The First Law is a series of Low Fantasy novels and short-stories written by British writer Joe Abercrombie. The first three novels form a trilogy; the remaining stories are stand-alone (and some have their own pages). The novels are:
They are characterized by extreme grittiness, grim wit, being on the far cynical hand of the Sliding Scale of Idealism Versus Cynicism, and the intention to subvert and deconstruct a certain number of Fantasy tropes. The trilogy and its successive novels feature several point of view characters, but the main heroes(?) — er, protagonists — of the trilogy are warrior Logen Ninefingers, who's trying to find a new path in life; Inquisitor Sand dan Glokta, who's wondering why he does what he does; and soldier Jezal dan Luthar, whose life is one of much ease and little responsibility. Until things go to hell, at least.The series takes place in a fictional world that mimics several facets of ancient to classical Earth. The action, for the most part, takes place in or regards people from the central realm the Union. The Union is beset upon on all sides by savages and orc stand-ins from the North (not just a direction, but the name of the continent according to Union cartographers and Northmen both), the mighty Gurkhish Empire to the south, mercenary bands from the continent of Styria to the south-east, and the machinations of the crumbling magocratic Old Empire in the far west. The Union appears to be in a state of near-perpetual war, constantly maneuvered into seemingly useless conflicts by an uncompromisingly proud foreign policy.This is a world filled with bad people who do the right thing, good people who do the wrong thing, stupid people who do the stupid thing and, well, pretty much any combination of those. It's a world that's not merely filled with bad people; it actively makes the good and the decent ones worse. Survival is no lean feat, and at the end of the day, dumb luck might be more of an asset than any amount of planning, skill, or noble intention.Why would anyone want to take a jaunt through this hell-hole? Because it's damn fun, that's why.The first three books were followed in 2009 by Best Served Cold. It is set in Styria and follows mercenary Monza Murcatto's plan to exact vengeance on those who have betrayed her. It features and makes numerous references to characters and events of the trilogy that came before it.This world is one seriously fucked up place, and Best Served Coldtakes it all up to eleven.The next book, titled The Heroes, came out in January 2011. It tells the story of the war between Union and the North, or, more precisely, the decisive battle between the sides, which lasts several days. Like the one before, it also mentions and makes use of many previously established characters.The author continues writing stories set in this world: He has announced that he's signed a contract for 4 more stories, which at present he predicts will be a third stand-alone story followed by another trilogy, though he notes he might change his mind. some sort of fantasy western The first of these contracted books was released in November 2012, titled Red Country. (For some unknown reason, the UK edition was announced as A Red Country, but the "A" doesn't seem to have materialized.) In addition, none of the following novels will feature the same cast (at least not in main character roles note Though Red Country is an exception as one major character is none other than the very-much alive Logen Ninefingers.) and each story is set several years after the last, so the next trilogy may be more than a decade ahead of The First Law trilogy.
Actually That's My Assistant: When Logen goes to meet Bayaz for the first time, he thinks that a scholarly-looking elderly librarian (one of Bayaz's servants) is Bayaz, and takes Bayaz (dressed as/working as a butcher) for one of Bayaz's servants.
Adipose Rex: King Guslav V is this trope taken Up to Eleven. He is so fat he has to be carried everywhere, and seems nothing more than a figurehead - indeed, he is portrayed as having a hard time thinking about politics (or anything much) at all.
Armor Is Useless: "Armour... is part of a state of mind... in which you admit the possibility... of being hit."
That said, most characters that see combat use at least some armor, and many use shields. Armor in this series is overcome via crossbows, maces, and the occasional BFS, as well as stabbing through joints. Not because it's made of paper-mâché.
In real life, these real world techniques only worked because either the one using it was also in armor, or the armored foe had already been disabled enough to level the coup de grace. Also, much was made about armor being heavy, but armor at the height of its development was light enough to do cartwheels in. It was certainly lighter than the gear today's Navy Seals would carry. Full body armor only became heavy in response to firearms, and then quickly abandoned.
Not all the Named Men; Just his friends — Harding Grim, The Dogman, Tul Duru "The Thunderhead", Rudd Threetrees and of course, Black Dow.
Best Served Cold features Shivers, Monza and Friendly.
The Heroes, being pretty much a war novel, has a lot of them, but special attention must be paid to Bremer dan Gorst, who routinely faces exceeding odds and comes alive out of this, and Whirrun of Bligh a.k.a. "Cracknut" Whirrun, the only swordsman that Gorst acknowledges as his equal.
Barbarian Tribe: Mostly the Shanka, but quite often the Gurkish and the Northmen also, when they aren't on a Last Stand. Stranger-Come-Knocking Bragger-Come-Boasting and his boys from beyond the Crinna.
Deconstructed with Glokta; he was the military's golden boy until he was captured and viciously tortured. His choice to turn to torturing as his own profession isn't motivated by evil, but by pragmatism; he's badly crippled and unable to make use of any of his Master Swordsman skills, but his experiences give him an excellent first-hand knowledge of how to break people. Torturing for the Inquisition is the only way he has to make a living.
In Best Served Cold, Shivers is a straight example, although more realistic than most. He tries to be a good man, but circumstances drive him to increasingly amoral action. In the end, though, his mutilation at the hands of his torturers leads him to snap much harder than he would have otherwise. He loses pretty much all his compassion for the rest of humanity, thanks in part to a side order of Then Let Me Be Evil, and becomes one of the most terrifying characters in the series.
The Berserker: Logen's alternate personality of the Bloody-Nine, and how.
Best Served Cold ends on a somewhat higher note, which is surprising, considering the even darker tone of the book.
"Red Country" ends with Pit and Ro safe with Shy and Temple, but Lamb/Logen leaves after realizing he can't escape his past. Still the happiest ending of a story, so far.
Bizarrchitecture: The Maker's Tower. For starters, they reach the top without actually climbing stairs. Glokta is the first to realize this, and is not grateful that the stairs weren't there, because it was a Mind Screw.
Black and Gray Morality: Pushed to the point where you wonder at the end whether the protagonists were really the least evil, or if, perhaps, they weren't actually even worse than their antagonist.
Blood Knight: Ferro. Bremen dan Gorst becomes a more subdued example in The Heroes.
Bolivian Army Ending: For Logen Ninefingers. It's (probably deliberately) unclear whether he survives, although it's worth noting that he survived an almost identical fall at the start of the first novel.
It's worth noting that Logen was originally a character the author wrote about years before he started this story; The First Law began as kind of a Retcon retelling of his misadventures. Basically, he's the main character and this world was built around him, so if you're going to bet on it, he's probably still alive.
Played with in The Heroes: his death is kept deliberately unconfirmed, and Dogman uses this to scare the enemy shitless before attacking. His death is still unconfirmed.
Averted in 'Red Country': Logen's alive, and kicking, having married a woman in the Near Country.
Book Ends: The Blade Itself begins with Logen falling in a river from a great height and the chapter is called The End. The last chapter of Last Argument of Kings is called The Beginning and ends exactly in the same way.
Best Served Cold begins and ends with a sentence describing "a sunrise the color of bad blood".
Let's just say a lot of individual POVs in different books end this way. Definitely one of the favorite tropes of the author.
Chekhov's Gunman: The East Wind (Ishri) is first mentioned in The Blade Itself as one of Khalul's more dangerous disciples, but she doesn't make an appearance until Best Served Cold and is much more integral in The Heroes as some sort of pyrotechnics and weather sorceress.
Debatable, since he was just doing his job and constantly asks himself 'Why do I do this?'. He gets one mention that qualifies for this trope at the end of the trilogy, where he answers that question.
Played straighter in Best Served Cold, with Shivers' torturers.
Cannot Spit It Out: Gorst has been in love with Finree for years, yet could never muster the courage to confess. And when he does, he mentions it so off-handedly that it's not clear if she even noticed, caught in her What the Hell, Hero? rhetoric.
Logen: "You have to be realistic about these things", "Say one thing for Logen Ninefingers, say he's X", "You can never have too many knives" "I'm still alive", "Shit.".
Glokta: Body found floating by the docks..., "Why do I do this?", "Click, tap, pain", any mention of his teeth.
Ferro: "Fucking pinks!", "Ssss!"
The Dogman: By the dead, he needed to piss, like always.
Harding Grim: "Uh"
Curnden Craw: It was the right thing to do.
Character Development: Lots for Jezal dan Luthar, constantly steering him from one direction to another. Deliberately averted for most other characters - inability to escape your old life is one of the major themes of the books. Although, later books suggest that the strain of being the ineffectual puppet of Bayez and Glokta have pushed him back to his old life.
Monza during her revenge.
Calder after he loses his father and position.
Shivers starts out trying to do the right thing and gradually gives up over the course of Best Served Cold. Losing his eye is the breaking point. By The Heroes, he merits consideration as a candidate for the cruelest character in the series. That's no small achievement. But even after that, he's still not pure evil, evidenced by the finale of the Red Country.
Temple in Red Country manages to overcome his cowardice and avoid the fate Cosca has in mind for him, finally settling down with Shy in a small town and running a shop, having left the mercenaries behind.
Chekhov's Gun: Red Country mentions a few times that Iasiv has yet to make his finest performance, which he finally makes by the end. Also, the Mayor's contract with the Empire that Temple writes.
Church Militant: The Gurkish Temple, while many civilizations of the world have God, only the Gurkish Temple is headed by a crazy cannibal wizard who thinks that he is God's Right Hand to purify the unbelievers through fire and steel.
Continuity Nod: "Oh hey! It's that guy from the trilogy!" Happens numerous times. The dialogue in the stand-alone books also makes plenty of allusions to prior events.
Covers Always Lie: The setting of Best Served Cold—obviously modeled after Italy and Spain—as well as the style of the dueling make very clear that Monza's sword is made for fencing, not to mention it being described as thin at one point. Despite this the American hardcover shows Monza with not one but two arming swords, and the mass-market paperback has a snake curling itself around a greatsword of all things! As if that weren't bad enough the UK edition—which came out first—very clearly has a rapier on it. Why?
Crapsack World: Not just a shitty place to live, but a place that actively makes decent people shittier.
Downer Ending: Logen is left friendless, alone, and driven to jumping out a window, trading certain death for likely death. Glokta has given up on any hope that he might redeem himself and set to torturing for a malevolent master once again. Jezal lives beaten, disillusioned, and resigned to being a puppet at best, knowing that the man he hates most has married the only woman he ever loved. Ferro has abandoned all reason and gone off on her own to murder Khalul. Longfoot is maimed, and Bayaz has achieved his goal at the cost of immeasurable pain to those around him. Oh, and peace between The Union and Gurkhul is prevented because it would hamper Bayaz's desire to wage war against Khalul, dooming any chance of peace in the future as well. How's that for cheerful?
The worst part? They all (besides Bayaz, Manipulative Bastard that he is) got exactly what they deserved. A common theme in the trilogy.
Also, Shivers' fate in Best Served Cold, although most other characters fare better. Or at least those left alive.
Dual Wielding: Jezal dan Luthar and other men of class use a form of swordplay somewhere between the style of the European parrying dagger and Musashi's katana/wakizashi combination, with one vaguely described "long steel" and one "short steel."
Duel to the Death: A popular custom in the North. All the Named Men who follow Logen do so because they lost one to him, and he chose to spare them.
Quite a few throughout Best Served Cold, and not all with Monza.
The Heroes has a hilariously one sided bout between Black Dow and Calder.
Red Country has one between Glama Golden and Lamb/Logen.
Eccentric Mentor: Subverted, with a vengeance — Bayaz at first seems like your average grumpy wizard mentor. Quickly you suspect he's a much darker figure than that, but the full extent of his chessmastery is only revealed at the end, when you realize the number of people he betrayed while pinning the blame on someone else. In fact, he is as much a Big Bad as Khalul is, more so in fact since for all the lines he has crossed Khalul's primary motivation is simply to bring Bayaz to justice for his murderous treachery.
Eldritch Location: The House of the Maker, then the Dead Lands surrounding the ruins of Alcus.
Evil Albino: Played with in the case of Practical Frost, a large and passive man who just follows Glokta's orders. Played straight with him again when he betrays Glokta for no real reason.
Evil Is Deathly Cold: The female Eater Glokta encounters (later revealed to be Tolomei) leaves him with this impression. Given that she has literally made a Deal with the Devil and implies she has actually been to Hell, this might not be just metaphorical, either.
Evil Sounds Raspy: Justified with Shivers. In Best Served Cold, he's captured and tortured, causing him to damage his vocal chords screaming and to make a Face-Heel Turn. So his voice and his evil both have the same cause.
"So the Union I based around a kind of Holy Roman Empire (largely Germanic) with some banking and commerce from medieval Flanders and a political system closer to the Venetian Republic. That produced names like Sult, Marovia, Valint and Balk, Bremer dan Gorst. Gurkhul was more like an Ottoman Empire that had absorbed a whole range of Middle-Eastern and African cultures, producing names like Uthman-ul-Dosht, Khalul, Mamun, and Ferro Malacus Quai. With the North I went for something slightly different, a kind of Viking or Scots culture, but with a northern English tilt to the language, and in which the men were given names when they reached manhood related to some deed they’d done or the place they’d done it — things like Rudd Threetrees, Caul Shivers, Forley the Weakest, and Black Dow."
Styria is very similar to Early Modern Italy with a dash of Eastern Europe thrown in. Though they're never really expounded on, the throwaway references to Suljuk and Thond seem to evoke the Far East, although further throwaway comments seem to imply that the Thondese are white.
Red Country gives us The Ghosts/The Folk, who, appropriate to the Medieval Fantasy meets Wild West setting, are sort of Native Americans that look like Celts (pale skin, reddish hair, blue warpaint). They cut off ears instead of scalps.
Fantastic Drug: Aside from alcohol, there seem to be two main vices in Abercrombie's world: husk, which appears to be an expy of opium, and chagga, a weed smoked by the Northerners and frequently chewed by Cosca's motley band of mercenaries, which seems to combine elements of both marijuana and tobacco.
Fantasy Gun Control: On the cusp of aversion. The Gurkish enthusiasm for gunpowder is apparently contagious, and Bayaz oversees the testing of primitive cannons in The Heroes. A more advanced one is successfully field-tested in Red Country.
Fantastic Nuke: The Seed in Book 3, down to a mysterious illness very similar to radiation poisoning.
Partially played straight in Best Served Cold, the opening of each section of the book has a map of the locale in Styria that the characters are currently occupying. When pieced together, a coherent map of the continent emerges.
Justified in Best Served Cold, because the main characters go through about eight different cities, and without a map it would quickly become confusing to the reader.
And in The Heroes we actually get annotated maps of the ebb and flow of battle throughout the book.
Fiery Redhead: Vitari in the original books. Shy South from Red Country.
Foreshadowing: In Best Served Cold, Shivers and another Northman reenact the battle between Logen and Fenris the Feared, a giant. In The Heroes, Shivers gets Logen's sword and kills Black Dow with it—and another giant, Stranger-Come-Knocking, has been introduced...
In The Blade Itself, Jezal spends a long time admiring himself in the mirror, particularly his chin, which he is especially proud of. One book later, he gets his jaw broken in his first real battle, and spends the rest of the series with a crooked chin and an obvious, though not disfiguring, scar.
Happily Married: Subverted like crazy with Cas and Vitari in "Best Served Cold". Played straight with Calder and Seff in "The Heroes", though.
Heroes Prefer Swords: Logen begins the book with an axe, but while he claims to be equally proficient with all weapons he never lets go of the Maker's sword once he acquires it, and chooses it himself from a very wide selection of weapons. Jezal is a trained duelist and carries two, and Ferro loves her sword almost as much as her bow. The Dogman also picks one up when shooting isn't an option. Of all the trilogy's protagonists, the only one who doesn't use one is Glokta and even he was a masterful duelist and successful cavalry officer in his youth.
Hell, even Glokta has a Sword Cane. Sure, it's only used once, but...
Continued in Best Served Cold, with Monza favoring her Calvez and Shivers still favoring his axe but occasionally picking up a sword as situations demand.
And again in The Heroes. Shivers inherits the Maker's sword. Craw, Gorst, and Beck never touch another weapon. Whirrun of Bligh is a genuine Hero and has a Cool Sword to go with his name.
Heroic Sacrifice: Deliciously subverted with Cosca's apparent death in Visserine. He is found by the invading soldiers, mistaken for a friendly casualty because of the uniform he stole and wore to infiltrate, and nursed back to health. He then proceeds to reclaim leadership of the Thousand Swords, right from under Monza's nose.
General Jallenhorm quite intentionally, to avoid further responsibilities in The Heroes.
Actually, he wanted redemption for his previous failures, not because he was afraid of responsibility.
Husband And Kids Up North: Wonderful's family comes up several times in conversation with her crew. Some of them ask he when she'll go back to them, and she laughs them off. Towards the end of the book, she admits she had returned to her farm for a visit several years ago. The entire valley they lived in was abandoned; she has no idea what happened to them.
Honorable Marriage Proposal: Glokta to Ardee in the last book. Once Jezal is king, it wouldn't be safe for her to have his child unless she was married to someone else. Given the nature of the world concerned, the "honorable" is only partly there, but it is the only way he can save her life.
The Igor: Glokta's practicals (assistant torturers) Severard and Frost, are portrayed this way.
I'm a Humanitarian: The Second Law is about eating the flesh of people, and the Eaters have broken it. Grants superhuman abilities, including differing levels of increased speed and strength. Aside from the speed and strength, some are given unique abilities like taking on the form of the eaten or use of High Art.
Jerk Ass: A ridiculously high percentage of the characters.
Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Arguably Black Dow. He may be a dick, but he comes through for his companions when he's needed, and he can make some very heartfelt speeches when no one else will. He was also the only one brave enough to demand that the Bloody Nine answer for the slaying of Tul Duru and Crummock's child, as well as getting the North into a war it hadn't wanted.
Karma Houdini: Characters that at first seem like a monster end up being quite sympathetic by the end of the novels, whereas one or two that appeared good are revealed to be acting on very sinister motives.
Kick the Dog: Our heroes, Logen and Glokta, are determined to do this at least once every chapter. West as well, when he smacks Ardee around. Bayaz, at the series' end.
The Kingdom: Subverted, as Midderland isn't a very nice place to live.
Not quite, since Bayaz at least seems to consider the Maker's work as sufficiently advanced science; magic is explicitly power drawn from The Other Side, and the Maker's work is explicitly not from The Other Side. And Mammun states that the magic is going away even if he and his fellow Eater's are not affected by it (yet). And given how Ax-CrazyMammun is, he could be an unreliable source, either outright lying or too insane to notice his slowly fading power. But even if they are the exception, the trope is still otherwise in effect.
Magic Versus Science: A war not particularly desired by anyone whose torch is nonetheless carried valiantly by Morveer. And even then, the lines are blurry. As the magic is supposedly leaking from the world, Bayaz seems to have no problem turning to science. If it can help him crush his enemies, he's all for it.
Bayaz has a few in the Northmen's camp in The Heroes.
Meaningful Name: Practical Frost is as white as snow and as cold as a blizzard.
Names to Run Away From Really Fast: In the North, Named Men are people badass enough to earn one of these, like Shama Heartless, the Bloody-Nine, or Tul Duru the Thunderhead. Black Dow is this trope, to the point that he names Collem West with probably the coolest one in the series - Furious.
Subverted with Caul Shivers, who got his name when he fell in a river on a raid, and Curnden Craw, who choked on food. Also subverted with Forley the Weakest, so named because he was sent as a champion to a combat his clan wanted to lose.
Nice Job Breaking It, Hero: When confronted with the plan of the conspiracy to sell Dagoska to the Ghurkish, even Glokta agrees that it would have been a better outcome for almost everyone involved, at the very least saving thousands of lives.
Nostalgia Filter: A lot of Northmen like to imagine that everything was glorious before Bethod set out to make himself king. Only a few characters point out that the "good old days" were even more pointlessly bloody than the present.
Only Sane Man: West, during the Angland campaign. Subverted when he snaps, bites a man's nose off in a berserker rage, and then calmly murders the Crown Prince.
Our Vampires Are Different: Eaters don't just drink blood, but must consume human flesh. In return, they gain a varying assortment of supernatural powers, including superhuman strength, immunity to pain, a potent Healing Factor, command of powerful magicks, shapeshifting, eternal youth, or any of a myriad other powers. As Shickle says, the boons granted by Eating vary by the individual. The one thing that all Eaters share, however, is their curse—they can never stop Eating.
Outgrown Such Silly Superstitions: Most of the Union and parts of Styria take this stance towards deities. Euz and his sons used to be worshiped in Midderland, but are currently seen as mere ancient heroes.
Pet the Dog: Glokta, Ferro, Logen, and even Severard get some.
Black Dow, of all people, gets a couple. Usually at someone's funeral.
That last one's particularly egregious, considering what the UNBELIEVABLE BASTARD in question has done. he was going to be a potter once...
The Rainman: Friendly in Best Served Cold and Red Country. There were 24 letters in that sentence.
Red Right Hand: Yoru Sulfur has mismatched eyes, one blue, one green. It's mentioned every time he appears. It's the only thing he keeps when he changes form.
Reliable Traitor: Cosca's been on more or less every possible side of every conflict in Styria. Simultaneously, in some cases.
Hell, his status as a turncoat is so great that he has basically been on both sides of major conflicts in almost every single region of the world. In Last Argument of Kings, he has a literal turncoat for changing colors mid-venture.
Replicant Snatching: Yoru Sulfur most notably impersonating High Justice Marovia and The Tanner.
Scars Are Forever: Abercrombie seems to like scars on his characters. It appears to be one of the running features of his main cast to have some physical peculiarity or visible injury about them. If they don't, they soon gain it in one way or another, for example Jezal, who was hit in the face with a club mace and from Best Served Cold, Monza, who got thrown down a mountain after being stabbed several times.
Screw the Rules, I Have Money!: The Banking House of Valint and Balk. It's the primary means through which Bayaz maintains his influence over the world and its inhabitants.
Monza is a famously skilled duelist who lost the use of her dominant hand and had to learn again with her left, who was engaged in an incestuous relationship with her twin sibling of the opposite sex, and who became a better person after being separated from that sibling.
Shivers is a grim mercenary who hates his brother and who suffered horrible burns down one side of his face, which only served to sour his mood and which give him an even grimmer reputation—and who, after being set up as Black Dow's man, is referred to as his "dog."
At one point, Glotka removes the nipples of a man he's torturing, noting that men don't need them, a reference to a similar scene with the Unsullied.
Glotka himself is a brilliant, amoral, bitter crippled man with chronic leg pain and a team of subordinates who solves mysteries, much like House.
Bayaz could arguably be considered a more dickish version of The Lord of the Rings's Gandalf. Except he's not just a jerk, he's actively evil.
Tautological Templar: Bayaz, who believes civilization cannot function without his guidance, even if he has to massacre a few thousand people every now and then.
Then Let Me Be Evil: A big part of Shivers' decision to join Monza, and his later Face-Heel Turn; upstanding morals don't go down well in Styria, especially not when the guy with the morals is a Northman.
Token Evil Teammate: Black Dow. Sure, he looks after his companions and respects the "good" ones of the lot. At the same time, he's a horrible, murderous bastard and everyone knows it. His loyalties are about the only thing holding him in check... and even that doesn't always work. And then he goes and uses his time as regent to form and consolidate a power base, (probably) more or less murders Logen, plunges the North into another civil war, and seems dead-set on being an even worse ruler than Bethod ever was.
Torture Always Works: Even though he doesn't always necessarily want the confessions his victims give him to be truthful, Glokta always knows when he's being lied to.
Torture is played pretty much the same way no matter who is doing the torturing. It is either used to confirm/clarify previously gathered information or to pull a false confession to advance the torturer's masters' goals.
Somewhat overlapping with My Grandson Myself, Bayaz claims apparently truthfully that following his disappearance centuries before, he continued to advise monarchs and that famous bad advisers of great leaders were also him. Of particular note, he was also Arch Lector Zoller, the notoriously harsh founder of the Inquisition. He's also both Valint and Balk.
The horribly burned convict Pike befriended by West turns out to be Salem Rews, last seen sent to a penal colony in the North by Glotka; Rews had an accident in the forge on his first day. This is revealed in a case of No Doubt The Years Have Changed Me a the very end of the trilogy.
Toward the end of the trilogy, a peasant revolt starts lead by a man calling himself The Tanner. He is transparently Yoru Sulfur, and this is an early hint at his shapeshifter abilities. It is later revealed that the revolt was set up with a fake leader by Bayaz so that it could be easily suppressed and Jezal could be made to look like a populist hero.
Lamb and The Mayor in Red Country are clearly Logen Ninefingers and Carlot dan Eider.
Unreliable Narrator: In Best Served Cold Morveer often thinks about his mother death and how it has traumatized him and we sort of sympathize with him as he recalls how he was bullied in the orphanage. That is, until we find out that he actually poisoned his mother, as well as literally every person he ever had more than a passing acquaintance with.