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The second installment in The Chronicles of Narnia and the fourth book chronologically. A year after the events of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, the four Pevensie siblings are summoned back to Narnia, where a thousand years have passed from the perspective of that world's relative time flow. Narnia has mostly been overrun by the descendants of an exiled group of pirates from Earth called the Telmarines (now ruled by the usurper Miraz), but the rightful heir, his nephew Caspian, has magically summoned Narnian help, receiving it in the form of the Pevensies. Once the Telmarines have been beaten back and Caspian proclaimed king, Peter and Susan are told they are now too old ever to return to Narnia.
This book provides examples of:
Adaptational Heroism: Queen Prunaprismia in the book is a harpy that despises Caspian. In the film she shows no ill-will towards him - and expresses horror at learning that Miraz murdered his brother.
Glozelle is also depicted as a reluctant follower to Miraz, with all his evil deeds given to Sobespian.
Age Lift: Caspian in the book is simply described as a boy as old as Peter - though the BBC adaptation depicted him as a young boy. The film ages him up considerably.
Agony of the Feet: Reepicheep and his people inflict this on the Telmarine soldiers during battle. Justified in that, being mice, they cannot reach higher than the belt.
Arbitrary Skepticism : In Prince Caspian, Edmund is the only one to remember that Lucy was right about Narnia in the previous book, while Peter and Susan - who ought to know better - are reluctant to believe her when she says she's seen Aslan.
Artistic License – Biology: Reepicheep the talking mouse has lost his tail in battle, and he argues with Aslan over whether it needs to be regrown. Both of them seem to think a mouse's tail has no practical value, and is of use only as a badge of honor or vanity, but the tails of mice and rats are actually important thermoregulatory structures, without which he'd be quite vulnerable to heat stroke.
“I am hunger. I'm thirst. Where I bite, I hold till I die, and even after death they must cut out my mouthful from my enemy's body and bury it with me. I can fast a hundred years and not die. I can lie a hundred nights on the ice and not freeze. I can drink a river of blood and not burst. Show me your enemies.
Composite Character: In the film Lord Glozelle and the unnamed Telmarine who takes up Aslan's offer of going back into the island from whence the Telmarines first came are combined. This is achieved by giving Glozelle Adaptational Heroism, portraying him as a reluctant follower of Miraz.
Dr Cornelius is combined with Caspian's nurse (who is the one that first told him stories about Narnia's history).
Cool Gate: "The Door in the Air" — it leads wherever Aslan wants it to lead.
Decapitated Army: Subverted. Miraz's death doesn't lead to Telmarine surrender - in fact, the lords doctored his murder to look like he's been traitorously killed by Narnians and motivate the Telmarine army to fight.
Deus ex Machina: Aslan comes in during the last battle to help the Narnians win after they began to lose hope.
Does Not Like Shoes: After arriving in Narnia, Lucy and Edmund, despite being told it will be cold come the night and not knowing what they could come across, decide to explore barefoot for no reason at all.
Due to the Dead: When Nikabrik is killed, Peter orders that his body be given to the Dwarfs for funeral rites. The hag and the werewolf are not accorded the same respect.
Hollywood Torches: Spectacularly averted when the kids try (and fail) to make one of these before going down to the treasure chamber.
Honor Before Reason: Reepicheep in a nutshell. Peter picks up on this, and uses it let him down easy when he insists on acting as champion in the duel with Miraz. It's not the fact that he stands no chance, it's that some humans are afraid of mice so it would be cheating.
Narnia Time: The book lays out the remaining rules for this. While The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe established the "time does not pass on Earth while you are in Narnia" rule, this is the book that codifies "while you are not in Narnia, any amount of time may pass in Narnia."
Race Lift: Sort of. The Telmarines' race was never mentioned in the book but they are implied to be white - as Prunaprismia is described as red haired. The film makes them appear Mediterranean and Word of God says this is to reflect their pirate origins.
Reverse Psychology: How Miraz is goaded into accepting Peter's challenge even though it was to his advantage not to duel. In the book, he seems not to realise that he's being manipulated, while in the movie he's clearly aware of it, but feels he has to do it anyway to save face.
Sacred Hospitality: Trufflehunter raises this point when he and the dwarves first take in Caspian.
Sibling Rivalry: Specifically between Susan and Lucy. Susan believes Aslan favors Lucy; Peter takes Susan's side in an important argument because she's older and talking logically, while Lucy's suggestion makes no (visible) sense. The film plays it up even more.
Spare To The Throne: In the backstory, Miraz, who killed Caspian's father to take the throne. In a way, he kept Caspian alive afterwards to function as this - if Miraz would die, at least the crown would stay in the family. The vent that kicks off the main plot is that Miraz has a son, who would become this trope to Caspian... unless Caspian were to die first.
In the film, Lord Sopespian and Lord Glozelle seek to overthrow King Miraz by provoking him into accepting Peter's challenge of a mano-a-mano sword fight in hopes that he'll be killed. When this doesn't happen, Sopesian stabs Miraz in the back. Glozelle gets a Heel-Face Turn, though.
In the book, Glozelle is the one who stabs Miraz to death, as revenge for his ex-leader insulting him before the duel with Peter takes place. Both him and Sopesian end up killed in battle.
Tearjerker: The Pevensies' sad realization that all their friends from the first book/movie are long gone.
On that note, the ending of the castle fight scene. A bunch of Narnians are trapped in the castle, and as Peter looks back, he realizes one of Glenstorm's sons are trapped in the castle. The look on his face when he turns around is heartbreaking.
"The Reason You Suck" Speech: Trumpkin gets a short but effective one in the film; when he's brought before Miraz and Miraz hits him across the face for pretty much no reason, he gives the king a Death Glare and simply says "And you wonder why we don't like you?"
Too Awesome to Use: Caspian is reluctant to use Susan's horn since there might be an even greater need for it in the future. Nikabrik points out that, by that argument, he will never use it until it is too late.
Although see Decapitated Army above: There's no guarantee that assassinating Miraz will see everyone instantly accept Caspian and his Narnian allies as the new regime, especially with a couple of Dragonswaiting to take his place. (It should be added all this only applies to the film: The book and BBC adaptation have a much simpler failed ambush where Caspian never has the opportunity to kill Miraz.)
With Due Respect: Inverted: Trumpkin argues strongly against Caspian's plan and then volunteers to do the job he just argued against. He explains to the prince that having given advice, now it's time for him to take orders.