delivering construction supplies says it, and another replies "Yes, yes he is. Sorry, Phineas, he's new."
"Hey, where's Perry?" whenever Perry isn't around, and then "Oh, there you are, Perry" when he returns home from his mission. Usually said by Phineas, but increasing spread around the cast, which is naturally lampshaded like crazy.
Stacy: Hey, where's Perry? What, I'm like the only one who hasn't said it.
Perry catches a lot of phrases, including some of Dr. Doofenshmirtz's Catch Phrases, mostly "CURSE YOU, PERRY THE PLATYPUS!" and in earlier episodes "Ah, Perry the Platypus. Your timing is [adjective]. And by that I mean COMPLETELY [UN-ADJECTIVE]!"
Metalocalypse: By now, the Metal Masked Assassin should know that "That's my bread and butter you're fucking with."
Kim Possible's Arch-Enemy usually tells her "You think you're all that, Kim Possible! But you're not!" Sometimes she'll do something remarkable or say she's planning to do so, and someone will say "It's impossible!". Ron's responds "Check the name." (About the only time the punny names are noticed in-universe.) Wade often catches "You rock, Wade" from Kim and Ron.
South Park with Kenny's deaths, on occasion. While it's usually Stan and Kyle shouting the "Oh my god, They Killed Kenny!" exchange, there have been occasions where Kenny dies and other characters say similar things in the exact same tone of voice:
Charles Manson: Oh my god, they killed the little orange-coat kid!
Moviegoer 1: Oh my god, I found a penny!
Moviegoer 2: You bastard!
"Ay, Dios Mio! Mataron El Pollo Loco!" "Bastardos!"
Averted by Mandy Patinkin. He has not tired of being known for The Princess Bride's Inigo Montoya. In all fairness, however, that one role is awesome, and his fans do generally know him for some other work as well. In fact, surprisingly enough, there are fans who really only know him for his work in Chicago Hope and Yentl.
Any tall person will quickly get tired of 'How's the weather up there?'
Tall Person: Fair to partly stupid.
Or how about "You're really tall." ...Thanks...or "How did you get so tall?"
"Wow. Do you play basketball?" "No, do you play miniature golf?"
Also, anyone who's ever had a haircut will be familiar with the trope, as they'll probably have to come up with a few stock phrases to last them a couple of weeks. "You've had a haircut!" isn't particularly inane, ("You have a remarkable eye for detail,") but "Did you have a haircut?" Er, "Yes. Yes I did."
Every cashier at any cash register with a barcode scanner at any store ever, upon having difficulty scanning an item, will hear from the customer some variation of, "No price? I guess that means it's free!" This is usually followed by a polite chuckle from the cashier.
Window cleaners just love being told: "You've missed a bit!"
Kikuko Inoue's Running Gag and Catch Phrase is claiming herself to be '17 years old'. This caught on to her characters saying so, and when that happens, you can bet that there'll be someone who'll respond with "Oi oi..."
Little kids hear 'you grow up so fast' all the time and may get annoyed because they usually don't feel they grow up that fast.
Pregnant women tire very quickly of being told "You're so big" or "You sure it's not twins?" or asked "When are you due?" or "Is it a boy or girl?" Think twice before you go to say any of this to a pregnant woman. You're probably the fifth one that day and she's likely to snap.
And woe betide someone who say these phrases before they've ascertained whether said woman is pregnant or not...
People who look far younger than their actual age also get this all the time, especially when they're in their 20s. "You've graduated from university?! How old are you?" "I'm twenty-two" followed by the inevitable "Wow, I thought you were only 17!"
The older they get, though, the less they complain about that happening.
People who costume as Star Wars characters will get "These aren't the droids you're looking for" thrown at them several times a day, irrespective of if they're dressed as Storm Troopers or Rebel pilots. Also expect a Storm Trooper to be asked if they aren't a little short for the job, even if they're six feet tall.
As a side example of this, people cosplaying Firefly's Jayne, or at least wearing his hat, will be subjected to variations on "that is a cunning hat" pretty much continuously.
The nurses and medical assistants who room patients have heard about fifty billion comments and jokes about how evil the scale is. No patient can resist.
High school seniors get some variation on "So, where are you going to college?" from everyone they meet.
Followed shortly in college by "So, what're you studying?" or "What's your major?" from almost everyone once they learn (or reasonably guess) that you're a student, especially fellow students.
At the other end of the classroom, their instructors from middle school on up will invariably be tired of hearing "Is this going to be on the test?"
Although, after 12 or so years, a lot of students also get tired of hearing "Will this be on the test?", "Why do we have to learn this?" (in some cases), etc.
Anyone who gets a new job should expect to have to hear "What do you do now?" and/or "So how do you like the new job?" from every single person they know for the next month or so.
Averted in the case of Miranda's Patricia Hodge. She cheerily admits in this interview she doesn't mind people saying Penny's Catch Phrase "Such fun" to her, apart from when they get it wrong and say "What fun" instead.
Examples each of which is also properly a Catchphrase but will be kept here because that page is long.
Dr. Nick: (from the back of a crowd) Hi Mr. Gibson!
The Reduced Shakespeare Company Radio Show - "Yes, ladies and gentlemen, and that's because (name of famous actress) is not actually (name of famous actress), but our own Reed Martin, Professional Impressionist!"
Reed: Thank you. Thank you very much. Adam: I thought something was weird!