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Existential Horror

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Why am I alive?
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Am I real? Why do I exist? How much control do I have over my own life? What choices do I have? Does it even matter, the choices I make? Am I even a unique individual? Are my thoughts, opinions, memories, experiences, and feelings actually my own, or are they imposed on me? If I were to suddenly die, would my passing go by completely unnoticed and unmourned? Is my entire life pointless? Are my efforts to achieve meaning doomed to failure?

Most stories take a positive stance towards these questions, with characters having a clear identity, and clear goals. Not these, though.

May overlap with Cosmic Horror Story; the horror on those relies more on the perceived vulnerability of reality as a whole, rather than the pointlessness of life on an individual scale. A "Shaggy Dog" Story might induce this kind of feeling. Compare with Angst, which while originally referring to "existential angst", has broadened its meaning to refer to a more general form of anguish or unease with oneself. Compare also with Navel-Gazing, which is simply in-universe philosophical contemplation, and doesn't necessarily involve horror or existential questions. Compare with Absurdism which plays woes over the meaningless of one's existence for comedy, rather than horror (though there can be overlap).

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Examples:

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    Anime & Manga 
  • Both endings of Neon Genesis Evangelion dip into this, seeing how much time is spent examining the main character, Shinji Ikari's, struggles with his inferiority complex and general feelings of inadequacy as well as his fear that his own existence and everything he does is ultimately worthless.
  • Cells at Work! CODE BLACK takes quite an interesting interpretation of this. In it, one of the host body's (anthropomorphized) Red Blood Cells, AA 2153, wonders what even is the point of working so hard to keep the body alive if he's so clearly intent in destroying himself through neglect, vices like alcohol, and bad habits like unprotected sex, and especially when said cell realizes that the body is incapable of reproducing, the ultimate goal of any living organism.

     Fan Fiction 
  • The Infinite Loops can lend itself to this on occasion. The setting is explicitly a broken multiverse, with lore inconsistencies being the result of reality itself not knowing the exact details of what should and should not be; various characters have loop-variable backgrounds and are just as surprised when details crop up about themselves as the viewers of their canon show. And since the setting is portrayed as an Alternate Reality Game where all the events are written are actually happening, there's the question of whether the real world is in danger of becoming damaged...
  • Doki Doki Literature Girls explores this topic, though, given its source material, this is to be expected. Natsuki realizes that she lived in a visual novel making her concerned that she didn't have free will, but she eventually sheds that belief due to Monika's reassurance that the love she felt for Yuri was of her own volition.

     Film 
  • eXistenZ is about layers of virtual reality, meta-gaming and meta-narration, conspiracy theories... and a fair amount of surrealism and Body Horror.
  • Inception has some parallels to the Matrix, where one of the characters in-universe (and perhaps some of the audience) question which stage of "reality" they are in, and whether death or suicide will propel them upward toward a more real existence.
  • The Matrix presents the idea that people are inadvertently living their entire lives inside of a Lotus-Eater Machine. The Matrix Reloaded shows that the protagonists' rebellion is accounted for and an inherent part of the system. The Matrix Revolutions has Happiness in Slavery be the end fate of most of humanity, the Happy Ending being that humans who are unhappy with the system as such will be released to the depressing, black-skied Reality. Said reality is however put into question by the seemingly supernatural powers the protagonist demonstrates in it. Both sequels have Smith as The Virus, hijacking people's personalities and turning them into ever more of himself, until, by the end of Revolutions, he's the only one left. Between the two sequels, Neo is stuck in a limbo where he is absolutely powerless and ineffectual. The viewer may be left to question whether they themselves are living in a constructed reality to some degree. A lot of philosophers and humanists would say yes, in a variety of ways, but not in the literal way of the films; one of them is referenced in the first film, with Neo keeping his illegal software inside a hollow copy of Simulacra and Simulation by Jean Baudrillard.
  • Predestination is about a time traveling agent who wants to stop a time traveling terrorist, only to progressively find out that through a complex Predestination Paradox, he is his own mother, father, the Time Agency mentor who recruited him in and separated him from his own mother self as a baby, and even the terrorist himself, due to his time-traveling device still working after his last case, which made him psychotic from excessive time traveling, becoming the very same terrorist he is going after. The movie ends with the protagonist killing his future terrorist self, only to realize that his own existence depends on this horrifying circle, since his boss orchestrated everything to create an agent who has no ties to time.
  • Toy Story 4 features Forky, a toy made out of a disposable plastic spork, pipe cleaners, and googly eyes. The idea of being alive, and being a toy to be kept rather than trash to be put in the garbage can, keeps him in a constant state of distress and fear for quite some time.
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    Literature 
  • Franz Kafka specialized in such stories, with a dark comedic bent; the world was out to get you, no matter how good you tried to be, and any efforts you might make to clear your name or even understand what the hell is going on are going to make things worse.
  • Kara no Kyoukai: Touko Aozaki is a genius maker of Artificial Human body parts, whose greatest achievement was creating a process to make a perfect copy of herself. As soon as she saw the completed copy, she realized there was no longer any need for the current her, as the copy could perfectly replace her and be just as "real" as she ever was. She proceeds to make numerous copies and connect them all to a Hive Mind like system that feeds them all the current her's experiences. Now, each time one Touko dies, another awakens to perfectly replace the dead her, much to the horror of anyone who finds out the fact that there's actually nothing about us that can't be replicated, and thus nothing that makes us truly unique, irreplaceable, nor inherently real.
    Cornelius: Then was the you I've been dealing with this entire time... no... are... are you real?
    Touko: Really now... what's the point of a question like that when I'm the one you're asking!
    • Mahou Tsukai no Yoru, a prequel, makes things even darker by revealing Touko personally killed her "original" self years before Kara no Kyoukai even started.

    Live-Action TV 
  • invoked A recurring theme in Black Mirror, where some episodes explore the idea of artificial intelligences that are capable of (more or less perfectly) simulating human minds. The idea is taken further at times with a more sinister variation upon the theme; namely artificial intelligences that are capable of simulating human minds but are also unaware of their true nature as simulations. These episodes also tend to ask an even more disturbing question: For what kind of purpose would someone go actually through all the trouble of creating a realistic simulation of a human mind? The answer, of course, is rarely ever something pleasant.
  • Star Trek touches on this from time to time, with the nature of synthetic life being a recurring theme especially from Star Trek: The Next Generation onward.
    • Star Trek: The Next Generation touched on this with the Holodeck's occasional tendency to create self-aware holographic characters. Reality-warping aliens, parallel universe, and time travel shenanigans did nothing to help prevent this sort of thing.
      • In the episode "Ship in a Bottle", Professor James Moriarty, this trope became a very uncomfortable reality for him after the crew locked him away in the ship's memory after he first become self-aware.
    Barclay: What are you talking about? You can't possibly have been aware of the passage of time.
    Moriarty: But I was. Brief, terrifying periods of consciousness. Disembodied. Without substance.
    • Played another way in the episode "Yesterday's Enterprise". In a bad alternate timeline, the crew decides to send the badly damaged USS Enterprise NCC-1701-C (the current ship's predecessor) back in time to a space battle they are doomed to lose, in hopes it will erase their timeline and avert a destructive war with the Klingons. The characters note that the best case scenario is that they'll never know if it worked, and they might not even be alive in that timeline (indeed, as Lieutenant Tasha Yar soon learns, she's very much not, and what's worse, her death in the original timeline was utterly meaningless, accomplishing nothing.)
    • Star Trek: Picard makes this a central part of Dahj Asha's character arc when she realizes she has superhuman strength and reflexes, that secret Romulan agents are coming after her, and an old man named Jean Luc Picard thinks she might be the daughter of Commander Data. And after she dies, her twin Soji gets plunged into the same existential crisis, with the added kink that a Romulan agent had been toying with her mind trying to learn her secrets, giving her profound trust issues.

    Tabletop Games 
  • In The Madness Dossier, the PCs have to recognize that free will is largely an illusion, human personalities can be edited, and reality itself may change at any moment, perhaps eliminating them or turning them into mindless slaves. The answer to "Why does humanity exist?" is "It was made to serve as slaves to uncaring gods". They can fight, and may even win, but there is a cost.

    Video Games 
  • Metal Gear Solid had a bit of this, and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty took it to maturity: the boundaries between the different meta levels of the game, the complete negation of most any character's free will, the manipulation of the protagonists' identity, the doubt cast on the very reality of the events depicted in the game ("It's like a nightmare you can't wake up from.") all contribute to this state of mind. Luckily (?) the games keep distracting you with clear objectives and a fast-paced, involved, world-at-stake narrative, so that you don't freak out too much.
  • The Stanley Parable is a comedy game, but viewers report feeling distincly uncomfortable, horrified and confused by the experience. It's very hard to explain without spoiling it.
  • Splatoon:
    • Splatoon 2 plays this for laughs during a commentary for Inkblot Art Academy.
      Pearl: Let's turn this campus into a canvas!
      Marina: Does life imitate art? Or does art imitate life? AM I EVEN REAL?!
    • Marina does this again before the "Chicken vs Egg" Splatfest. It's still played for laughs, albeit uncomfortable laughs:
      Marina: Yeah, I bet that mom chicken has wanted kids ever since she was an egg.
      Pearl: Ha! Yeah, but, whose... grandma laid the egg... uh... that had the mom inside it?
      Pearl: Wait... Which side am I on?
      (both laugh)
      Marina: It's funny because we're all living in a simulation and free will is a lie.
      (both Aside Glance)
  • NieR: Automata is positively rife with existential horror, seeing how all of its characters are machines who long Grew Beyond Their Programming but without further explicit instruction from their creators, tend either to start Desperately Looking for a Purpose in Life, or find a random one goal to focus their entire efforts on, only to self-destruct upon reaching it or, more likely, realizing that they never will.
  • Soma uses existential horror as a good chunk of its plot. This is largely due to the idea of brain scans creating a copy of a person to place in a new body, while leaving their original body intact. This ends up happening to the main character three times during the game as well, really playing up this theme.
  • Seaman is a Virtual Pet which differs from many others in that the player can audibly communicate with it, and it has a conversation chain which poses the question of whether it exists. It ultimately decides that it does, because by perceiving and interacting with it, it is directly influencing the player's own ideas and decisions, forming memories in their real brains.

    Visual Novel 
  • Doki Doki Literature Club! asks the question; "would happen if a side character in a typical Romance Visual Novel was self-aware, but was also still unable to go against the fundamental constraints of the kind story/game of they existed in?" which of course leads into the question; "do we ourselves truly have free will, or are we just as fundamentally constrained in our worldview by the society we grew up and live in"?

    Western Animation 
  • Most episodes of Rick and Morty deal with this, and even sometimes plays it for Black Comedy.
    • "Rick Potion #9" has Morty ask Rick to concoct a love potion to administer to Jessica before the school prom, which in fact is more a hyper-aphrodisiac that causes Jessica to go crazy for him, really crazy for him. Unfortunately Jessica has a cold and the effect spreads virulently. As a solution Rick creates an antidote from praying mantis DNA... which only causes the entire human race to transform into hideous Half Human Hybrids that still want to get into Morty's pants. Then Rick engineers another antidote that results in everyone turning back... for a few moments before they all turn into horrifying "Cronenburged" mutants. At this point Rick gives up trying to fix the world and takes Morty to an alternate dimension where he never asked for the love potion but both of them died in a laboratory accident; Rick and Morty have to bury the dead bodies of their alternate selves and assume their place. Morty is left mortified that he has to live every day with the knowledge he doomed the entire human race for asking for a glorified roofie cocktail and that his own dead self is buried a few metres away from his house.
    • There are a few skits dedicated to the characters watching cable television from other dimensions, and several featured are so surreal that it's terrifying to think what kind of universes these tidbits could be considered entertaining. Highlights include a hit TV show where a man wrestles with a sentient car with predictable results, a show where a man is so obsessed with his personal space that he tears his own skin off without indication of pain or discomfort (even more unnerving is the ident after the show suggests this is from The BBC), and an advert for a Lucky Charms-style cereal where a cheerful leprechaun is pinned down and disemboweled by evil, emotionless children who eat the cereal out of his intestines like Mentos (and even Morty is visibly disturbed by this one).
    • "Total Rickall" has mental parasites that create false memories in your mind to justify their existence around you as people you have known your whole life, and the more you try to figure out what the true memories are, the more the parasites can enter your memories and gain your trust. And the only way to identify the parasites from real people is they cannot create unpleasant memories, so you have to murder people you only have happy memories of.
    • It is implied that Earth has long been under the control of a race of insectoid alien bastards who do not understand human culture or body language at all, see us as disgusting and primitive and have no issue with killing us, surgically mutilating us or invading our minds for no reason.


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