North Is Cold, South Is Hot
It seems quite common in fantasy worlds to have an arctic or temperate climate in the northern hemisphere, and a tropical climate in the southern hemisphere, i.e., a cold north and a hot south. In reality, it doesn't quite works this way. You have a cold north... and a cold south. The only "hot" part is in the middle. This representation probably comes from the fact that 90% of of the world's population lives in the Northern Hemisphere, where that trope seems true. This is Older Than Dirt: Aristotle knew the world was round, and assumed that the south pole was just as cold as the north pole, but he believed the lands near the equator were so hot that they were impassable. To be fair, his reference for "lands near the equator" was the Sahara Desert. See also: Fantasy World Map, Patchwork Map.
Played completely straight, the northern hemisphere is cold, the southern hemisphere is hot
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- The Year Without a Santa Claus has Snow Miser in charge of the North and Heat Miser the South. Much of the story revolves around reconciling the two so that they can allow a Southern town to have snow for Christmas. Essentially, the Southern Hemisphere is ignored.
- Ur-Example is probably Norse Mythology. From The Other Wiki: "In the beginning, there were two regions: Muspellsheimr in the south, full of fire, light and heat; and Niflheimr in the north, full of arctic waters, mists, and cold." Between these two was Ginnungagap, into which the world was brought into existence.
- Exalted does play it straight, but the world isn't a planet — all of existence is bordered by the four Elemental Poles, which separate it from the Primordial Chaos. The Pole of Fire is in the south, and Air, which also covers coldness, in the north.
- Averted with Numenera. The region of Matheunis, known inworld as the Cold Desert, is at the southernmost point of the map, and things like the Caecilian Jungle are located closer to the northern edge.
- Played straight in World of Warcraft: in the south, you will find Tanaris, Stranglethorn Vale and the Swamp of Sorrows. In the north, you have Northrend
- The world map of Final Fantasy II has a vast snowfield stretching on the northern hemisphere and two deserts and a tropical island on the southern hemisphere.
- Played straight in Nox, where you start off in the south and move upwards on the map until you reach the villainess' lair in the Grim Up North.
- Seiken Densetsu 3 not only has this, but due to the Law of Cartographical Elegance's looping property, the "hot" and "cold" places aren't even very far from each other.
Played straight, but the map does not show the whole world, so the worldsetting may, in fact, have a cold north and cold south.
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- In Dragon Bones, the protagonist lives in Shavig, which is in the north, and has very cold winters. Towards the south, the climate becomes more temperate. It seems that the map only shows the northern part of the world, (the equivalent of Europe), so there could be a North Pole, and a South Pole somewhere.
- In The Lord of the Rings, The southernmost land that plays a major role in the story, Haradwaith, is a hot desert, and the wastes at the northern edge of the map are the coolest.
- The parts of Middle Earth that we see are explicitly modelled on Europe - the people (called "Southrons") who come from further south are clearly African, while those from the east ("Easterlings") are middle-eastern with some Indian influence. So it's clearly implied that the world is similar to the real world, the protagonists just don't see or know much about most of it.
- In The Chronicles of Narnia, temperate Narnia is north, and desert Calormen is south. Then the map stops, with no equator getting involved.
- In Inheritance Cycle, the southern kingdom of Surda is hot with dark-skinned inhabitants, while the north, if not cold, is more temperate. The rest of the world, however, stays unexplored.
- In A Song of Ice and Fire, the south is warmer than the north. In the continent of Westeros, the North is freezing, while the southernmost kingdom, Dorne, is Mediterranean. The southernmost continent is described as jungly, though the known world does not extend far from its northern coast.
- Jennifer Roberson's Tiger and Del series primarily focuses on the desert south (Tiger's homeland) and the frozen north (Del's homeland), but this seems to be a single continent rather than the whole world.
- Seal Clubbers from Kingdom of Loathing are barbarians who "hail from the frigid Northlands, because one character class always hails from the frigid Northlands" and who can summon seals so they can club them. The southwest is a desert area (particularly South of the Border), but the southeast is not discernibly tropical.
- Played straight in The Elder Scrolls series: The northern regions of Tamriel are snowy mountain ridges, while the southern coasts are tropical jungles and marshes. However, Tamriel is just one continent, and there are noted to be several more.
- It's also worth noting that it's not black and white - for instance, Skyrim and Morrowind are both on the same latitude, but while Skyrim is comprised mostly of tundra, Morrowind has a more temperate and varied climate, presumably due to mountains along the border blocking cold winds.
- The land of Calradia in Mount & Blade is quite distinctly this, specifically in Warband. The map is freely rotated and is oriented with the Slavic Vaegirs in the north and the Persian-like Sarranids in the south, in tundra and desert environments respectively. However, this is only part of the world; the expanses of open space the map edges suggest that the tundra and desert go on for effectively forever.
Inversions, aversions, etc...
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- Parodied in One Piece: Monkey D. Luffy seems to literally believe this, as which direction feels warmest/coldest is how he determines north and south. This despite the latitude having no apparent relation to the temperature in the mostly island-based world he lives in (particularly in the Grand Line, where the climate of individual islands seems completely random).
- Inverted in Maoyuu Maou Yuusha, where the far south of the human world is depicted as a freezing polar region, and although the far north could be assumed to be a polar region as well, the northern-most lands depicted in the series seem to be primarily hot and arid.
- Averted in Dragonlance, where the bulk of the stories take place in a Southern Hemisphere continent.
- Averted in The Stormlight Archive, where the map indicates that the continent the story takes place on is in the southern hemisphere.
- Averted in the The Curse of Chalion and its sequels; the titular medieval-Iberia analogue is somewhere in the southern hemisphere; the Roknari, whose role in history parallels the Arabs, come from a desert archipelago to the north.
- Averted in The Bitterbynde Chronicle, where the archipelago of Erith is set in a southern hemisphere. To the north the seas are bound by a "Ring of Storms" that is seemingly impassable.
- Inverted in Book of the New Sun where south is frequently described as frigid.
- Averted in The Black Magician Trilogy and associated books - Kyralia, the main setting of the series, is clearly in the southern hemisphere of its world: it's temperate in climate, while the countries to the north are hotter and more arid. It may be relevant that the author is Australian.
- Averted in Mistborn where the Last Empire is generally temperate (despite some inhospitable elements) but it's later revealed that the Last Empire is actually near the north pole and had been moved there when the Lord Ruler screwed up the climate of the planet by moving the planet's orbit closer.
- Averted in the Forgotten Realms setting as a whole, which takes place on the planet Toril. This trope is true of Faerūn, the continent 90% of the material is set in, which goes from the Great Glacier in the far north to downright tropical areas in the south. However Faerūn is explicitly just one continent of many (equivalent to Europe, western Asia, and the northern half of Africa in terms of Earth's geography, which is similar). Whether the other continents play it straight depends on their location on Toril: Kara-Tur, east of Faerūn, plays it straight, while Zakhara to the south inverts it, and Maztica (effectively the Americas) goes from cold to hot to cold.
- Averted in Warhammer, which, as with Lord of the Rings, is heavily based on real world Europe. The Chaos Wastes to the north are cold and populated by over-the-top Vikings, while the south has deserts that were home to an ancient civilisation with a bit of a mummy obsession. It's clearly indicated that there is more world beyond this, it's just that travelling there is too dangerous for much information to reach the Old World.
- Inverted in Dragon Age: Origins and Dragon Age II, which both take place in the southern hemisphere of Thedas. The fact that "frozen wastes" are located on the southern edge of the map has reportedly confused many a fantasy fan, though.
- Averted in Civilization IV, the player can choose how the map is arranged and what temperatures go in which direction.
- Dwarf Fortress works on the same system as Civilization IV, expect it is randomly chosen. With full maps though, there will be two cold poles and a hot equator.
- Weyard, the setting of Golden Sun, has icy areas in the far north and south.
- Inverted in Illusion of Gaia, where the climate is quite pleasant in the south and gets hotter in the north. And is hottest of all in the northwest...
- Inverted in Epic Battle Fantasy 4, where the desert area is in the north of the world map and the snowy area is in the south.
- Pillars of Eternity is stated to be set in the Eastern Reach, a temperate region of Eora's southern hemisphere. Your boreal dwarf teammate Sagani is from the far southern island of Naasitaq in the icy Deadfire Archipelago, and you can choose a region even further south called the White that Wends (basically Space Antarctica) as region of origin for custom characters. So far there's no mention of a corresponding ice cap on the north pole.
- Averted in Tales of Phantasia, where ice continents can be found on both hemispheres. The southern hemisphere also contains a desert continent.
- All the civilizations in Mark Rosenfelder's Constructed World of Almea are located on Almea's southern hemisphere; thus, the south is cold and the north is hot, with explorers having reached the tropics.
- Averted in Avatar: The Last Airbender, there is a north pole and a south pole, and they're both cold. In fact, most of the first season is spent traveling from the south pole to the north. The Fire Nation is the hottest because most of it is near the equator, and consists mostly of active volcanic islands.
- Conditions on the other worlds of The Solar System result in some interesting situations:
- Both Uranus and Pluto have unusually large axial tilts (98 and 120 degrees, respectively), so the trope is averted when the planet's north pole is pointed toward from the Sun, and played straight when it's pointed away from it.
- The atmosphere of Venus is thick enough to efficiently distribute heat across the entire planet. There is a 20-30 degree Centigrade difference between the polar and equatorial surface temperatures, but that's in the context of a 460 degree Centigrade average surface temperature (and an 80 degree difference between the median altitude and the planet's highest point on Maxwell Montes).
- Due to its eccentric orbit and slow rotation, Mercury has two "cold poles" (which always face the Sun when it's at its maximum distance) and two "hot poles" (which always face the Sun directly at its minimum distance) at 90 degree increments on the equator. In these cases, both "East is Cold, West is Hot" and vice versa can be true depending on where you're at.