Magic Knight Rayearth has an interesting subversion. Cephiro itself is certainly Medieval European Fantasy. But the three Magic Knights are summoned from Japan. And Autozam represents the United States of America, Chizeta represents India/Arabia, and Fahren represents China.
Ranger's Apprentice is a young adult/children's series with this setting. Occasionally the stories move beyond "Europe", however.
George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire is set in the fictional continent of Westeros which is based on medieval European culture. Its geography and history are also loosely based on England. Other locations have a variety of other influences.
The Cup Of The World by John Dickinson is set in a world that strongly resembles Medieval Europe, albeit one in which some sort of magic exists. It's also mentioned that the ancestors of most of the world's inhabitants arrived as settlers from an unidentified land to the North.
Jack Vance's Lyonesse trilogy is set on the mythical island of Hybras, off the coast of France, and shares a style and approximate era with many ahistorical Arthurian romances.
Belyanin's Jack the Mad King books are also set in this sort of setting, minus the Fish Out of Temporal Water scenario, but still full of anachronisms (like the protagonist and a giant using modern street slang, although that could be Translation Convention). Until the last story, though, when the characters head East to save a sultan's daughter.
A variation in Belyanin's Tsar Gorokh's Detective Agency series, where the setting involves a Fish Out of Temporal Water scenario, in which a modern-day Russian cop is transported to an idealized fantasy (almost fairy tale) version of Medieval Russia. There are still many aspects of the trope, but its more their Russian equivalents. For example, there are no brave knights in the books, but there are brave druzhinniki (the Tsar's guard), armed with sabers and Hand Cannons. While the Tsar is just and beloved by the people (it's the boyars, the aristocratic advisors, they don't trust), he can get a little hot-headed and is quick to punish when he's sure the guilty party has been found. The protagonist, being a fresh-out-of-police-academy rookie cop is insistent on following due process and finding enough evidence. Also, all supernatural is straight out of Russian fairy tales, with the Big Bad of the entire series being Koschei the Deathless, a prominent figure in those tales. There are some Western influences, though, such as zombies rising out of their graves.
The First Law trilogy is mostly this setting, though it would definitely be late medieval or even early Renaissance. Or at least the corruption and backstabbing politics of the Renaissance.
D&D actually subverts this trope big time. Only Greyhawk and northwestern Faerūn truly qualify. Maztica is Mayincatec, Kara-Tur is Far East, Rashemen/Thay is Darkest Africa, Zakhara is Qurac of Arabian Nights variety, Athas is based on Ancient Mesopotamia/Egypt, Ravenloft is Anachronism Stew with strong hints of 19th century, Dragonlance, despite its chivalric orders is vaguely pre-medieval, and the there is the Planescape multiverse...
Justified in GURPS Fantasy with the world of Yrth, where a massive magical backfire several centuries before the current date transported in large numbers of humans from medieval Europe, who then did their best to build themselves a new home that looked and worked more or less like what they came from. Simultaneously double subverted by the nation of Sahud — first, it was populated with medieval Asians, and second, they were mostly peasants from four or five different cultures, who tried to do the same as the Europeans but ended up with a society that looked less like any actual Asian nation of the period and more like The Mikado on acid, as written by Monty Python.
Most countries in 7th Sea, although the ruins of the ancient Syrneth civilization mix things up a bit.
Again, only Ussura is truly medieval. Other countries are well into mid-17th century Renaissance, with Age of Exploration and Thirty Years' War playing key roles in the world development.
Ars Magica even calls its setting 'Mythic Europe' and is set in historically correct settings with many folklore and religious fantasy thrown in for the good measure. In a nutshell, it is the actual medieval Europe with all fantastic beliefs made true.
King Arthur's Pendragon, as the name suggests, is based on Mallory's version of Arthurian England, mixing high-medieval setting with magic and Celtic paganism.
The Dark Eye has Aventuria, a rough equivalent of Europe with Mittelreich modeled after the Holy German Empire. Other countries and lands also fit the role of Fantasy Counterpart Culture.
Warhammer Fantasy Role Play has Old World that is late medieval/early Renaissance although Kislev and Bretonnia (at least from 2nd edition onwards) play this trope straight. High Elves and Dwarves also fit the feudal mindset pretty well.
1000 AD seems to be pretty schizoid, though, seeing as how they have refrigerators, stoves, apparently large-scale power plants that would be necessary to operate both, guns, mechanized warfare, and steam power (the ferry,) but there are no cars or paved roads, and Guardia's standing army has no firearms. On the other hand, Guardia is the sole world power in 1000 AD, so it's not like they need firearms.
Subverted in Breath of Fire III (To some extent) and especially in Breath of Fire V: Dragon Quarter, which, while not necessarily in the same "Canon" as the others, is set inside an underground sci-fi world made to escape the pollution on the surface. It's assumed by fans to take place long after Breath of Fire III.
Most of the Star Ocean games attempt to avert this by setting up a sci-fi universe, but fall right back into it by leaving you stuck on an 'undeveloped world' (which are mainly Medieval European Fantasy worlds) for most of the game.
The Warcraft series, at least as far as the human kingdoms are concerned. The third game and the MMORPG add a slew of other settings, such as the vaguely Asian nightelves, the Native American-ish Tauren, Caribbean Trolls, the Steampunk gnomes (and goblins), the Magitek-using draenei, vaguely Persian-ish Blood Elves, and the nordic vyrkul.
Not all the human kingdoms are medieval either, as Gilneas seems to be based on 19th-century London.
And now the addition of the Asian-themed pandaren (the trailer revealing them has a pandaren monk (in a conical hat, no less) using a bamboo staff to thoroughly beat the crap out of a human and an orc with kung fu), originally introduces as a joke.
The original Diablo has this in full force. Act One of the sequal takes place in the same medival region, but quickly departs it in favor of Qurac, Mayincatec, Hell, and the a scary snowy place in that order.
Mount & Blade, which tries to keep as close to a realistic medieval setting as is physically possible, has this trope as its entire point.
Dragon Age games and books take place in a Fantasy Counterpart Culture setting, where most countries/cultures having a prototype in our history. The nations of Ferelden and Orlais are based on Medieval England and France, respectively, right down to the accents. Antiva, though never shown, is described like Rennaissance Italy, although Antivans have a Spanish accent for some reason. Other parallels are less Clear. Interestingly, Dragon Age: Origins does not include any horses or mounted warriors, reducing the image of a knight a little. The novels, on the other hand, have them in spades. The Orlesians, for example, fight mostly using their heavy cavalry troops known as the chevaliers (French for "knights"), while the Fereldans prefer infantry, with a mix of magic and war dogs thrown in.
The sequel introduces the Free Marches, which are implied to be the equivalent of the Holy Roman Empire, except the Free Marches is just a name, with each city-state being, pretty much, on its own. Kirkwall, for example, doesn't even have a king but a viceroy. However, the city of Starkhaven does have a king and a royal family, but the King of Starkhaven rules only Starkhaven.
Phantasy Star III has a variant: it turns out that the entire medieval-style world the game takes place in is in reality an Arc-like spaceship that was fleeing the destruction of a very technologically advanced planet, and all the inhabitants are descendants of the ship's original population. After about 1,000 years and a lot of conflict, they lost their ancestors' technological advancements as well as the knowledge about the real nature of their world.
The The Elder Scrolls games prior to and after Oblivion subverted this in a few ways, in that most of the cultures save the Breton are based on various other cultures, such as the Middle Eastern/African influences on the Redguard, Native American on the Argonians and the Roman and Chinese Empires on Cyrodiil. Oblivion played this almost painstakingly straight however and Skyrim toys with it by being NorthernMedieval European Fantasy, but restores the cultural diversity on everyone else. There are also elements of Steampunk with the Dwemer ruins which appear in both games.
Medieval Mode in Team Fortress 2 and the cp_degrootkeep map, which surprisingly has modern-day computers hidden in the castle.
Heroes of Might and Magic has the Haven faction, which is your typical European castle with knights, archers, monks, etc. Until HoMM V, the Tower faction used to be a typical "ivory tower" city full of magical libraries and wizards. It has since been replaced with a more Middle Eastern-themed floating desert city and renamed Academy.
The Empire in Disciples is a typical example. There are knights, priests, inquisitors, mercenaries, peasants, Christian-themed angels.
Total Annihilation Kingdoms: the kingdom of Aramon takes the stereotypical theme of European Fantasy. It has knights, wizards, dragons, along with gunpowder cannons.
It's actually possible that Nodwick actually is set in medieval Europe, as a time-travel story from the author's other series, PS238, had the characters from that comic encountering Nodwick and party when they went back in time. Hilarity Ensues.