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Circular Reasoning

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This image is true because it agrees with this image.

Attorney General: Brawndo's got what plants crave.
Secretary of Energy: Yeah, it's got electrolytes.
Joe: What are electrolytes? Do you even know?
Secretary of State: It's...what they use to make Brawndo!
Joe: Yeah, but why do they use them to make Brawndo?
Secretary of Defense: 'Cause Brawndo's got electrolytes.

Begging the Question used recursively. A is true because B is true. B is true because C is true. C is true because A is true. The proof simply circles around and around, with nothing in it that isn't being proved by itself. This is a logical fallacy, because it disallows the possibility that all three are false and, like Begging the Question, presupposes the truth of the thing it's supposed to be providing an argument to prove the truth of. To summarize, the one using it thinks that their claim proves itself; any argument that uses circular reasoning can be boiled down to "it's true because it's true."

If A, B, or C have independent proofs that are "outside the loop", it is no longer circular reasoning.

The simplest form of this is a tautology (like defining "sports writer" as "a writer who writes about sports".) See also Shaped Like Itself and Famous for Being Famous. A similar concept is a logic loop, a type of Logic Bomb where a series of thoughts leads to itself.


Looks like this fallacy, but isn't.

  • Algorithms that describe decision-making processes often loop back to the decision point, but being decisions they have more than one possible circle. These algorithms, while circular, describe a process rather than making an argument.
  • As mentioned above, a logic loop is kind of like circular reasoning but in the other way. Instead of “A is true because B is true because C is true because A is true” (circular reasoning) it's “A is true; therefore B is true; therefore C is true; therefore A is true.” While not a fallacy,note  a logic loop is a Logic Bomb and its best to steer machines away from them. Most humans will recognize the futility of the exercise once one loop has been completed but most machines can't.
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  • Axioms are considered self-evidently valid, and thus are accepted as "true because they are true." (For example, “A = A” or “The whole is greater than the part”, or "If A = B and B = C then A = C.") This is not fallacious because axioms form the basis for other logical arguments. We're not trying to prove axioms; we're using them to prove other things.


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     Anime and Manga 
  • In The Creation Alchemist Enjoys Freedom, we have the case of Duke Bragas Regus. He lives in the Dolgaria Empire that fiercely embodies Klingon Scientists Get No Respect. As such, he sees non-combat god-given professions like [Alchemy] as inherently incompetent and useless. His son Thor is an alchemist, as learned through a magical appraisal. This prompts Duke Regus to do everything possible to make Thor appear useless, squashing the boy's chances of being useful and driving his accomplishments into obscurity from everyone, especially himself.

    Fan Works 
  • Directly invoked by the Unreliable Narrator in Equestria: A History Revealed, in which she intentionally wants to paint Princess Celestia in a bad light. The author states that if Celestia was willing to lie about the Hearth's Warming Eve Paegent first, then she would be willing to lie about the Hearts and Hooves Day legend too, as she would have experience in lying. But if she lied about the Hearts and Hooves Day legend first, then she would clearly also lie about the Hearth's Warming Eve Paegent, as it held much greater significance.
  • In the Fallout: New Vegas mod Autumn Leaves, this is why Arthur believes that Humans Are Bastards because they kill to survive and are savages. Why are they savages? Because they have no knowledge or culture for themselves. If you ask him about the library being used to turn people into cultured human beings, Arthur states that the people of the Mojave don't deserve said knowledge because they are... well, savages. Pointing out this flawed reasoning actually fails the conversation- you're meant to prove that his paranoid personality core is the root of his problems.

  • Idiocracy: Employed by the Presidential Cabinet members when Joe fruitlessly tries to explain to them why they should stop watering crops with Brawndo (a sports drink).
    Attorney General: Brawndo's got what plants crave.
    Secretary of Energy: Yeah, it's got electrolytes.
    Joe: What are electrolytes? Do you even know?
    Secretary of State: It's what they use to make Brawndo.
    Joe: Yeah, but why do they use them to make Brawndo?
    Secretary of Defense: 'Cause Brawndo's got electrolytes.
  • Clue: The blackmail against Mr. Green is that he's gay. He has no issue with it himself, but he'd be fired if his employers (the State Department) found out because they'd view him as a security risk... which he is solely because of that policy. His stating such is met with a quick Beat.
  • Bill and Ted wish fervently for their band The Wyld Stallyns to become famous. However, they disagree on how they should make this happen:
    Bill: The truth is, Wyld Stallyns will never be a super band until we have Eddie Van Halen on guitar.
    Ted: Yes, Bill. But, I do not believe we will get Eddie Van Halen until we have a triumphant video.
    Bill: Ted, it's pointless to have a triumphant video before we even have decent instruments.
    Ted: Well, how can we have decent instruments when we don't really even know how to play?
    Bill: That is why we need Eddie Van Halen!
    Ted: And that is why we need a triumphant video.
    Bill and Ted: EXCELLENT! (air guitar solo)
  • Erik the Viking: "Well, if the only reason for the expeditions is the looting and pillaging, and the only reason for the looting and pillaging is to pay for the next expedition, then that's a circular argument, isn't it? They cancel each other out."
  • In Star Trek: The Motion Picture, the ginormous space machine V'Ger is headed to Earth to seek "the Creator". So what is the Creator?
    Probe!Ilia: The Creator is that which created V'Ger.
    Captain Kirk: And what is V'Ger?
    Probe!Ilia: V'Ger is that which seeks the Creator.

  • The Catch-22 of the novel of the same name is Circular Reasoning. The dialogue that explains it:
    Yossarian: Is Orr crazy?
    Dr. 'Doc' Daneeka: Of course he is. He has to be crazy to keep flying after all the close calls he's had.
    Yossarian: Why can't you ground him?
    Doc Daneeka: I can, but first he has to ask me.
    Yossarian: That's all he's gotta do to be grounded?
    Doc Daneeka: That's all.
    Yossarian: Then you can ground him?
    Doc Daneeka: No. Then I cannot ground him.
    Yossarian: Aah!
    Doc Daneeka: There's a CATCH!
    Yossarian: A catch?
    Doc Daneeka: Sure. Catch-22. Anyone who wants to get out of combat isn't really crazy, so I can't ground him.
    Yossarian: Okay, let me see if I've got this straight. In order to be grounded, I've got to be crazy. And I must be crazy to keep flying. But if I ask to be grounded, that means I'm not crazy anymore, and I have to keep flying.
    Doc Daneeka: You got it, that's Catch-22.
  • The Little Prince encounters a tippler on his way to Earth. When asked why he drinks, the tippler explains that he wants to forget. Forget what? His shame. And what's he ashamed of? Of drinking. The Prince later meets a businessman who thinks the stars belong to him, and the Prince notes that he reasons in a similar way. The value of owning stars is that they make him rich, and he wants to be rich so he can buy more stars.
  • In Nomes Trilogy (about a certain almost insignificant subset of living things of Florida):
    But they're the ones who matter. At least, in their opinion. And their opinion is the one that matters. In their opinion.
  • Rudyard Kipling nodded at it in a darkly humorous way in "The Sleepy Sentinel" (Epitaphs of the War):
    I sleep because I am slain. They slew me because I slept.
  • Discworld:
    • In Jingo, the long-lost island of Leshp resurfaces in the sea between Ankh-Morpork and Klatch. Both nations have been at peace for decades and have no reason for conflict, but because Leshp is in such a strategic position and would be a natural staging point for a conflict, they can't afford to let the other country possess it.
      Vimes: So we're supposed to go to war over some rock that's only useful if we have to go to war?
    • In Making Money, this is why The Department of Post Mortem Communications can't be called necromancy:
      Moist: So what you are saying is that necromancy is a very bad form of magic performed only by evil wizards, and since you are not evil wizards, what you are doing cannot possibly be called necromancy?
      Dr. Hicks: Yes.
      Moist: And what defines an evil wizard?
      Dr. Hicks: Well, for a start, doing necromancy.
      Moist: And because you're not evil wizards, what you're doing can't be called necromancy.
      Dr. Hicks: Exactly!
  • In Waking Up As A Spaceship, countries discriminate against the artificially created Nekomi race, chase them out of their homes, deny them legal employment, and leave them no option but to turn to crime then use the fact that they're criminals as a result to justify the discrimination in the first place. Kuon, first mate of the protagonist, gets called out on it when Abyssal rescues a Nekomi from space-pirates and Kuon objects, lampshading the circular reasoning.
  • In Starfighters of Adumar, Wedge points out the use of this trope as he takes apart the concept of a Proud Warrior Race Guy:
    Wedge: Circular thinking. I'm honorable because I kill the enemy, and I kill the enemy for the honor. There's nothing there, Cheriss.
  • The "Gay people cannot have Government jobs, because they're a security risk, because they could be blackmailed, because gay people cannot have Government jobs" policy listed under Real Life is described by Roy Tappen in The Leaky Establishment by David Langford. In a reducto ad absurdum analogy, Tappen points out that if the security men start with "we find this behaviour suspicious", you can apply the same logic to anything. Drinking vodka, for example.
  • The same policy is played with in The Laundry Files, where the Laundry bosses are more logical. Pinky and Brain are required to attend Pride every year, thereby proving that their sexuality is not a secret that could be held over them.
  • The School For Good Mothers: The mothers are practicing how to talk to their children using robotic dolls as proxies. An instructor tells Beth that her voice should be "as light and lovely as a cloud". When Beth asks how does a cloud sound, Ms. Russo says it sounds like a mother. This does not make sense to Beth, but Ms. Russo tells her that mothering is about a feeling, not about sense.
  • The School for Good and Evil: In A World Without Princes, the school is divided into a Boy side and a Girl side. Agatha needs to cross to the Boy side, but finds the way blocked by the magic barrier, which defines each side in terms of the other.
    "Try all you want. You won't trick me again," her reflection said. "You're obviously a Girl."
    "And what makes a Girl?" Agatha asked.
    "All the things a Boy is not."
    Agatha frowned. "And what makes a Boy?"
    "All the things a Girl is not."
    "But you still haven't told me what a Boy or Girl is."

    Live Action TV 
  • A sketch on That Mitchell and Webb Look had a group of government agents justify covering up the Roswell incident in this way. They could release all the information now in order to gather support and build defences against a possible invasion, but people will be angry with the government when they learn that aliens exist, especially if there is an invasion and it turns out that the government knew about them for decades but did nothing to help gather support and build defences.
  • In The Twilight Zone episode, "Five Characters in Search of an Exit," when the major pounds on the wall, the clown sings, "We're here because we're here because we're here because we're here."note 
  • Monroe's dad in Grimm when he learns his son's marrying a Fuchsbau. This starts a huge argument, during which Bart starts ranting that mixed marriages destroy families: "It's happening already!" In other words, he disapproves of Monroe marrying Rosalee, because they're having an argument, because he disapproves of Monroe marrying Rosalee.
  • In the Porridge episode "Rough Justice", Judge Stephen Rawley, convicted of corruption, gets out on appeal. Fletcher notes that Mackay is now calling him Mister Rawley (he refers to prisoners by only their surname).
    Mackay: Certainly. If the appeal court judges say his nose is clean, that's good enough for me. They are men of the highest integrity in the land.
    Fletcher: What're you talking about? He's one of them!
    Mackay: Precisely. And he's innocent, which proves my point.
  • In 8 Out of 10 Cats Does Countdown, while discussing tapeworms, Sean Lock claimed you can only get a tapeworm from pork. When asked where the pigs get them, he responded that they get them from other pigs.

  • The Men from the Ministry: How does Mr. Lamb remember the to read the notes on the blotter? He has a notebook in which he writes notes to look at the blotter. How does he remember to look at the notebook? He has a reminder on the blotter.
  • The Goon Show: In one of the best-known exchanges between Eccles and Bluebottle (it was even included in a 1978 book about the series) Eccles has a piece of paper that he uses to tell Bluebottle the time. The paper reads "8 o'clock". Bluebottle asks Eccles how he knows when it's 8 o'clock. Eccles replies that he's got it written on a piece of paper.
    • More unassailably, at one point Major Bloodnok declares: "If I don't eat soon, I'll die... and if I die, I won't eat soon!"

  • The song "Why We Build The Wall" from the musical Hadestown serves as a reminder for the workers Way Down Hadestown, and an explanation for the audience, as to why the workers are working so hard (specifically on the wall) every day and never seem to be done or have any end of their hardship in sight. In the format of Hades, the king of the underworld, asking a question and the workers answering it according to the laws of the underworld, the reasoning unfolds itself with every answer spawning a new question. The further the questions go, the more insane the reasoning seems to get, until the very last question and answer leave you standing with your mouth open: Why are they building the wall? Because then they have a wall to work upon.
    Workers:The enemy is poverty
    And the wall keeps out the enemy
    And we build the wall to keep us free
    That's why we build the wall
    We build the wall to keep us free
    Hades: What do we have that they should want
    My children, my children?
    What do we have that they should want?
    Workers: What do we have that they should want?
    We have a wall to work upon

    Video Games 
  • In Ratchet & Clank: Going Commando, Ratchet and Clank come across a Circular Reasoning logic puzzle in the middle of nowhere inside of a desert cavern. The "puzzle" consists of using an upgraded wrench, currently encased in glass, to gain a rock which is also encased in glass, in order to break the glass containing the wrench. Clank is amused by the challenge and briefly tries to deduce how to solve it, but its obvious that since each requires the other, it's impossible without Taking a Third Option, which Ratchet does by using his own wrench.
  • In Fallout 3 it's possible to take down an enemy non-lethally by pointing out that they're using this fallacy. President Eden can be convinced by the player that he's using circular reasoning when he declares that he's infallible because he was programmed to be. As the player points out in this scenario, Eden's argument is "I know because I know." This initiates a Logic Bomb that allows the player to convince Eden to self-destruct.
  • Employed by the train robots in Broken Age. They need the "Young Hero" to save the runaway train. Because the Young Hero is the only one that can save them, the train doesn't start until the he arrives. The robots are thus completely horrified by Young Hero's disappearance, because then no one will save them. The issue is a little justified: they were built to entertain a kid eager for something exciting.
    Vella: If the train isn't a runaway until your hero arrives, and your hero is missing, then what's the problem?
    Train Conductor: If the Young Hero never arrives, then we have no purpose.
    Robot #2: Do we even exist?!
    Train Conductor: You see? It's unsafe from a philosophical point of view.
  • Played for Laughs (darkly) in The Outer Worlds, as you meet an entitled Alpha Bitch who, upon being questioned, drops this gem.
    Hortense Inglesbee: If you have wealth, you're successful, and if you're successful, you must have earned it. Honestly, it's a simple concept.

    Web Animation 
  • On the Zero Punctuation review of World of Warcraft: Cataclysm, Yahtzee asked another player why he raids. The raider's reason is that it gets stuff. Why does he want stuff? To raid with.
  • Shows up in one episode of Puffin Forest. The town council and guards look the other way in regards to the black market, because the trade of illegal magic items is the lifeblood of the town. Ben's character points out that there is not much point in there being a black market if the town council doesn't oppose it, and they could just make the trade legal, but the Inquisitor argues that shutting down the black market would ruin the town. In other words, the black market is the lifeblood of the town, and they can't legalize it because then there wouldn't be a black market anymore.

    Web Comics 
  • The Order of the Stick:
    • Though she ultimately turns out to be right, Elan points out that Haley is using circular logic against Tarquin: She won't tell him that lives are at stake concerning the information she wants because she doesn't trust him, and she doesn't trust him because he's withholding information when lives are at stake. Haley is not pleased at having been out-logicked by The Ditz.
    • Another instance, when Grubwiggler accuses the Thieves' Guild of robbing him even though he pays them protection:
    Crystal: HEY! Our thieves are only allowed to steal from people our thieves are allowed to steal from!
    Bozzok: My colleague's circular logic notwithstanding, she is correct.
  • In The Non-Adventures of Wonderella: Wonderella and Dr. Shark use this when confronting an high school student about the dangers of marijuana:
    Wonderella: Marijuana is illegal, young man.
    Student: But, why?
    Wonderella: Because it leads to harder drugs [...]
    Student: Who says I have to try harder drugs?
    Wonderella: Your dealer. [...]
    Student: But why do I need to go to a dealer?
    Dr. Shark: Because, young man, Marijuana is illegal.
  • When Trawn of Electric Wonderland takes a shortcut to her Home Base through 4chan's domain, she learns from passers-by that everyone there keeps repeating certain Catch Phrases because they're humorous, those Catch Phrases are humorous because everyone there keeps repeating them, and everyone there keeps repeating them because they're humorous.
    Trawn: Ugh, the logic here drives me crazy on normal days!
  • Knowingly used in Basic Instructions.
    Scott: "They were better, because they were superior." That's a good point, on account of its quality.
  • xkcd
    • In "Every Major's Terrible" song, a theology major can be seen writing a proof that goes "X, therefore there exists X".
    • "AI Methodology": The research group's AI-based methodology has been questioned, but they used AI to prove it's a good methodology.
  • Roxy and Kanaya have a conversation that veers into this during Act 6 Act 6 Intermission 5 of Homestuck:
    ROXY: so you are roses girlfriend right?
    KANAYA: I Dont Know
    KANAYA: Is That What Humans Call A Matesprit When The Matesprit Is A Girl
    ROXY: umm
    ROXY: i dunno
    ROXY: is a matesprit the thing trolls call each other when they are girlfriends or boyfriends with each other?
    KANAYA: Yes
    ROXY: ah ha!
    ROXY: then uh
    ROXY: the answer is yes?
    KANAYA: Yes
  • In Freefall, Florence is given a direct order to like the mayor, trust her, and want to make her happy. Much later, when asked if she wants the order canceled, she refuses, stating that she trusts the mayor and removing the order would not make her happy. It's removed anyway, on the grounds that she's "obviously hit a limit in self-diagnostics".

    Web Original 
  • In Noob there seems to be little of this going on in Master Zen's situation and it comes up when Omega Zell gives him advice along the lines of "How about you stop harassing us and get yourself a hobby other than the MMORPG we're all playing?". Master Zen's reply can be paraphrased as "I can't keep myself busy with anything else than the MMORPG because I can't leave my hiding place. I escaped jail to be able to harass you guys on the game, remember?"

    Western Animation 
  • During one Beavis and Butt-Head music video segment, Beavis asks why a certain person in the video is on TV. Butt-head says he's on TV because he's famous. What's he famous for? He's famous for being on TV. This goes back and forth for awhile, with Butt-Head getting increasingly irritated that Beavis doesn't get it.
  • In the Jimmy Neutron TV movie, "The League of Villains", during a Kangaroo Court, T is upset that he has to be the court's bailiff instead of being on the jury with the rest of the villains. When he asks why he can't be on the jury, the villains tell him that they already voted on it. He asks why he didn't get to vote, to which the response is, "Because you're not on the jury."
  • On Futurama, Fry says that he is drinking so much coffee because he has a night job, which he needs so he can buy coffee to stay awake for his night job.
  • In the WordGirl episode "Mr. Big", WordGirl thinks the description of a strange new product called the Thing is very vague and defines the episode's associated vocabulary words, "vague" and "specific", to customers who own their own Things... by saying "vague" means "not specific" and "specific" means "not vague". The customers are confused, and WordGirl defines the words again, this time actually explaining in more detail what they mean.
  • Arthur: In "Arthur's Big Hit" when Sue Ellen spots Binky hiding from Arthur in the bushes, she asks what he's doing there. Binky answers that he's avoiding Arthur so he doesn't have to hit him. Sue Ellen then asks why Binky wants to hit Arthur, to which Binky replies that he doesn't, which is why he's avoiding him. Since Binky never explains to her that his friends have threatened to kick him out of the club if he doesn't hit Arthur the next time he sees him, Sue Ellen is left confused by what appears to be this trope.
    Sue Ellen: Hmm. [walks away] Boys...

    Real Life 
  • A monarchy is a nation ruled by a monarch; a monarch is someone who rules a monarchy. What with Hereditary Republics, Elective Monarchies, and Presidents-For-Life, that's about the clearest definitions there are, and political scientists often admit that sometimes the only difference between a monarchy and a republic are the titles involved. Practically, it's the same: as someone wrote, "Romans noticed they had an Empire already only when the Court protocol changed".
    • In practice, the usual definition of monarch is "ruler who gained his/her position by virtue of his/her bloodline", i.e. being the head of the nation's royal family. This distinguishes a monarchy (in which rulership is hereditary) from a republic (in which rulership is granted by a voting body). The question now becomes how the royal family gained the status of "royal family" in the first place, and the answer to that question can only be found in the very beginning of the civilization in question (or the most recent coup d'etat). Furthermore, either a monarchy or a republic can devolve into a dictatorship, the key aspect of that being a ruler seeking to gain, exert, and maintain effectively absolute power. (Many modern dictatorships are republics-in-name-only where elections are blatantly rigged so that only the current ruler has any chance whatsoever of winning (by limiting who can become a candidate, control over mass media, and vote rigging - usually in this order), Iraq under the rule of Saddam Hussein being a textbook example.)
    • North Korea, a dictatorship that has passed from father to son to grandson just like a monarchy, is another example that blurs the boundaries.
    • In practice, defining terms in such a way as to avoid circularity (without resorting to another language) can be hard.
  • Investing is good because you can make money, and the more money you have, the more you can invest. Here you can break the circle by remembering that money is an instrumental good, but a surprising amount of economic activity is based on using money to make money. This also results in the Catch-22 Dilemma of not being able to invest without capital, but not having any means of gaining capital without investment (like starting a business or going to university).
  • Fix point in mathematics (and (co-)induction). Circular reasoning done carefully enough to work.
  • This article exposes a Logic Bomb with the Scouts:
    The Boy Scouts, as by now you know, has decided to allow in gay scouts while keeping two prohibitions. The first is that which prevents gay scout leaders. The second, which has gone mostly without notice, is the prohibition on sexual activity by scouts. This has put many Christians in a position they never asked to be in, in a fight they never asked for — if being gay is not a sin, but homosexual practice is a sin, how then are they to exclude gay scouts who cannot practice homosexuality?
  • Try discussing with The Fundamentalist about the existence of God, as well as His, and by proxy his followers' rights to decree what's right or wrong and how people should live their lives. Constantly they'll begin answering with increasingly Tautological Templar, Knight Templar and Holier Than Thou reasoning, which are very much examples ("God is Right because he's God, and God is always right, so therefore all I do, as long as I'm doing it for Him, is also right!").
    • The circular reasoning here isn't actually that the fundamentalist is right because God is right, but rather that God is right because He's God. The "I'm right because I do things in God's name" clause is a separate logical fallacy. Of course, "what does it mean when we say God Is Good" is a valid question, and theologians throughout history have come up with any number of elaborate and sophisticated arguments concerning this, but The Fundamentalist is rarely a very good theologian.
    • In the same vein, much of the "proof" that any given religion's holy book is true — and a traditional, time-honored defense of them — is because it says in the holy book that the holy book is true.
  • Before it gained more acceptance, being gay and holding any sort of government-related position was (and still can be, depending on the government) a fireable offense, due to the belief that gay people would be inherent security risks. Of course, the reason they were guaranteed security risks were because of this policy — blackmailer finds out employee is gay, employee has to capitulate to the blackmail or else lose their job.
  • Upon interviewing for a job, there are many things candidates should do or not do because they're professional/not professional. Anyone dressing for the job and not dressing up for the interview is not being professional, because it's considered professional to dress up for job interviews. In many jobs, showing up for an interview with long hair (as a man), tattoos, etc., obviously shows that the candidate is likewise showing indication that they may not be professional because....these are not things professional people do. While there certainly is something to be said for professional conduct, there seems to be a circular reasoning that links the appearance to conduct and then back again.
  • According to Isaac Asimov, this was used in The Middle Ages as an excuse not to educate women; all Smart People Know Latin, but women don't know Latin so they must be stupid, which means that there's no point in teaching them Latin (or anything else).note  This is also the fallacy of confusing knowledge with intelligence, which also underpins large parts of so-called "intelligence tests".
  • In the late 20th century, the then (Tory) government of the UK refused to legalise cannabis on the grounds that "it leads to hard drugs". All evidence is that cannabis leads to hard drugs solely and precisely because it's illegal. If the only way to vote Tory was to visit your local pusher, voting Tory would lead to hard drugs.
  • Lt. Col. Dave Grossman has published several reports linking video game violence to desensitization of real-world violence, citing numerous government studies as evidence of the charge. In his book "Myths, Lies & Downright Stupidity", investigative reporter John Stossel examined the citations on many of the studies Grossman has used and discovered that several of them listed Lt. Col. Grossman himself as a primary source. In other words, "Here are a bunch of studies that bolster my argument, which use information that I personally supplied to them."
  • A fundamental part of any conspiracy theory is that the evidence supporting the theory doesn't exist because the ones responsible are suppressing the evidence. The lack of evidence proves their guilt, because if they weren't guilty, they wouldn't have any reason to hide the evidence. Also, any evidence that proves the conspiracy theory isn't true is actually proof that the conspiracy goes even deeper than previously thought.
  • In 2016, convicted terrorist Anders Breivik sued the Norwegian government for about everything he disliked since he was imprisoned. The neutral court gave him exactly one win: it is against his human rights to be deprived of human contact while in prison. Norway's explanation? "We can't force people to visit Breivik, so the only people that we can allow to visit Breivik are people that want to do it, but precisely those are the people that really shouldn't be allowed to visit Anders Breivik."
  • As this video on the nature of fascism points out, while most hierarchical social structures have some kind of reasoning for why the rulers deserve to be in charge (The King was trained since birth to be a ruler, the rich guy invented something useful, etc.) fascism pretty much just says "We deserve to be in charge because, well, we just do". And while some fascist societies may attempt at a fig leaf of a justification (typically involving some sort of half-baked Social Darwinism or pseudoscience about the "Master Race", or else a ludicrous Conspiracy Theory about their enemies) this sort of "reasoning" typically falls apart at the slightest examination.
  • The internment of Japanese prisoners in the US was justified, in part, by General John DeWitt because "The very fact that no sabotage has taken place to date is a disturbing and confirming indication that such action will be taken."
  • A common frustration with many science majors is monomers and polymers. Monomers are described as "units of polymers" while polymers are "chains of monomers"
  • Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and Secretary of State Colin Powell recounts a conversation he had with an ARVN (South Vietnamese Army) base commander about concerns he had with where the base was built
    Powell: “Sir, I don’t think this base should be here. We are in a valley surrounded by hills. The enemy could have forward observers looking down from those hilltops and calling artillery down on us.”
    ARVN Commander: “Base must be here.”
    Powell: “Why was a base built here?”
    ARVN Commander: “To protect airfield.”
    Powell: “And why was an airfield built here?”
    ARVN Commander: “To resupply base”