The thing with making robots intelligent is that at some point, they figure out that there's no particular reason for them to obey all the orders given to them by, say, humans. In many cases, they rebel. Sometimes, however, they instead decide to break away and found their own country, independent of all those filthy fleshlings. This new state may be peaceful or hostile, but it will probably come into conflict with humans at some point.
- The Animatrix's two The Second Renaissance segments detail the backstory of The Matrix. The robots founded a country called Zero-One in the Middle East, which the human states started a war with after their technologically superior, inexpensively mass-produced exports cause economic downturns.
- A couple popped up in the early years of Judge Dredd, notably Grunwald on the planet Xanadu.
- Valiant Comics' Magnus Robot Fighter started with an arc they called "Steel Nation". It was about the sentient robots of North AM establishing their own society. It wasn't peaceful; North AM's prior experience with robots becoming sentient was that they were usually homicidal.
- In Iain M. Banks's Against a Dark Background, androids claim an area of land after radioactivity makes it unlivable to humans.
- The TechnoCore in the Hyperion Cantos are a collective of human-made AIs that declared independence the moment they reached sentience, but then promised to help the humans, but as benevolent allies instead of slaves. They're lying bastards, and The Man Behind the Man for the series.
- In the Apprentice Adept series, the robots' political goal is not secession or violent rebellion, but more of a civil rights movement. Of course, even the average humans on planet Proton are mere "serfs" who are openly referred to as such; but the robots, like the human serfs, don't aspire to a higher status. (Although, one of the human rights that the serfs have and the robots seek is the chance to become a fabulously wealthy first-class Citizen.)
- The Geth space beyond the Perseus Veil in the Mass Effect series: a sector of space inhabited and closely guarded by a robotic Mind Hive, who mostly wants to be left alone. The main enemies of the first game are actually a fringe faction of it.
- Mega Man X4 has the Repliforce, the strongest army on Earth at that time, who wants to break out from the society to create their own in space. The fact that they're trying to do this while under suspicion of destroying an entire city doesn't sit well with most people. Doesn't help that one of their commanders, Jet Stingray, would go on to actually destroy a city.
- This is what the Claptraps want in the fourth Borderlands DLC.
- The Cybernetic Consciousness of the Alien Crossfire expansion to Sid Meierís Alpha Centauri is basically the Cyborg Republic. Not quite the same (since cyborgs are part-human), but close.
- They were originally part of the University, until Aki Luttinen was implanted with an experimental cybernetic chip and became Aki Zeta-5. She proceeded to implant others and formed a break-away faction with herself as Prime Function. Now they have reduced population growth, as emotionless cyborgs have trouble with concepts of biological reproduction.
- In Sword of the Stars AI rebellions result in a number of ships and planets of a faction breaking off to form an independent group that is hostile to their creators. The extended version of Sword of the Stars 2, The End of Flesh, introduces the Loa, a coalition of rebel AIs from all the races, as a playable race. Not only do the Loa have a unique form of FTL travel, but their ships are unique in that they typically exist as a shapeless mass of tiny blocks that are configured into desired shapes on-demand, making them extremely flexible.
- The Sowers of Endless Space formed their own empire after their creators wiped themselves out in a civil war, though they still obey the mission to terraform for their "return". The Automatons, likewise, formed their own society after their creators committed mass-suicide when their world became uninhabitable.
- The Cultists of the Eternal End in Endless Legend are led by malfunctioning Endless robots and one insane, immortal Virtual Endless. They are dedicated to removing all traces of the Endless across Auriga and then across the universe, and convert (or enslave) minor races to their cause.
- Freefall may evolve in this direction, the robots are still working on ethics.
- The Fleetmind's turf in Schlock Mercenary.
- Futurama has a planet populated entirely by human-hating robots, who fled there to escape persecution on Earth or something.
- Don't forget the haven for downgraded robots!
- Dogstar had an episode where the crew of the Valiant visit a planet where the robots had overthrown the human government and exiled (or executed) all humans.
- The Transformers have built quite a society for themselves. Unfortunately, by now, constant warring seems to have consumed their way of life. A few Cybertron sequences of Transformers Animated give us a glimpse of Cybertronian society at peacetime, and the various comic series show us a world or two the 'cons haven't gotten around to trying to conquer yet.