Or close the wall up with our English dead.
Follow your spirit, and upon this charge,
Cry 'God for Harry, England, and Saint George!'"
Henry V (or to give its full original title, The Chronicle Historie of Henry the fift: with his battel fought at Agin Court in France. Togither with Auncient Pistoll.) is a play by William Shakespeare, in which Henry V (the former Prince Hal from Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2) goes and beats the French. Then marries one of them.
Expect that speech to be quoted by someone when England has a major sporting match. Well, one of two:
- There's "Once More Unto the Breach" (III.i), as quoted at the top of the page, in which Henry encourages his troops to make one more great effort to overwhelm the defences of Harfleur.
- Then there's "Saint Crispin's Day" (IV.iii), Henry's big speech before the climactic Battle of Agincourt, at which he draws a Line in the Sand and calls his soldiers a Band of Brothers.
Expect varying interpretations when this play is performed — it's debated whether it's pro- or anti-war...or a character study.
Henry V has been adapted twice in film: the first in 1944 by Laurence Olivier, the second in 1989 by Kenneth Branagh (featuring BRIAN BLESSED, Emma Thompson as Katherine, and a very very young Christian Bale as Falstaff's page). There are several television versions, including a 1979 presentation that was part of BBC Television Shakespeare which was directed by David Giles, and starred David Gwillim as Henry. There is also the 1989 television version with Michael Pennington (known to Star Wars fans as Moff Jerjerrod in Return of the Jedi) as Henry, which is part of a live taping of War Of The Roses, a series of plays by the English Shakespeare Company, directed by Michael Bogdanov. And more recently, there is also the 2012 BBC version with Tom Hiddleston as Henry as part of The Hollow Crown series.
The plot structure is the template for just about every war movie ever made.
The play contains examples of:
- Adaptational Attractiveness: The real life Henry V had a disfiguring scar on his face, gained at the Battle of Shrewsbury, which is why Real Life portraits of him are in profile. It's only mentioned in the text when Henry is wooing Katherine, and actors playing Henry are usually moderately attractive. Justified as Beauty Equals Goodness. Compare to Richard III's Evil Makes You Ugly. (David Gwillim in the 1979 television version was one of the few actors to include the scar in his make-up.)
- Adorkable: Harry, when he's with Katherine. He goes from eloquent battle commander and king to stammering schoolboy in her presence.
- All for Nothing: The final lines remind us that Henry VI would undo all his father's accomplishments in gaining rule over France, however impressive they were.
- Anachronism Stew:
- The military ranks - Lieutenant Bardolph, Ancient (ensign) pistol, Corporal Nim - all much later designated ranks (the 15th century had the Ventenatar who commanded ten men, and the Centenatar who commanded 100). Totally in character for Shakespeare, who was fond of this throughout his work.
- Pistol and his "puissant pike". Doubly anachronistic, as the English army was primarily armed with longbows for the lower orders or Men At Arms with poleaxes or lances. Pikes were issued in the 16th century and the infantry in Shakespeare's day were armed in part with pikes. But as Pistol is an ensign, he wouldn't have carried a pike and would instead have carried his Captain's flag.
- The Atoner: Henry before Agincourt, over his father usurping the crown in Richard II.
- Authority Equals Asskicking: Henry.
- Back for the Dead: The play kills off all the low-life characters from Henry IV except Poins (who does not appear) and Pistol (the Sole Survivor). Falstaff's Page is implied to have become a victim of the baggage train massacre, and though most productions play that way, in a few recent ones he does survive. In the Hollow Crown version, it is implied that the Chorus is the Page grown up.
- Badass Army: The English at Agincourt for fighting sixty thousand men.
- Exaggerated for effect, as modern estimates place the French army at 20,000 strong against 6,000 English. Still badass though.
- Then again, Shakespeare puts the English numbers at 12000 ("'Tis five to one, and they are all fresh") so it's not as bad as it could have been.
- Exaggerated for effect, as modern estimates place the French army at 20,000 strong against 6,000 English. Still badass though.
- Badass Boast: "Tell the Constable we are but warriors for the working day. Our gayness and gilt are besmirched by painful march in the muddy field. But by the mass our hearts are in the trim! And my poor soldiers tell me ere the knight is done they'll pluck the gay coats o'er the French soldiers heads and tirn them into service"
- Band of Brothers: The Trope Namer. In his Rousing Speech before the Battle of Agincourt, Henry declares that he will forever consider any Englishmen who stand and fight with him to be his brothers and equal in nobility regardless of their actual station.
- Bilingual Bonus: The French princess and her nurse have a lengthy conversation in untranslated French in which the princess tries to find out the English words for different parts of the body. The sole point of this is to set up two extremely dirty puns: the resemblance in pronunciation of "foot" to "foutre" ("fuck" in French) and "gown" to "con" (French for "cunt").
- Bittersweet Ending: Henry has a glorious victory at Agincourt and it appears his marriage to Princess Katherine will be a happy one; yet two of the comic relief characters are dead and the remaining one has lost his wife, forcing him to become a pimp and thief. And then the chorus reminds us that in only a few short years after the play's conclusion, Henry would be dead and all his accomplishments would be undone: the Hundred Years' War would continue with his son losing the claim to France, and the civil war that marred Henry IV's reign would return as the Wars of the Roses.
- Breather Episode: In a way. Richard II and the two Henry IVs are full of internal strife and civil war. The three Henry VIs and Richard III are about internal strife and civil war. In between them is Henry V's triumphant romp in France with his "band of brothers."
- Britain Is Only London: Averted — significantly in that, historically, it was an English army that marched to Agincourt; Shakespeare ignores this to throw in the Scots, Welsh, and Irish contingents. The Welsh are at least somewhat accurate—by Henry V's time, Wales was already joined to England at the hip, and Welshmen fought in nearly all the same battles the English did—but the time, Scotland was actually allied with France, and even more extremely, Ireland was in the middle of a very nasty rebellion, effectively making Macmorris a Token Enemy Minority.
- Although it should be noted that many Irish and Scotsmen were mercenaries, so their inclusion, whilst historically inaccurate, is not historically implausible.
- And also that the strength of the Welsh bowman is famously given as part of the reason for the victory at Agincourt.
- The Chains of Commanding: Henry feels the weight of his responsibility, particularly after going King Incognito and hearing what his soldiers really think about his French campaign.
- Cheese-Eating Surrender Monkeys: Justified at the Siege of Harfleur, as the French had endured weeks of being beseiged, and only surrendered when the Dirty Coward Dauphin refused to come to their aid.
- Christianity Is Catholic: Justified as it's set Pre-Reformation in Western Europe, although Shakespeare has willingly used Anachronism Stew before in his works.
- Cool and Unusual Punishment: Fluellen's response to getting dissed is to smack Pistol around, and then make him eat a leek. Some performances have him smacked around with said leek.
- To explain: earlier in the play, Fluellen wears a leek in his hat in observance of St. Davy's Day, apparently a Welsh tradition at the time. Pistol had - along with other insults - suggested that Fluellen eat his leek. Later, when St. Davy's Day is past, it's Pistol who ends up eating the leek.
- Crouching Moron, Hidden Badass: "Though it appear a little out of fashion, there is much care and valour in this Welshman."
- Da Chief: Henry of course.
- Darker and Edgier: A whole bunch of comic characters from the previous two plays are brought in and killed off.
- Darwinist Desire: Hal tells Katherine "thou must therefore needs prove a good soldier breeder."
- Determinator: "Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more!"
- Dig Attack: One scene focuses on miners, who dig tunnels under the walls of the cities they're attacking.
- Dirty Coward: Pistol, Nym and Bardolph.
- Disorganized Outline Speech: Just how is Henry entitled to the French throne, again?
- Disproportionate Retribution: Henry using the French prince's mocking gift of tennis balls as an excuse to declare war can be seen as this. On the other hand,he already had given some reasons (one of them being an extremely convoluted explanation as to why he's the rightful heir to the French throne) and was considering doing it; the tennis might have been just the straw that broke the camel's back.
- Dork Knight: Depending on how the actor plays it, Henry becomes this when wooing Katherine. Especially when he tries to speak French.
- Dropped a Bridge on Him:
- Falstaff's page offhandedly mentions that Nym has been hanged for theft sometime before Agincourt.
- Mistress Quickly and Bardolph also die offstage.
- Ensign Newbie: totally lampshaded with Auncient Pistol (Auncient, or Ancient, being another word for Ensign).
- Everyone Looks Sexier If French: Katherine of Valois was actually rather attractive in real life.
- Every Scar Has a Story: Invoked by Henry in the St Crispin's Day speech:He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say 'To-morrow is Saint Crispian.'
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars,
And say 'These wounds I had on Crispian's day.'
- A Father to His Men: Though Henry is specifically and significantly a brother rather than a father.
- French Jerk: The Dauphin, quite possibly the Ur Example. Some productions, particularly modern ones wishing to undermine the play's jingoism, work against this characterization.
- Funny Foreigner: The Irish, Scottish, and Welsh soldiers in the English forces, who also form a Five-Token Band.
- Gender-Neutral Narrator: The Chorus's gender is never specified, though in Elizabethan times women weren't allowed onstage.
- Getting Crap Past the Radar: The scene in Act IV when Pistol tells the young interpreter that he will rape the French soldier named "Master Fer! I'll fer him, and firk him, and ferret him". Of course, the word "firk" sounds like the other "F word", almost like a Precision F-Strike according to Cracked.com. Also, the example given under Bilingual Bonus counts as this as well.
- The Ghost: For a character who dies without ever appearing onstage, Falstaff comes up quite often. This is largely because he was a major reason for the popularity of the Henry IV plays; the epilogue to 2 Henry IV even promises he'll appear in the sequel.
- Greek Chorus: The aptly named Chorus, whose function is to explain background historical context and plead for appropriate Willing Suspension of Disbelief.
- Historical Beauty Update: Henry apologizes to Katherine for his looks. Yet he's generally depicted as good-looking (if perhaps dressed more plainly than the French). In real life, he did have facial scars from the battle of Shrewsbury, where he (not even joking) took an arrow to the face. It's the reason his royal portrait is one of the few (or possibly only) in profile.
- I Kiss Your Hand: After working quite hard to woo the non-English-speaking Katherine, Henry finally seems to get some agreement out of her upon which he tries to kiss her hand and actually says "I kiss your hand." When she doesn't let him do that, he lets loose another volley of charm that does the trick: she lets him kiss her lips.
- Informed Deformity: Henry goes out of his way to apologize to Katherine for his looks, as if he's some sort of gargoyle. Yet he's generally depicted as good-looking (if perhaps dressed more plainly than the French).
- It Is Pronounced Tro Pay: In the French of Shakespeare's time, oi was pronounced "way" rather than "wah", and in the time the play is set, the French had yet to start dropping the final vowels.
- King Incognito: Henry disguises himself as a common soldier.
- Large Ham: King Henry.
- Line in the Sand: Albeit rhetoric rather than a genuine offer: Henry offers any of his soldiers who are afraid safe conduct home and back pay; he would not wish to die in the company of cowards. Then he winds up for "Saint Crispin's Day" and nobody moves.
- The Load: The Dauphin to France as a whole.
- Manipulative Bastard: Possibly Harry.
- Moment Killer: The re-entrance of the French king is often played as this at the end of the wooing scene.
- Mood Whiplash:
- After the battle at Harfleur and Henry's savage threat, which gets the governor to surrender, the audience is treated to the French princess Katherine in her dressing room happily chatting with her lady-in-waiting about the English language since she will probably be married to the English king. She learns super important vocabulary like "elbow" and ultimately, the entire sequence is a set up for a dirty pun.
- The happy scene of Henry and Katherine's betrothal is followed by the Chorus' reminder that Henry would die young, and his son would lose France and "make his England bleed."
- Captain Fluellen and Gower return to find the baggage train raided and all the boys in the camp slaughtered. They talk about how horrible this is for about half a minute, then launch into a debate about whether Henry is like Alexander the Great. Also about how he turned Falstaff away. Then Henry comes in with his 'I was not angry since I came to France until this instant'.
- Moral Dissonance:
- Before the final attack on Harfleur, Henry delivers the rousing "Once more unto the breach" speech. Yay! But after the battle, he threatens the governor of Harfleur with what he and his soldiers will do if the governor doesn't surrender, including the (graphically described) rape of virgins, the bashing of elderly fathers' heads against the walls and "your naked infants spitted upon pikes." Note: This is actually fair by the standards of the day. Once a "Practicable Breach had been made in a city's walls, it's fall was just a matter of time, and very little at that. everyone knew that. Therefore, the laws of war were that once a breach was made, the city was obliged to surrender, because if the soldiers had to fight their way in, knowing that every one of their friends who were killed in the battle died essentially for nothing, there was absolutely no way any commander could prevent the loot, murder, and rapine that would inevitably follow. The laws of war actually said that if a city refused to surrender after a breach, the attackers had the right to put every living soul in the city to the sword, after doing whatever they want to them first. Henry isn't making bloodthirsty threats, he's reminding them of the inevitable consequences.
- After the adorkable wooing scene with Katherine, Henry and Burgundy exchange some mildly dirty Double Entendre remarks about her, while she is still standing right there, and Henry knows very well she doesn't understand what he's saying.
- Numbered Sequels: To Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2
- Oh, Crap!: Williams when he realizes who he challenged to fight. Luckily the king appreciated his true opinions, and gives him gold for his troubles
- Oireland: With Macmorris, perhaps the Ur-Example.
- Original Position Gambit: Henry asks the nobles plotting against him what he should do to someone who's committed treason. When they say he should execute traitors, he agrees — and executes them.
- Paper-Thin Disguise: Henry as common soldier again.
- Prequel: Shakespeare wrote this one after his plays about Henry VI. The final monologue from the Chorus is basically saying "And you've already seen where things go from here."
- Quote-to-Quote Combat: A scene before Agincourt has some French soldiers bickering in proverbs.
- Rape, Pillage, and Burn: What Henry threatens Harfleur with if the First citizen does not surrender.
- Real Life Writes the Plot: Falstaff's off-screen death was probably caused by actor Will Kemp leaving the company after a dispute.
- Reasonable Authority Figure:
- The Constable of France can come across as this, especially compared to The Dauphin.
- Henry himself, with his egalitarian nature, his punishment of criminals and his making peace in Act 5.
- Royals Who Actually Do Something. Henry again. Compare to the feeble King pf France and the useless Dauphin.
- Rousing Speech: "Once more into the breach" and "St. Crispin's Day". Boy, did Shakespeare deliver.
- Rule of Funny: In Real Life Henry would have been able (at the very least!) to speak that era's version of French, since the French language was still a fairly important part of the king's rule - but it's much funnier to watch him attempt to court Katherine in the broken forms of both their languages.
- Sesquipedalian Loquaciousness: The Archbishop of Canterbury, when explaining the validity of Henry's claim to the French throne. It's often played solely for comedy, but Shakespeare was also reminding his audience that Henry's claim to the English throne was almost as weak (Henry's father had been a usurper). It is entirely possible that Shakespeare took Henrys claim absolutely seriously; after all, Elizabeth still quartered the arms of France on the royal escutcheon.
- Spotlight-Stealing Squad: Scholars have speculated this is why Falstaff dies offstage, lest he steal the show as he did in Henry IV.
- Sudden Sequel Death Syndrome: Falstaff again.
- Suedonym: While Henry's going King Incognito:Pistol: What is thy name?
Henry: Harry Le Roy.
- Suspiciously Small Army: Lampshaded in The Prologue to Shakespeare's Henry V in the trope pages title quote.
- Take Our Word for It: The Chorus in the prologue asks the audience to imagine The Lord of the Rings style battles when they only see two dudes duking it out on stage.
- That Makes Me Feel Angry: "I was not angry since I came to France/Until this instant" from King Henry, after he sees English horsemen hanging back from the battle at Agincourt. Note that Shakespeare was notorious for this; he had to make it obvious so the audience would know what was going on, thanks to the theatrical style of the day.
- Those Two Guys: Fluellen and Gower.
- Tranquil Fury: Henry's reaction to receiving the tennis balls.
- Unaccustomed as I Am to Public Speaking...: Henry plays this rhetorical card while wooing Katherine. Though he does have a point — he is (in this play anyway) more soldier than diplomat and the Rousing Speech is an entirely different rhetorical animal than wooing a lady. If done well, Henry's awkward in such a cute way.
- Unreliable Narrator: Everything the chorus says until Act 4 is exaggerated a little or a downright lie.
- Viewers Are Geniuses: The scene between Katherine and her maid, where the dialogue is entirely in French. No important information is conveyed in the scene, at least, but many unilingual audience-members won't know that.
- Warrior Prince: Henry himself, of course.
- What the Hell, Hero?: Williams points out the king's responsibility for the horrors of war; when Henry confronts him later and threatens to punish his sedition, Williams points out that he shouldn't have been wandering around in disguise if he didn't want to hear the truth from his soldiers.
- Worthy Opponent: The English, at least to The Constable of France.
The filmed adaptations add examples of:
- Adaptational Wimp: The First Citizen of Harfleur is presented as a bit of a wuss, especially in the Kenneth Branagh film. The real life Commander of Harfleur was all round Badass Raoul de Gaucourt, a highly intelligent, chivalrous commander who held up Henry's way superior army with 200 professional soldiers and 1,000 citizens with crossbows. Only when the Dirty Coward Dauphin refused to aid him did he finally surrender.
- Armour Is Useless. In Branagh's film, the French all wear full plate armor and are easily killed by the English arrows, as well as by swords and daggers. Partly Truth in Television, as 15th century armor was often strong enough to resist even the English longbow but would knock the wearer down. Considering that the field was a mudbath, this would prove deadly.
- Armor-Piercing Slap: Exeter performs one on Lord Scroop while arresting him in the 1989 film. Whereas the other traitors flinched when he arrested them and tore off their badges of office, Scroop remained stoic, so Exeter angrily slapped him to rob him of his dignity.
- Composite Character: Some of the roles in the Branagh production, such as the French ambassador or an English herald, were given to the French herald Montjoy.
- Hollywood Darkness: How the King Incognito scenes are usually shot, with varying believability.
- Indecisive Medium: Both film adaptations used this trope.
- The Laurence Olivier version looks like an Elizabethan-era performance of Henry V; at the beginning, we get to see some glimpses of the backstage. As the film goes on, it gets less and less theatrical, presumably corresponding to the audience's increased immersion in the plot.
- The Kenneth Branagh version has The Prologue - which is about making theater magic by suspending your disbelief over the people prancing about on stage are pretending to be the real Henry V etc. - is said in an empty soundstage. Then at the very end: "Who, Prologue-like, your humble patience pray / Gently to hear, kindly to judge, our play!" and he throws open some doors showing a production utilizing the hyperrealism of film.
- Mood Whiplash: In Branagh's version the English-lesson scene whiplashes again as Katherine, in high spirits and gleeful giggles at saying a naughty word, throws open her door to see the French king and the dauphin on their way to a war council. If she truly is to marry the English king, it will be because he has defeated her father and brother. Emma Thompson's face says it all.
- The Oner:
- The charge of the French cavalry to begin the battle of Agincourt in Olivier's film.
- The king's slow walk through death and mud at the end of the same battle in Branagh's.
- Both films feature the scene at Eastcheap where Mistress Quickly tells of Falstaff's death as one long shot.
- Picture-Perfect Presentation: This is how Olivier makes his transition from the filmed-play portion to the cinematic story.
- Pragmatic Adaptation:
- Both film productions understandably cut the part between discovering the boys had been killed and Henry's anger, as there is a time and a place for discussing Alexander, and mourning over slaughtered children is not it.
- Both films include a smattering of dialogue from the Henry IV plays, so that Falstaff can be an onscreen character and the references to him won't seem as odd to anyone unfamiliar with the preceding plays.
- The 1989 version undercuts Henry's horrifying threats to the governor of Harfleur (raping virgins and murdering babies and such, see Moral Dissonance above) by making it clear that Henry is bluffing in an effort to scare the governor into surrendering.
- Rule of Cool: In the Branagh film, BRIAN BLESSED marching into the French court dressed in full plate armour, and later battering a French guy with a mace.
- Sad Battle Music: Used during the Battle of Agincourt in the Branagh version.
- War Is Glorious: A notable exception of the War is Hell interpretation was Olivier, in the midst of World War II, presenting a glorious British resistance against an evil foreign empire.
- War Is Hell: Depending on the interpretation — modern adaptations tend to go with this one.