Full name being the FIFA World Cup (Fédération Internationale de Football Association — the governing body of Association Football), The World Cup is an international competition between national football teams hosted every four years. It's the Biggest Occasion in football, all sports, and the entire World — much more popular than the Olympic Games and the Super Bowl merged together, with a tv audience in the billions.
It is also much more prestigious than almost any other sporting event — about the only other event that comes close is the Olympic Games, and even then many nations would gladly swap a fistful of Olympic Golds for a World Cup winnote . Apart from anything else, more than 300 Olympic Gold medals are awarded every four years, but there's only one World Cup winner every four.
For a team to win the World Cup means the players will be heroes for life in their native country, especially in those nations such as England and France where success is rare; in those nations such as Honduras, Panama and Trinidad & Tobago where success hasn't even come yet, the fact that they qualified to participate is enough to have a National Holiday. For the country itself, it can have far-reaching socio-economic effects. West Germany's surprise win against the much-vaunted Hungarians in 1954 is credited with cementing that country into a unified, confident nation-state instead of a broken, battered, occupied country, while the loss on the opposite side lead to a breakup of a sports dynasty that was cemented by the 1956 Revolution. France's spectacular win in 1998 on home soil (against Brazil, no less) with a majority of black and Arab-descended players is said to mark a turning point in positive race relations in France.
The first contest was in 1930 in Uruguay, and was won by the hosts, with only 13 entrants (it was supposed to be 16, but the long trip to South America by ship meant many of the countries across the ocean — mainly the European ones — declined the invitation). World War II meant there were no contests in 1942 and 1946. The latest contest was held in Russia in 2018, for which 210 countries went for 32 places, and ultimately won by France.
The format has altered somewhat over the years, but in general there is a group stage in the beginning before it turns into a straight knock-out contest among the top finishers of those groups.
There have been two trophies.note The first, the Jules Rimet trophy, was given to Brazil for its third victory in 1970, but stolen in 1983 and possibly melted down by the thieves, or perhaps it adorns some janitor's basement... The second one will not be given permanently to anyone, though the winning team does receive a replica to take home.
In later years, the winners have taken to adorning their jerseys with a number of gold stars corresponding to their number of titles. Uruguay including two Olympic titles for a total of four stars ('24 & '28, the two Olympics immediately preceding the foundation of the competition). In 2010 and 2014, the winning teams had 'new' jerseys already prepared for their victory.
For every tournament since 1970, Adidas has provided the ball, which is generally the cutting edge of the art of ball development (stop sniggering). The first ball, the Telstar — the "classic" football lined with white hexagons and black pentagons, named after its intended purpose of being more visible on black-and-white TV broadcasts — was originally introduced for Euro 1968, but made famous in the 1970 World Cup. More recently, the 2006 +Teamgeist Berlin ("team spirit") design was tested at Loughborough University in the UK as well as the Adidas laboratory at Scheinfeld, Germany. The 2010 Jabulani ("celebrate") was also tested at Loughborough and Scheinfeld, and featured a new design to ensure the most perfectly spherical ball ever. Despite this, every year the ball is blamed for something, regardless of its actual quality. The only time this criticism was somewhat justified was in 2010, where the new design of the Jabulani actually worked against it and caused it to noticeably "knuckle" and swerve during flight. The 2014 World Cup ball had its name chosen in an online poll of Brazilian fans, and was called the Brazuca, a term used by Brazilians to describe national pride. The balls used for the final are usually colored gold, with a bespoke design, and the names of the two teams emblazoned on them.
The Women's World Cup has been held every four years since 1991 and has been won by the USA (four times), Germany (twice), Norway (once) and Japan (once). The competition is not as prestigious as the men's tournament but has been increasing in popularity and the 1999 final at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California attracted over 90,000 spectators.
Another contrast between the men's and women's World Cups involves the trophy. While the official men's trophy is retained by FIFA, a new trophy is made for each Women's World Cup, with the winner receiving permanent possession.
- South America's CONMEBOL (South American Football Confederation / Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol / Confederação Sul-Americana de Futebol) is pretty straightforward: 10 teams play a straight league, with top four qualifying plus a fifth advancing to inter-confederation playoffs.
- North America's CONCACAF (Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football) has 35 teams play a total of three rounds, with the higher-ranked teams getting byes. The first round consists of six groups of five among the teams outside the top five in the confederation. The second round consists of the six group winners being paired off and playing a two-legged home-and-away series. The three winners of these matches then join the top five teams in a single group and play each other twice (once home and once away), with the top three finishers qualifying directly and the fourth-placed team advancing to inter-confederation playoffs.
- Africa's CAF (Confederation of African Football) has 54 teams and three rounds. The bottom 28 teams play a two-legged home-and-away series. The 14 winners then join the top 26 teams in the second round, where ten groups of four and formed and each team in the group play each other in home-and-away matches. Each group winner is then paired off and play another two-legged home-and-away series, with each series' winner qualifying.
- Europe's UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) has 55 teams and two rounds. In the first round, the teams are sorted into ten groups of either five or six teams and play each other a total of two times, once home and once away. Beyond sorting the teams into pots to prevent piling several strong teams into the same group, there's several other restrictions on whom can be drawn with whom, whether it's due to participation in the separate UEFA Nations League Finals, "prohibited clashes" due to politics, whether they're liable to have severe weather in the winter that could disrupt matchdays, or preventing teams from needing to travel excessively; UEFA will need a computer when they draw to make sure none of these problems arise. At any rate, once the matches are played the group winners automatically qualify. The second round will consist of the ten groups' runners-up plus the top two Nations League teams that haven't otherwise qualified; the twelve teams will be drawn into three separate four-team brackets and play single matches to determine the final three teams who qualify.
- Asia's AFC (Asian Football Confederation) has a total of four rounds for 45 teams, not including the host Qatarnote . After a first round that has the bottom-ranked 12 teams drawn into a home-and-home with another with the six winners moving on, the second round has eight groups of five teams each play a league with the eight group winners and four best second-place finishers advancingnote . The third round has two groups of six, again playing a league with the top two in each group qualifying. The fourth round has the two third-place finishers play a home-and-home — winner goes to the inter-confederation playoff.
- Oceania's OFC (Oceania Football Confederation) has 11 teams playing for... essentially half a spot. The first round will have two groups, one of five teams and one of six, based on FIFA rankings and play a round robin in a centralized location. The top two in each group then move on to the second round, where they play home-and-away matches twice to determine the confederation champion...and goes to the inter-confederation playoff.
Qualifying for the women's version is similar, but not identical to, that for the men's version. Most notably, the defending champions have never received an automatic place in the Women's World Cup. While then-two-time defending champion Germany got an automatic berth in 2011, that was because it was the host. As in the men's version, each confederation determines its own qualifying procedure for each World Cup cycle. With the tournament being expanded to 32 teams for Australia/New Zealand 2023, we're not sure yet how the distribution of spots will go — this is how it went for France 2019:
- CONMEBOL: Uses its women's championship, Copa América Feminina, held in the same year as men's World Cups, as its qualifier. The 10 members were split into two groups of five. The groups played a single round-robin league, with the top two teams advancing to the final stage, played in the same format. The top two teams qualified directly, with the third-place team going to a home-and-home playoff with the CONCACAF fourth-place team.
- CONCACAF: Uses the CONCACAF Women's Championship, also held in the same year as men's World Cups, as its qualifier. Regional qualifying tournaments were held in two of its three zonesCentral American and Caribbean. The top two teams from the Central American zone and the top three Caribbean teams were joined in the final phase by all three members of the North American zone (Canada, Mexico, and the USA). These teams were then split into groups of four that played a single round-robin league, with the top two from each group advancing to the knockout stage. The semifinal winners qualified directly for the World Cup, as did the third-place math winner; the loser of the third-place match advanced to the CONMEBOLCONCACAF playoff.
- CAF: Like CONMEBOL and CONCACAF, it uses its women's championship (Africa Women Cup of Nations) as its qualifier.note The Women Cup of Nations has its own qualifying stage, with 24 teams entering for the 2018 edition. Four teams received byes into the second round of WCN qualifying, with the remaining teams playing home-and-away matches for places in the second round. That round also involved home-and-away ties, with the winners of each joining the host nation in the WCN proper. From this point, the format was identical to that of the CONCACAF Women's Championship, except that the winner of the third-place match here received a direct World Cup place.
- UEFA: Unlike all other confederations, UEFA does not use its championship as its Women's World Cup qualifier, instead organizing a dedicated World Cup qualifying tournament with three stages:
- Preliminary: The 16 lowest-ranked teams of the 46 overall entrants (not including France, which automatically qualified as World Cup host) were split into four groups of four teams, each playing a single round-robin league at a pre-determined host site. The group winners and the best runner-up (with results against the fourth-place team not counted) advanced to the next stage.
- Qualifying group: The survivors of the preliminary stage were joined by the remaining 30 UEFA women's teams, and were split into seven groups of five teams. Each league played a double round-robin league, and the group winners received direct World Cup entry. The groups played a league, with group winners qualifying directly.
- Playoffs: The four best runners-up from the qualifying group stage, ignoring results against fifth-place teams, advanced to a knockout playoff consisting entirely of two-legged matches. The winner of the playoff final advanced to the World Cup.
- AFC: Like most of the other confederations, it uses its women's championship, the AFC Women's Asian Cup, as its World Cup qualifier. This tournament, like its CAF counterpart, has its own qualification stage, with 24 teams entering for 2018. The AFC's top three teams in the 2014 edition of the Asian Cup (Japan, Australia, China) received automatic places in the 2018 Asian Cup, as did 2018 host Jordan; however Jordan chose to compete in qualifying. The teams were split into four groups, one with six teams and the others with five. Each group played a single round-robin at a predetermined site, with the four group winners advancing; since Jordan won its group, that group's runner-up also advanced to the Asian Cup proper. At that point, the eight participants were divided into two groups of four each, playing a single round-robin league. The top two teams from each group advanced to the Asian Cup knockout stage and received direct World Cup entry. The third-place teams from each group advanced to a fifth-place match whose winner also went to the World Cup.
- OFC: The OFC has a direct entry into the Women's World Cup, unlike the men's edition. Like the other non-UEFA confederations, it uses its women's championship (OFC Women's Nations Cup) as its World Cup qualifier. The four lowest-ranked of the 11 OFC members with women's teams played a single round-robin qualifying league at a predetermined site. The winner joined the other seven OFC women's teams at the Nations Cup. The participants were divided into four-team groups, playing a single round-robin. The top two teams then advanced to the knockout stage, with the winner of the final going to the World Cup.
- Uruguay (1930, 1950) — The shirts of World Cup winning countries have one star on them for each World Cup victory; Uruguay, however, has four stars, the extra two being for their gold medal wins in the 1924 and 1928 Olympics (which pre-date the World Cup).
- Italy (1934, 1938, 1982, 2006)
- Benito Mussolini may have had something to do with the first one, hopefully his regime just hijacked the glory!
- The subsequent victories was kind of a surprise. With Italy eliminating both Brasil and Argentina in 1982, and then winning after a huge match-fixing scandal that shocked the country in 2006.
- Germany (1954, 1974, 1990, 2014 — first three as West Germany)
- They have qualified for all the World Cups they've entered, and East Germany qualified for 1974, beating eventual champions West Germany in the group stage. Their first win as united Germany in 2014 made them the first European team to win in the Americas.
- Also, thanks to their women's team winning the Women's World Cup in 2003 and 2007, Germany is the only nation to have won both the men's and women's tournaments.
- Brazil (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002) — The only team present in all (men's) tournaments, the biggest winner, and the only one to win in three continents (Europe, America and Asia).
- England (1966) — British teams didn't turn up until 1950, having been out of FIFA between 1920 and 1946, since they didn't want to play people they'd fought against (and felt there was too much foreign influence in football!).note The English national team is a curious cultural phenomenon. It frequently blitzes the qualifiers (exceptions being 1974, 1978 and 1994), contains some truly spectacularly talented players, particularly the (in)famous Golden Generation and proves that, outside of tournaments, they are capable of contending with the likes of Germany, Spain, Brazil, Argentina, Italy and the Netherlands, with a young and fearsomely talented team thrashing Germany 5-1 in Munich in 2001. Tournaments, however, are a different story. Until 2014, the whole country invariably expected great things from its team, and always found an unfortunate scapegoat to blame for the inevitable failure, heroic or otherwise. In recent years the blame has normally fallen on the manager of the team, although in the past individual players have been blamed: David Beckham in '98 for getting sent off, Chris Waddle in '90 for missing a critical penalty, and in a rare case of an opposing player being blamed, Diego Maradona in '86 for blatantly cheating. Yes, they're still bitter about it as the decades pass. In 2010, the blame was split between the referee (who failed to see a valid goal everyone else could), the back four, Fabio Capello (whose managing of the side completely fell apart after said goal), and Emile Heskey (who had squandered multiple easy chances in the group stage which contributed to England losing the group). 2014 (when England, reaching an all new low, failed to even get out of the group and somehow managed to injure their own physio while celebrating a goal) has been blamed variously on superstar Manchester United striker Wayne Rooney, over-the-hill captain Steven Gerrard, and the traditional managerial scapegoat in Roy Hodgson, though by now, even the tabloids have realised that the best they can hope for is that the inevitable failure isn't too humiliating. 2018, weirdly, has proven to be the exception to the rule, with England reaching the semi-finals with what is arguably the least technically talented England squad in modern times and manager Gareth Southgate becoming a national hero. This has rather taken Britain by surprise - when they managed to make the quarter-finals, their first appearance there since 2006, most British newspapers hyped it up as if it was the final itself in anticipation that they would go out there, only to be caught off-guard when England managed to win comfortably.
- Argentina (1978, 1986)
- Controversially won in 1978 with a military junta in tow.
- The '86 win was no less controversial with the infamous "Hand of God" goal by Diego Maradona against England in the quarterfinals, although Argentines consider the "Hand of God" as something glorious not shameful. Since they had been comprehensively beaten in the Falklands War against Britain four years before (something Maradona himself cited), upon which a lot of national pride had been staked, this is perhaps not entirely surprising. It is equally unsurprising that the English have a very different opinion. Speaking of Maradona, his second goal in that match is considered the best of all time, even by the English, because it was just that good.
- France (1998, 2018) — Their win in 1998 helped reinforce an anti-racist attitude in much of France, as the winning side had many players of non-traditional origins, such as Thierry Henry, Marcel Desailly, Patrick Vieira and Lilian Thuram (all of black African originnote ); Zinedine Zidane (son of Algerian immigrants); Christian Karembeu (New Caledoniani.e., Pacific islander); and Youri Djorkaeff (Armenian and Polish, also with more distant Central Asian ancestry). Repeated in 2018, with players such as N'Golo Kanté, Kylian Mbappé, Paul Pogba, Samuel Umtiti and so on playing large roles in helping France win their second World Cup, twenty years after their first.
- Spain (2010) — Hot off the heels on their success in Euro 2008. First team to win the tournament after losing their opening game to Switzerland, and the first European team to win outside of Europe. Won after a rather scrappy game with the Netherlands with fourteen yellow cards and one red. Both teams were trying to end their duck of being the two most skilled teams in the world to never lift the trophy. Spain having won Euro 2012 — the only team ever to have taken two Euros and a World Cup in a row — made it the most formidable defending champion ever. First European to win a tournament outside the Old World, given their title was in South Africa.
It is notable that all of the (men's) teams who have won the World Cup so far have been from either Europe or South America, though Asian teams have periodically shone (the North Korean side of 1966, who became beloved fan favourites who were fondly remembered even most of fifty years later and the 4th placed South Korean side of 2002) and since Cameroon exploded onto the scene in 1990, African teams have been making more and more of a mark.
On the women's side, the winners have been:
- USA (1991, 1999, 2015, 2019)
- Norway (1995)
- Germany (2003, 2007)
- Japan (2011)
Unlike the men's version, no South American women's team has won; Brazil came the closest, finishing third in 1999 and runners-up in 2007.
Speaking of Brazil, not only have they appeared in every men's tournament, they've been in every women's tournament as well. However, with there having been only 8 Women's World Cups to date (as opposed to 21 for the men), six other nations have been present at every women's editionGermany, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden, and the USA.
There have been 29 total tournaments. 21 for the men, and 8 for the women. The "Final Four" teams are categorized from champion to fourth-place. If a city has two or more stadiums, they will be identified. Also, if a host city is a suburb of a larger/better-known city, that is also identified.
- 1930 — Uruguay
Cities: Montevideo (Estadio Centenario [final] / Estadio Gran Parque Central / Estadio Pocitos)
Teams: 13 — Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, France, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, USA, Uruguay and Yugoslavia debut
Final Four: Uruguay / Argentina / USA / Yugoslavia
Top Scorer: Guillermo Stábile (Argentina) - 8 goalsThe first tournament went to that little South American nation that had just won two Olympic golds in a row in football (also to celebrate the centennial of their independence from the Brazilian Empire). However, the difficulties of crossing the Atlantic Ocean by boat (airplanes were still strictly warfare tech), coupled with a dose of It Will Never Catch On, caused many European teams to decline taking part in the tournament, so only four of them (Yugoslavia, Romania, Belgium and Jules Rimet's France) crossed the ocean. This ensured near-total South American domination of the inaugural tournament, with the home side beating Argentina at the final.
- 1934 — Italy
Cities: Bologna / Florence / Genoa / Milan / Naples / Rome [final] / Trieste / Turin
Teams: 16 — Austria, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland debut; Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Yugoslavia exit
Final Four: Italy / Czechoslovakia / Germany / Austria
Top Scorer: Oldřich Nejedlý (Czechoslovakia) - 5 goalsUsed as a tool for Benito Mussolini to promote his fascist regime, he pretty much demanded his home team's victory, which came after a dramatic game with Czechoslovakia. More countries became interested in taking part of the tournament but, since the pure knockout tournament format only allowed for 16 teams to play (it was originally an invitational tournament), the first World Cup Qualifiers were played. Interestingly, this was the only time the hosts had to play in the qualifiers,note as well as the only time the reigning champion did not return to defend the title (Uruguay refused to play in response to the European boycott four years prior). This edition also marks the first time an African team would participate in the World Cup with Egypt's qualification to the final stages.
- 1938 — France
Cities: Antibes / Bordeaux / Le Havre / Lille / Lyon / Marseille / Paris (Parc des Princes / Stade Olympique de Colombes [final]) / Reims / Strasbourg / Toulouse
Teams: 15 — Cuba, Indonesia (as Dutch East Indies), Norway and Poland debut; Argentina, Austria, Egypt, Spain and USA exit
Final Four: Italy / Hungary / Brazil / Sweden
Top Scorer: Leônidas (Brazil) - 7 goalsWon again by Italy who, even with a mostly renewed team, plowed their way through the tournament and defeated Hungary at the final. Even though they wouldn't win the tournament until 20 years later, Brazil's third place finish (mostly thanks to them now being professionals) made quite an impression with European spectators. 16 qualified for what was again a knockout tournament, but only 15 played — the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany three months prior meant the Austrian players joined the German squad, and their original opponents Sweden got a free pass to the quarter-finals. Indonesia's participation (as the Dutch East Indies) would mark the first time an Asian team successfully qualified to participate in the World Cup.
- 1950 — Brazil
Cities: Belo Horizonte / Curitiba / Porto Alegre / Recife / Rio de Janeiro [final] / São Paulo
Teams: 13 — England debuts; Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Spain, USA, Uruguay and Yugoslavia return; Belgium, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Romania exit
Final Four: Uruguay / Brazil / Sweden / Spain
Top Scorer: Ademir (Brazil) - 8 goalsThe first tournament since Uruguay 1930 to start with a group stage, something all subsequent tournaments have had. 16 teams qualified, but three of them (Turkey, Scotland, and India) refused to show up, so they had to make do with 13. The home team had been achieving impressive results throughout the tournament, until that fateful July 16, when a discredited Uruguay turned the match around in the final minutes, beat Brazil on points (there was no true final; instead, the champion was determined in a final group round between these two, Sweden and Spain), and cause an entire nation to mope with grief... For a while at least.
- 1954 — Switzerland
Cities: Basel / Bern [final] / Geneva / Lausanne / Lugano / Zurich
Teams: 16 — Scotland, South Korea and Turkey debut; Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany (as West Germany) and Hungary return; Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden and USA exit
Final Four: West Germany / Hungary / Austria / Uruguay
Top Scorer: Sándor Kocsis (Hungary) - 11 goalsHungary came around on a roll. As reigning Olympic champions from Helsinki 1952, they had trampled England twice (6-3 in the away game and 7-1 home), and lost only one of the 30 matches they had played up until then. More resounding victories came: 8-3 vs West Germany, 9-0 vs South Korea, 4-2 vs Brazil, 4-2 vs Uruguay... But then the West Germans stood in their way again. And snatched the trophy from right under their noses, coming back from a 2-0 deficit. And that was how an entire nation rose from the ashes of war (no, really). On a side note, this tournament boasted the highest goal average of all: 5.38 (140 goals scored in 26 matches), which goes to show how much the sport has changed since.
- 1958 — Sweden
Cities: Borås / Eskilstuna / Gothenburg / Halmstad / Helsingborg / Malmö / Norrköping / Örebro / Sandviken / Solna (Stockholm) [final] / Uddevalla / Västerås
Teams: 16 — Northern Ireland, USSR and Wales debut; Argentina, Paraguay and Sweden return; Belgium, Italy, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey and Uruguay exit
Final Four: Brazil / Sweden / France / West Germany
Top Scorer: Just Fontaine (France) - 13 goals
Best Young Player: Pelé (Brazil)The tournament that introduced Pelé to the world and, along with him, showed what the magical Brazilians could do when they had a ball at their feet, as the hosts could attest in more ways than one. Brazil defeated Sweden in the final, making both countries the only hosts to lose in the final (even if 1950 was kind of different). Just Fontaine's astonishing 13-goal tally remains a FIFA record for most goals in a single tournament. At the same time, this was the first World Cup to see a scoreless draw, with BrazilEngland in Group 4 being the first, followed by SwedenWales in Group 3. Every tournament since then has had at least one such match.
- 1962 — Chile
Cities: Arica [kickoff] / Rancagua / Santiago [final] / Viña del Mar (Valparaíso)
Teams: 16 — Bulgaria and Colombia debut; Italy, Spain, Switzerland and Uruguay return; Austria, France, Northern Ireland, Paraguay, Scotland, Sweden and Wales exit
Final Four: Brazil / Czechoslovakia / Chile / Yugoslavia
Top Scorers: Flórián Albert (Hungary), Garrincha (Brazil), Valentin Ivanov (USSR), Draan Jerković (Yugoslavia), Leonel Sánchez (Chile) and Vavá (Brazil) - 4 goals each
Best Young Player: Flórián Albert (Hungary)Pelé sat out most of the tournament after getting injured in the second match. How could Brazil hope to defend their title without their top star? The answer was easy: with their other top star, Garrincha, who stunned the world with his disconcerting dribbles and led the "canarinho" team to their second triumph in a row.
- 1966 — England
Cities: Birmingham / Liverpool / London (Wembley Stadium [kickoff / final] / White City Stadium) / Manchester / Middlesbrough / Sheffield / Sunderland
Teams: 16 — North Korea and Portugal debut; France returns; Colombia, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia exit
Final Four: England / West Germany / Portugal / USSR
Top Scorer: Eusébio (Portugal) - 9 goals
Best Young Player: Franz Beckenbauer (West Germany)Heralded as "football coming back home", the tournament was won by the home team, though not without some controversy as the referee allowed an extra time goal from a Geoff Hurst shot that hit the crossbar, bounced on the line and fell back out. Two surprises marked this tournament: Brazil's elimination in the group stage (thanks to some heavily disorganized management, and Pelé getting pretty much broken by Bulgarian and Portuguese markers) and newcomers North Korea flushing out the Italians in the group stage. This was also the first tournament where Portugal participated, and they left quite a mark, finishing third. All African teams boycotted the qualifiers to protest a requirement that the top three teams play off against the lone Asian winner for one finals slot, as well as the readmission of apartheid-era South Africa, forcing FIFA to guarantee at least one African slot in subsequent editions.
- 1970 — Mexico
Cities: Guadalajara / León / Mexico City [final] / Puebla / Toluca
Teams: 16 — El Salvador, Israel and Morocco debut; Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Peru, Romania and Sweden return; Argentina, Chile, France, Hungary, North Korea, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland exit
Final Four: Brazil / Italy / West Germany / Uruguay
Top Scorer: Gerd Müller (West Germany) - 10 goals
Best Young Player: Teófilo Cubillas (Peru)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: PeruA spectacular tournament, not only for the incontestable victory of a star-studded Brazilian team with renewed strength (and Pelé at the top of his game: even when he failed to score, he was masterful), but also for matches with the potential to keep watchers on the edge of their seat (like the dramatic semifinal between Italy and West Germany, dubbed by many as the "Game of the Century"). Plus, it can be said that modern football started here, where many now-common conventions were introduced (e.g. substitutions, yellow/red cards, more technologically sophisticated ball and so on). Their triumph here allowed Brazil to take the Jules Rimet trophy, as the first team to win three tournaments.
- 1974 — West Germany
Cities: Dortmund / Düsseldorf / Frankfurt / Gelsenkirchen / Hamburg / Hanover / Munich (final) / Stuttgart / West Berlin
Teams: 16 — Australia, East Germany, Haiti and Zaire debut; Argentina, Chile, Netherlands, Poland, Scotland and Yugoslavia return; Belgium, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador, England, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Romania and USSR exit
Final Four: West Germany / Netherlands / Poland / Brazil
Top Scorer: Grzegorz Lato (Poland) - 7 goals
Best Player: Johan Cruyff (Netherlands)
Best Young Player: Władysław Żmuda (Poland)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: West GermanyThe first season which featured the current version of the championship trophy. 20 years before, Hungary dazzled the world with their nigh-unstoppable team. Now it was the Netherlands' turn to stun football fans, by presenting a completely unforeseen way to play football: Total Football. No player was attached to their roles in the field; instead they had full creativity to do as they wished, so long as they took the ball to the goal. Like Hungary 20 years before, the "Clockwork Orange" made headlines and got all the way to the final. Unfortunately, like 20 years before, West Germany stood in their way, turned the tables after starting off with a deficit and snatched the trophy from them. Also, Oceania would finally gets their first representation in the World Cup, after Australia (then a member of OFC) qualified for the first time in this edition. This is also the last men's World Cup in which no match went to extra time (it's since happened once for the women, in 2007).
- 1978 — Argentina
Cities: Buenos Aires (Estadio Monumental [final] / Estadio José Amalfitani) / Córdoba / Mar del Plata / Mendoza / Rosario
Teams: 16 — Iran and Tunisia debut; Austria, France, Hungary, Mexico, Peru, Spain return; Australia, Bulgaria, Chile, East Germany, Haiti, Uruguay, Yugoslavia and Zaire exit
Final Four: Argentina / Netherlands / Brazil / Italy
Top Scorer: Mario Kempes (Argentina) - 6 goals
Best Player: Mario Kempes (Argentina)
Best Young Player: Antonio Cabrini (Italy)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: ArgentinaThe military seized power in Argentina in 1976. A World Cup win on home ground had the potential to make them look good. And win on home soil Argentina did, albeit very controversially — it is said that their 6-0 win over Peru that cost Brazil their spot in the final was arranged by the Videla regime, who promised financial help to Peru if they threw the fight (Argentina needed a very difficult win by four goals to proceed), and the Peruvian goalkeeper being Argentinian-born made matters even worse. In fact, even their own traveling routes were arranged to make for easier matches: Argentina played in Buenos Aires for the first round, then in nearby Rosario for the second round, and then back to Buenos Aires for the finalnote .
- 1982 — Spain
Cities: A Coruña / Alicante / Barcelona (Camp Nou / Estadi di Sarrià) / Bilbao / Elche / Gijón / Madrid (Estadio Santiago Bernabéu [final] / Estadio Vicente Calderón) / Málaga / Oviedo / Seville (Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán / Estadio Benito Villamarín) / Valencia / Valladolid / Vigo / Zaragoza
Teams: 24 — Algeria, Cameroon, Honduras, Kuwait and New Zealand debut; Belgium, Chile, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador, England, Northern Ireland, USSR and Yugoslavia return; Iran, Mexico, Netherlands, Sweden and Tunisia exit
Final Four: Italy / West Germany / Poland / France
Top Scorer: Paolo Rossi (Italy) - 6 goals
Best Player: Paolo Rossi (Italy)
Best Young Player: Manuel Amoros (France)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: BrazilIt looked like 1970 all over again: Brazil fielding an all-star cast and winning their matches without breaking a sweat. But then there was Italy, who shambled their way to Round 2, but apparently woke up in time to upset the Brazilian team and rush to the trophy. This tournament saw the first match decided on penalty shoot-outs: the thrilling semi-final between France and West Germany. Also, for this tournament, the number of entrants was expanded from 16 to 24, so that countries from outside Europe and South America would be more certain to represent their continents. While the top player and top scorer of the World Cup had previously been recognized by the media, this was the first World Cup in which both received actual awards.
- 1986 — Mexico
Cities: Guadalajara / Irapuato / León / Mexico City (Estadio Azteca [final] / Estadio Olímpico Universitario) / Monterrey / Nezahualcoyotl (Mexico City) / Puebla / Querétaro / San Nicolás de los Garza (Monterrey) / Toluca / Zapopan
Teams: 24 — Canada, Denmark and Iraq debut; Bulgaria, Mexico, Morocco, Paraguay, Portugal, South Korea and Uruguay return; Austria, Cameroon, Chile, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador, Honduras, Kuwait, New Zealand, Peru and Yugoslavia exit
Final Four: Argentina / West Germany / France / Belgium
Top Scorer: Gary Lineker (England) - 6 goals
Best Player: Diego Maradona (Argentina)
Best Young Player: Enzo Scifo (Belgium)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: BrazilThis tournament was originally awarded to Colombia, who ultimately stepped out due to lack of funds; Mexico thus became the first nation to host the World Cup twice. One man rose above the rest: Diego Maradona, who pushed his team of Argentina to their second victory, while performing his swan song with masterpieces such as his second goal against England, considered the greatest goal ever scored in the history of the sport (never mind him weaseling his way to the first goal just beforehand).
- 1990 — Italy
Cities: Bari / Bologna / Cagliari / Florence / Genoa / Milan / Naples / Palermo / Rome [final] / Turin / Udine / Verona
Teams: 24 — Costa Rica, Ireland and UAE debut; Austria, Cameroon, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, USA and Yugoslavia return; Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Hungary, Iraq, Mexico, Morocco, Northern Ireland, Paraguay, Poland and Portugal exit
Final Four: West Germany / Argentina / Italy / England
Top Scorer: Salvatore Schillaci (Italy) - 6 goals
Best player: Salvatore Schillaci (Italy)
Best young player: Robert Prosinečki (Yugoslavia)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: EnglandWidely considered the dullest edition, this is where football hit a low from which it never fully recovered: emphasis was put in stopping the opposition from scoring instead of the logical opposite (to the point that the Irish team made it to the quarter-finals without winning a match), and so there was too little scoring and too much snoring. Due to this, this tournament sports the lowest goal average of all, just 2.21 (115 goals in 52 matches). In the end, West Germany (in their last tournament before reunification) ousted Argentina from the World Champions' seat in a reprise of the 1986 final — only lower quality (the only goal was a penalty kick). One of the few interesting elements of the tournament was Cameroon demonstrating that African teams were no longer there just to make up the numbers. They shocked the world by defeating Argentina in the first game of the tournament despite having two players sent off, and reached the quarter finals.
- 1994 — USA
Cities: Chicago / Dallas / East Rutherford, New Jersey (New York City) / Foxborough (Boston) / Orlando / Pasadena (Los Angeles) [final] / Pontiac (Detroit) / Stanford (San Francisco) / Washington, D.C.
Teams: 24 — Greece, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia debut; Bolivia, Bulgaria, Mexico, Morocco, Norway, Switzerland return; West Germany renamed Germany (with East Germany reunified); USSR replaced by Russia; Austria, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, England, Egypt, Scotland, UAE, Uruguay and Yugoslavia exit
Final Four: Brazil / Italy / Sweden / Bulgaria
Top Scorers: Hristo Stoichkov (Bulgaria) and Oleg Salenko (Russia) - 6 goals each
Best Player: Romário (Brazil)
Best Young Player: Marc Overmars (Netherlands)
Best goalkeeper: Michel Preud'homme (Belgium)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: BrazilEven though the Americans' idea of football is much different, the World Cup was brought here to boost interest in the sport among a populace who prefers a derivative of rugby. America still prefers its native football to soccer (as they call this sport), but defying all expectations, USA 1994 continues to hold world records for highest public average attendance (69,000 per match, surpassing 53,000 in 1950, with a 200,000-seater stadium helping) and highest total attendance (3.6 million, even with a 24-team format) — providing the catalyst for Major League Soccer, which was created as part of a deal with FIFA to bring the World Cup to the USA in the first place. The tournament was won by Brazil, who broke their 24-year drought by beating Italy in the first final decided on penalty shootouts. Furthermore, it sparked an improvement for Team USA, qualifying for every World Cup ever since (except for 2018) and even reaching the final of the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. This was also the first World Cup in which an award for the top goalkeeper was presented; previously, the "top goalkeeper" was the keeper (or keepers) named to the tournament's All-Star Team.
- 1998 — France
Cities: Bordeaux / Lens / Lyon / Marseille / Montpellier / Nantes / Paris / Saint-Denis (Paris) [final] / Saint-Étienne / Toulouse
Teams: 32 — Croatia, Jamaica, Japan, South Africa debut; Austria, Chile, Denmark, England, France, Iran, Paraguay, Scotland, Tunisia and Yugoslavia return; Bolivia, Greece, Ireland, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland exit
Final Four: France / Brazil / Croatia / Netherlands
Top scorer: Davor uker (Croatia) - 6 goals
Best player: Ronaldo (Brazil)
Best young player: Michael Owen (England)
Best goalkeeper: Fabien Barthez (France)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: England / FranceA whole new generation of football was introduced here, with 32 contenders, thus giving a chance to almost every corner of the world to show what they were capable of. With a national side recovered from sitting out of two straight tournaments, the French hosts went on to win the tournament beating Brazil in the final, thus presenting another genius of the art to the world: Zinedine Zidane. Croatia were the surprise package, finishing 3rd in their first-ever World Cup.
- 2002 — Japan and South Korea
Cities (Japan): Fukuroi (Shizuoka) / Kashima (Ibaraki) / Kobe / Niigata / Osaka / Ōita / Rifu (Miyagi) / Saitama / Sapporo / Yokohama (Tokyo) [final]
Cities (South Korea): Busan / Daegu / Daejeon / Gwangju / Incheon / Jeonju / Seogwipo (Jeju) / Seoul / Suwon / Ulsan
Teams: 32 — China, Ecuador, Senegal, Slovenia debut; Costa Rica, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay return; Austria, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Iran, Jamaica, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Scotland and Yugoslavia exit
Final Four: Brazil / Germany / Turkey / South Korea
Top scorer: Ronaldo (Brazil) - 8 goals
Best player: Oliver Kahn (Germany)
Best young player: Landon Donovan (USA)
Best goalkeeper: Oliver Kahn (Germany)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: BelgiumThe first tournament with joint hosts, and the first one contested in Asia. It was a rather unpredictable tournament, with many favorites falling along the way (Argentina, Portugal and France in the group stage, then Italy in the Round of 16), and Asian and African teams suddenly on the ascendant (Senegal became the second African team to reach the quarterfinals, and co-hosts South Korea clinched a very respectable fourth-place finish). Brazil asserted their dominance by obtaining a record fifth World Cup win, overcoming the German team led by an Oliver Kahn in the prime of his career.note Another notable fact is that this was the USA's best performance since 1930, reaching the quarterfinals, where they lost to Germany.
- 2006 — Germany
Cities: Berlin [final] / Dortmund / Cologne / Frankfurt / Gelsenkirchen / Hamburg / Hanover / Leipzig / Kaiserslautern / Munich / Nuremberg / Stuttgart
Teams: 32 — Angola, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago and Ukraine debut; Australia, Czechoslovakia (as Czech Republic), Iran, Netherlands, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (as Serbia & Montenegro) return; Belgium, Cameroon, China, Denmark, Ireland, Nigeria, Russia, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Turkey and Uruguay exit
Final Four: Italy / France / Germany / Portugal
Top scorer: Miroslav Klose (Germany) - 5 goals
Best player: Zinedine Zidane (France)
Best young player: Lukas Podolski (Germany)
Best goalkeeper: Gianluigi Buffon (Italy)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: Brazil / SpainNot as exciting as Korea/Japan 2002 (based on the contestants' track records up until then, one could say it was even predictable), but not without its moments. Italy achieved their fourth win by defeating France on penalties, just after Zidane planted his head on Marco Materazzi's chest. France reaching the finals was a surprise in itself, as Raymond Domenech was probably the most mocked and despised manager in the team's history (though the team's play didn't get that much better after he left), yet they took down Spain, Brazil and Portugal before the final. The tournament was also noted as introducing the world to "modern" Germany (which earned a respectable third-place finish), as it was the first major international television event to show the country after going through reunification in the 1990s. This was the first World Cup to have an official award for best young player (i.e., no older than 21 during the calendar year of the tournament).
- 2010 — South Africa
Cities: Bloemfontein / Cape Town / Durban / Johannesburg [final] / Nelspruit / Polokwane / Port Elizabeth / Pretoria / Rustenburg
Teams: 32 — Serbia and Slovakia debut; Algeria, Cameroon, Chile, Denmark, Greece, Honduras, New Zealand, Nigeria, North Korea, Slovenia, South Africa and Uruguay return; Serbia & Montenegro dissolves; Angola, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Iran, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia and Ukraine exit
Final Four: Spain / Netherlands / Germany / Uruguay
Top scorers: Diego Forlán (Uruguay), Thomas Müller (Germany), Wesley Sneijder (Netherlands) and David Villa (Spain) - 5 goals each
Best player: Diego Forlán (Uruguay)
Best young player: Thomas Müller (Germany)
Best goalkeeper: Iker Casillas (Spain)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: SpainThe first World Cup held on African soil. Even though it was heralded by lively crowds (to say nothing of the ever-present, persistent droning of the vuvuzelas), many matches weren't quite as beautiful (some of them were outright sleep-inducing, like Brazil 0-0 Portugal in the group stage). Spain came out on top for the first time, after a rough, violent game against the Netherlands.
- 2014 — Brazil
Cities: Belo Horizonte / Brasília / Cuiabá / Curitiba / Fortaleza / Manaus / Natal / Rio de Janeiro [final] / Porto Alegre / Recife / Salvador / São Paulo
Final Four: Germany / Argentina / Netherlands / Brazil
Teams: 32 — Bosnia & Herzegovina debuts; Belgium, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Ecuador, Iran and Russia return; Denmark, New Zealand, North Korea, Paraguay, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and South Africa exit
Top scorer: James Rodríguez (Colombia) - 6 goals
Best player: Lionel Messi (Argentina)
Best young player: Paul Pogba (France)
Best goalkeeper: Manuel Neuer (Germany)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: ColombiaLinked in many people's minds to the 2016 Olympic Games, hosted by Rio de Janeiro, where the final game was held (though Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Manaus, Salvador and São Paulo also hosted some out-of-town games). Despite concerns about preparedness and security, from the sport's standpoint, Brazil 2014 proved to be quite a success, featuring electrifying matches with high scorelines, another biting incident involving Uruguayan striker Luis Suárez (this time against Italian defender Giorgio Chiellini in group play), surprise contenders like France — resurgent after a horrid 2010 performance (which saw much mediocrity, scandal and infighting) — and out-of-nowhere Costa Rica clawing their way to the quarterfinals, perennial favorites like England, Italy and defending champions Spain falling by the wayside, and increased interest in the sport from the USA after its national team's surprisingly good showing (including a record-breaking 16 saves by Everton FC goalkeeper Tim Howard in a defiant 1-2 loss to Belgium at the Round of 16)note , as well as a shocking 7-1 trouncing of hosts Brazil by Germany in the semifinal (which saw the latter's Polish-born striker Miroslav Klose overtake Ronaldo as the tournament's all-time leading scorer with 16 goals). Germany then proceeded to beat Argentina 1-0 in extra time in the final, winning their fourth trophy and becoming the first European team to win in the Americas.
- 2018 — Russia
Cities: Kaliningrad / Kazan / Moscow (Luzhniki Stadium [final] / Spartak Stadium) / Nizhny Novgorod / Rostov-on-Don / Saint Petersburg / Samara / Saransk / Sochi / Volgograd / Yekaterinburg
Teams: 32 — Iceland and Panama debut; Denmark, Egypt, Morocco, Peru, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sweden and Tunisia return; Algeria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Cameroon, Chile, Ecuador, Ghana, Greece, Honduras, Italy, Ivory Coast, Netherlands and USA exit
Final Four: France / Croatia / Belgium / England
Top scorer: Harry Kane (England) - 6 goals
Best player: Luka Modrić (Croatia)
Best young player: Kylian Mbappé (France)
Best goalkeeper: Thibaut Courtois (Belgium)
Fair Play Trophy Winner: SpainFirst edition hosted in Eastern Europe, as well as linked with the 2014 Winter Olympics hosted by Sochi, both in the host stadiums (Fisht Stadium was also used for the ceremonies) and the spending. For the first time, all FIFA members entered the qualifiers (except host Russia), although Indonesia and Zimbabwe were disqualified before their matches, while Gibraltar and Kosovo made their debut. Another first in this tournament is that the draw saw all qualified teams divided into pots by strength instead of locale as in previous yearsnote . This edition also introduced video assistant referees (VAR), designed to help reduce the risk of human error in match officiating, as well as a "fair play" tiebreaker, wherein demerits are handed depending on the amount of yellow and/or red cards accrued (-1 per single yellow, -3 per double yellow, -4 per single red, and -5 per yellow-and-red). Arguably the least predictable edition since Korea/Japan 2002, with Italy and Netherlands not even passing the qualifiers, defending champions Germany going out in the group stages for the first time (and the fourth time a defending champion fell so early in the last five editions) with a surprising final defeat against also-ran South Korea, an underperforming Argentina somehow managing to squeeze through to the Round of 16, and hosts Russia reaching the quarter-finals—and in some style, too—despite being the lowest-ranked participating team according to the FIFA rankings. Also, for the first time since Spain 1982, no African team made it to the Round of 16, with Senegal narrowly losing a spot to Japan due to a worse fair play rating (-6 against Japan's -4, all on single yellow cards). The Final Four, all European teams, were quite unexpected: the "golden generation" of Belgium, which cut through surprise package Japan and powerhouse Brazil; a youthful France that had a more relaxed group stage before coming alive at the expense of powerhouses Argentina and Uruguay; England defying expectations by finally winning a penalty shootout, albeit after a rough, foul-ridden Round of 16 tie with Colombia, before blanking Sweden; and surprise package Croatia winning all three of its group stage matches, including a 3-0 against Argentina, before surviving penalty shootouts against Denmark and Russia. At the end of the semifinals, France and Croatia edged their way to the final, with Belgium earning its best-ever finish with a 2-0 victory over England in the third-place match, before France outlasted Croatia in a quite bizarre finale (including the first time a player scored both an own goal and a goal, courtesy of Croatian player Mario Mandukić) with a final score of 4-2, to score its second-ever World Cup trophy and first on foreign soil, with nineteen-year-old super rookie Kylian Mbappé becoming the second-ever teenager to score in a Final since Brazil's Pelé in Sweden 1958, and manager Didier Deschamps, himself the captain of France's first championship team twenty years ago, becoming only the third-ever man to win World Cups both as a player and a manager (following Brazil's Mário Zagallo [Sweden 1958 and Chile 1962 / Mexico 1970] and Germany's Franz Beckenbauer [West Germany 1974 / Italy 1990], as well as the second-ever winning captain-turned-manager after Beckenbauer).
- 2022 — Qatar
Cities: Al Khor / Al Rayyan / Al Wakrah / Doha / Lusail / Madinat ash Shamal / Umm Salal
Will be the first tournament in the Middle East. Curiously, Qatar have never participated in the tournament before and will be the first country in 88 years (since Italy 1934) to host the tournament without having taken part in it before. Infamously controversial, with questions hanging over Qatar being chosen over the USA, South Korea, Japan and Australia (all of which had at least moderately successful football programs, with the former three even having had past hosting experience), as well as further concerns over Qatar's use of what it claims is Sharia (i.e. Muslim law, which in most implementations for example makes illegal homosexuality and alcohol, the latter which clashes with FIFA's sponsorship with Budweiser), climate (with temperatures routinely over 50°C/122°F during summer), and the alleged use of slave labor in its migrant-heavy labor force. Following a report by England's Sunday Times that approximately $5 million worth of bribes were given to the voting committee by Qatari ex-FIFA Vice Grand President Mohammad bin Hammam, FIFA has begun an inquiry into the incident. The next development was FIFA moving the tournament dates between November and December, when average high temperatures are in a much more manageable range of 2429°C/7585°F. As of May 2015, the American government has indicted various FIFA officials on charges of wire fraud, racketeering, and money laundering, and Switzerland has announced its own criminal investigation specifically into the accusations of bribery regarding the 2018 and 2022 host selections.
- 2026 — Canada, Mexico and USA
Potential Cities (Canada): Edmonton, Alberta / Montreal, Quebec / Toronto, Ontario
Potential Cities (Mexico): Guadalajara, Jalisco / Mexico City / Monterrey, Nuevo León
Potential Cities (USA): Arlington, Texas (Dallas) / Atlanta, Georgia / Baltimore, Maryland / Cincinnati, Ohio / Denver, Colorado / East Rutherford, New Jersey (New York City, New York) [Final] / Foxborough, Massachusetts (Boston) / Houston, Texas / Kansas City, Missouri / Landover, Maryland (Washington, D.C.) / Miami Gardens, Florida (Miami) / Nashville, Tennessee / Orlando, Florida / Pasadena, California (Los Angeles) / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Santa Clara, California (San Francisco) / Seattle, Washington
Teams: 48First edition to have multiple hosts since Korea/Japan 2002 (as well as the first with three countries). One major change to the format is the addition of sixteen teams to the final tournament, for a total of 48. It is also the first edition where all six FIFA confederations are guaranteed at least a slot. As per an agreement between the three winning nations, Canada and Mexico will host ten games (all on group stages) apiece, with the USA holding the remaining sixty (including the playoff matches), though as of this writing sixteen cities will have to be narrowed down from 23 candidates (see above). In light of the great cloud of controversy surrounding the selection of Qatar 2022 (and, to a lesser extent, Russia 2018), the host selection process was changed from a closed-doors meeting between a select few executives to a televised voting by representatives of all eligible member-nations (barring the bidding nations), with the "United" bid handily winning against Morocco, 134-65 (with one "neither" entry from Iran and abstentions from Cuba, Slovenia and Spain; besides the four bidding nations, US territories Guam, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands were rendered ineligible due to Morocco protesting a potential conflict of interest, while Ghana was serving suspension due to bribery charges). Like Brazil 2014 and Russia 2018, this edition is also partially linked to the 2028 Summer Olympics hosted by Los Angeles (with the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as San Diego, hosting some out-of-town matches).
- 1991 — China
Cities: Foshan / Guangzhou (final) / Jiangmen / Zhongshan
Teams: 12 — Brazil, China, Chinese Taipei, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden and USA debut
Final Four: USA / Norway / Sweden / Germany
Top scorer: Michelle Akers (USA) - 10 goals
Best player: Carin Jennings(-Gabarra) (USA)
Fair Play Award winner: GermanyThe inaugural women's tournament, featuring twelve teams in three groups. FIFA was reluctant to use the "World Cup" for this tournament, instead officially calling it the "1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup". (Before the 1995 edition, FIFA retconned it as the first Women's World Cup.) Additionally, all matches were played with 40-minute halves instead of the standard 45. The USA won the inaugural final against Norway 2-1.
- 1995 — Sweden
Cities: Gävle / Helsingborg / Karlstad / Solna (Stockholm) (final) / Västerås
Teams: 12 — Australia, Canada and England debut; Chinese Taipei, Italy and New Zealand exit
Final Four: Norway / Germany / USA / China
Top scorer: Ann-Kristin Aarønes (Norway) - 6 goals
Best player: Hege Riise (Norway)
Fair Play Award winner: SwedenThe first FIFA Women's World Cup hosted in Europe, the first to be officially named as such, and the first in which matches were the standard 90 minutes.
- 1999 — USA
Cities: Chicago / East Rutherford, New Jersey (New York City) / Foxborough (Boston) / Palo Alto (San Francisco) / Pasadena (Los Angeles) (final) / Portland / San Jose / Landover, Maryland (Washington, D.C.)
Teams: 16 — Ghana, Mexico, North Korea and Russia debut; Italy returns; England exits
Final Four: USA / China / Brazil / Norway
Top scorer: Sun Wen (China) and Sissi (Brazil) - 7 goalsnote
Best player: Sun Wen (China)
Fair Play Award winner: ChinaLike USA 1994 five years earlier, USA 1999 set a record — its final, won by USA against China via a 5-4 penalty shootout (with 0-0 on regulation time), is the most attended game in the history of women's sports (not just football) with over 90,000 live spectators. This edition also saw the final tournament expand to 16 teams, at which it remained through 2011. It was also the first in which the current design of the women's trophy was used.
- 2003 — USA
Cities: Carson (Los Angeles) (final) / Columbus / Foxborough (Boston) / Philadelphia / Portland / Washington, D.C.
Teams: 16 — Argentina, France and South Korea debut; Denmark, Italy and Mexico exit
Final Four: Germany / Sweden / USA / Canada
Top scorer: Birgit Prinz (Germany) - 7 goals
Best player: Birgit Prinz (Germany)
Best goalkeeper: Silke Rottenberg (Germany)
Fair Play Award winner: ChinaThe 2003 Women's World Cup was originally to be hosted by China, but due to the SARS outbreak the tournament had to turn to the previous host. Won by Germany against Sweden, 2-1, in a game that reached sudden-death.
- 2007 — China
Cities: Chengdu / Hangzhou / Shanghai (final) / Tianjin / Wuhan
Teams: 16 — Denmark, England and New Zealand return; France, Russia and South Korea exit
Final Four: Germany / Brazil / USA / Norway
Top scorer: Marta (Brazil) - 7 goals
Best player: Marta (Brazil)
Best goalkeeper: Nadine Angerer (Germany)
Fair Play Award winner: NorwayAs compensation for having the 2003 tournament withdrawn from them due to the SARS outbreak, China was automatically given the 2007 edition, which began with a wrecking of Germany against Argentina, 11-0 (at the time the highest scoring match in the tournament's history) and ending with the same team mopping Brazil, 2-0, to become the first back-to-back champion in the tournament, as well as the first champion in either the men's or women's version not to surrender a goal. So far, this edition is also the only World Cup for either sex where no teams made a debut and all teams participating had participated in at least one previously held tournament. It's also the only Women's World Cup, and the last World Cup for either sex, in which no knockout matches went into extra time.
- 2011 — Germany
Cities: Augsburg / Berlin / Dresden / Frankfurt (final) / Leverkusen / Mönchengladbach / Sinsheim / Wolfsburg
Teams: 16 — Colombia and Equatorial Guinea debut; France and Mexico return; Argentina, China, Denmark and Ghana exit
Final Four: Japan / USA / Sweden / France
Top scorer: Homare Sawa (Japan) - 5 goals
Best player: Homare Sawa (Japan)
Best young player: Caitlin Foord (Australia)
Best goalkeeper: Hope Solo (USA)
Fair Play Award winner: JapanIn perhaps the most surprising run in Women's World Cup history, Japan took down the hosts and co-favorites Germany in the quarterfinals, beat perennial power Sweden in the semis, and then stunned the other favorite, the USA, with a 3-1 penalty shootout after a 2-2 draw in regulation time — an emphatic Throw the Dog a Bone moment for a country still reeling over a massive earthquake and tsunami a few months earlier.
- 2015 — Canada
Cities: Edmonton / Moncton / Montreal / Ottawa / Vancouver (final) / Winnipeg
Teams: 24 — Cameroon, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and Thailand debut; China returns; Equatorial Guinea exits; North Korea banned for doping
Final Four: USA / Japan / England / Germany
Top scorer: Célia aić (Germany)note and Carli Lloyd (USA) 6 goals
Best player: Carli Lloyd (USA)
Best young player: Kadeisha Buchanan (Canada)
Best goalkeeper: Hope Solo (USA)
Fair Play Award winner: FranceThe first women's tournament to feature a 24-team format. Also the first time that any World Cup match for either sex was played on an artificial surface (in fact, all matches were on such surfaces). Given the almost universally negative reception by both fans and players, it will likely also be the last time that any World Cup match is played on an artificial surface. Additionally, North Korea was banned from the 2015 tournament after several of their players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs during the 2011 edition, making them the first team ever banned from a Women's World Cup. It will definitely live under the shadow of poor officiating and the turf fields, both of which had a tremendous impact on certain results. The tournament was fraught with surprises, such as Australia defeating top contenders Brazil in the Round of 16, England knocking out hosts Canada at the quarterfinals, only to suffer a hideously unfortunate defeat to Japan, losing 1-2 thanks to an own goal, before redeeming themselves by beating world #1 Germany for third-place (its best placing in any World Cup of any gender since the men won 1966), and USA seemingly playing flatly during the group stage, only to explode against China during the quarterfinal, blank Germany at the semifinals, and avenge its 2011 finals loss to Japan with a 5-2 thumping, scoring its first four goals in the first sixteen minutes, including a hat-trick by Carli Lloyd capped off by a goal from halfway across the field.
- 2019 — France
Cities: Décines [Lyon] (final) / Grenoble / Le Havre / Montpellier / Nice / Paris / Reims / Rennes / Valenciennes
Teams: 24 — Chile, Jamaica, Scotland, and South Africa debut; Argentina and Italy return; Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Mexico, and Switzerland exit
Final Four: USA / Netherlands / Sweden / England
Top scorers: Megan Rapinoe (USA),note Alex Morgan (USA), and Ellen White (England)note - 6 goals
Best player: Megan Rapinoe (USA)
Best young player: Giulia Gwinn (Germany)
Best goalkeeper: Sari van Veenendaal (Netherlands)
Fair Play Award winner: FranceFrance hosted the last edition of the decade. The tournament had to deal with a couple of controversies even before the opening match. Despite FIFA's claims to be working to promote the women's game, the scheduling of the final sent a decidedly mixed message. You would think that the biggest match in the women's game should be the biggest event in world football on that day, right? Nope. The finals of not one, but two men's continental championships were on the same day as the finalthe Copa América in Rio de Janeiro, and the CONCACAF Gold Cup in Chicago. The next brouhaha arose when the first tickets were printed in May 2019. Countless fans who bought multiple tickets for a given game found that they weren't adjacent, and in some cases were in different sections of the stadium. This included married couples and families with young children. While FIFA allowed purchase of multiple tickets, it made no provision for allowing them to purchase adjacent tickets. As for the tournament itself, the opening group matches saw several major milestones. Brazil's Formiga became the first player of either sex to appear in seven World Cups; her teammate Marta took sole possession of the record for most career World Cup goals by a player of either sex (17); and the USWNT broke Germany's record from 2007 for most lopsided win, destroying Thailand 130. The tournament as a whole was most notable as the coming-out party for European women's football, with seven of the eight quarterfinalists being UEFA members... though in the end it was the usual suspects of the USWNT successfully defending their title in dominating fashion, never trailing during the tournament. The event was also marked by officiating controversies. FIFA chose to unveil several significant rules changes at the World Cup, most notably regarding the positioning of keepers during penalty kicks, and announced some of those changes literally days before the event began. On top of this, it mandated the use of video review of keepers' positions, with more than one penalty being ordered retaken after review. And according to these stories, FIFA and the local organizers dropped the ball on promoting the event, especially in Paris. In fact, the last match to be held in Paris was a quarterfinal.
- 2023 — Australia and New Zealand
Cities (Australia): Adelaide, South Australia / Brisbane, Queensland / Melbourne, Victoria / Perth, Western Australia / Sydney, New South Wales (Stadium Australia [final] / Sydney Football Stadium)
Cities (New Zealand): Auckland / Dunedin, Otago Region / Hamilton, Waikato Region / Wellington
Teams: 32 Australia and New Zealand returnThe next women's edition, the first with co-hosts, will see the final tournament expand to 32 teams. It's also the first Women's World Cup to be hosted in the southern hemisphere, the first FIFA senior (i.e., not age-restricted) tournament in Oceania* and the first FIFA tournament of any type hosted across multiple confederations (Australia: AFC, New Zealand: OFC).
Tropes found in this sporting event:
- The Artifact: While most team kits use the colours in their country's national flag, the German kit is black and white, and the Italian kit is all or mostly blue. This is because black and white, on the one hand, and blue, on the other, were the heraldic colours of the royal houses of Hohenzollern and Savoy, which reigned in Germany and Italy, respectively, before these countries became republics in 1919 and 1946 (also, Germany's flag before the Nazi regime was black, white and red, so there's another precedent); it's the same reason why Netherlands play in orange, which is the heraldic color of the Orange-Nassau. Meanwhile, the Russian national team still uses the same dark red kit with a few golden details design used by the Soviet Union, despite the USSR's dissolution in 1991 (FIFA recognizes the Russian team as heir of the Soviet team and attributes the latter's historical statistics to the former). Changing the kit's design would be unthinkable in the case of Italy, whose national team is well known by its nickname Gli Azzurri ("The Blues"). For other countries, much of what is said of Wearing a Flag on Your Head in the page for the Olympic Games also applies here.
- The dark red and golden kits, which Russia used between Euro 2012 and 2016, were actually a throwback to the days of the Russian Empire. The 2018 home kit, yes, is a throwback to the USSR's red and white, much like many of Adidas' designs for the year. Before that, they used the three colours of the Russian flag interchangeably.
- Artifact Title: The original trophy was a cup, but the one used since 1974, pictured atop this page, isn't (at least the official name is FIFA World Cup Trophy).
- Big Brother Instinct: Zinedine Zidane's notorious headbutt on Marco Materazzi, which got him sent off in the last game of his career, was reportedly because Materazzi made a crude remark about his sister.
- Calvinball: While a few tournaments were more straightforward (1934-38: single-elimination tournament; 1958-70: 16 teams in 4 groups, the top 2 of each group qualify; 1986-94: 24 teams in 6 groups, top 2 plus 4 best third places qualify; since 1998: 32 teams in 8 groups, the top 2 in each qualify) the format was sometimes too complicated. One of the official films even said the qualifying rules were difficult even for nuclear physicists.
- Even in the straightforward tournaments, tiebreakers can still be this way. 2018 in particular saw Japan finish with exactly the same stats against Senegal after three matches played, leading to them qualifying for the next round due to fair play (having received fewer yellow cards), which was a first in the entire tournament's history.
- Color-Coded Multiplayer: Whenever two teams with the same color meet, one is forced to use their away kit. It's happened five times in the finals, all on the men's side: two teams in yellow in 1958 (Brazil won wearing blue), white in 1966 (England won in red, and thus that jersey is reserved for special occasions), blue in 2006 (this time, Italy won over a French team in white) orange/red in 2010 (Spain won wearing blue against the Netherlands) and white in 2014 (Germany won against Argentina, who were in dark blue). One game in 1978 had France and Hungary arriving in the stadium with white jerseys, and the officials rushed to get an extra kit, with France eventually playing with the striped jerseys of a local team.
- Consolation Prize:
- Not only do the runners-up earn medals, but also the winners of the third-place match, played between the losers of the semifinals.
- Every team that participates in the tournament earns some prize money. Obviously, the further your team advances, the higher the reward. However, even those teams eliminated in the group stages will still earn prizes numbering in the millions of dollars (for the men) just for participating. The prizes are considerably smaller in the women's edition.
- Curb-Stomp Battle: Overmatched games can get to this - the records are Hungary 101 El Salvador (1982) for men and USA 130 Thailand (2019) for women. And sometimes even games between traditional squads get lopsided (2014 had Netherlands 5-1 Spain and Germany 71 Brazil).
- Dark Horse Victory: Sometimes they play each other, ensuring one of them goes even further. 2014 in particular saw two of them (Greece and Costa Rica) go head-to-head in the knockout stages, ensuring that one of them would go further in the tournament than they had ever gone before.
- Down to the Last Play: As with any football tournament, this happens often. A particularly shocking moment came in Brazil 2014, when Portugal equalised against the USA in the 95th minute. The USA, this time the women's team, is also responsible for the latest goal in World Cup history, already in extra time: 122 minutes, equalizing against Brazil and forcing a penalty shootout. There have also been some crucial misses, the most famous being Luis Suárez blocking a shot with his hand late in extra time against Ghana in the 2010 quarter-final, and Asamoah Gyan missing the resultant penalty. Uruguay went on to win 4-2 on penalties.
- The 2018 instalment was very fond of this, with a grand total of 23 goals scored in the 90th minute or later (not including extra time or shootouts), shattering the record of 14 set by the previous tournament. Of those 23, 13 were equalizing or go-ahead goals, with shocking finishes occurring in matches such as Germany vs. Sweden, South Korea vs. Germany, and Belgium vs. Japan.
- Early Installment Weirdness:
- Uruguay 1930 didn't have a third-place match. Consequently the third- and fourth-placed teams (the USA and Yugoslavia, respectively) were determined by their overall performance. Also, it was an invitational tournament, meaning anyone who wanted to play could (but since so many didn't, the tournament ended up with three less teams than it was supposed to have).
- Brazil 1950 had no official World Cup Final. The game that is considered to be the de facto final, Brazil vs. Uruguay (1-2) was in fact just the final game of a round robin between four teams. It just so happened that, since both Sweden (two losses) and Spain (one draw, one loss) were already out of contention, the match would determine the eventual champion. Brazil only needed to draw the game but lost and Uruguay became champion.
- China 1991 used 40-minute halves instead of the standard 45. Also, FIFA didn't call it the "Women's World Cup" at the time.
- Ensemble Dark Horse: One or two teams usually show up out of nowhere and overperform in each iteration of the tournament. Croatia pulled this twice, reaching the semifinals in their debut in 1998, and going all the way to the final in 2018.
- Establishing Series Moment:
- Brazil 2014 had two of these. The first goal of the tournament was an own goal, by Brazil. However, an even bigger moment was how the Netherlands annihilated Spain 5-1 in their opening match, foreshadowing the numerous curb stomps and goals the 2014 edition had to offer.
- The finals of all three Cups of The '50s: 1950 saw Uruguay beat hosts Brazil, giving them a Shocking Defeat Legacy and proving the Cup is unpredictable; 1954 had another surprise in the then-unbeatable Hungary losing to Germany, who soon became established as a powerhouse; and 1958 had Brazil winning it all to set their place as the kings of Association Football. The latter two even repeated in a way (the Germans again beat a purposed favorite with their less flashy game in 1974, and Brazil became the first team to win three, four, and five titles in 1970, 1994, and 2002.)
- While the USWNT had won the first women's edition in 1991, it was the 1999 winners who became iconic figures for women's football/soccer, and even for women's sports as a whole (especially in the States). The Golden Ball winners on the USWNT's next two championship teams were both teenagers when Brandi Chastain scored her famous Cup-winning penaltyCarli Lloyd (2015) was a week shy of her 17th birthday, and Megan Rapinoe (2019) had turned 14 just days before.
- Every Year They Fizzle Out:
- For men, the Netherlands, who have reached 3 finals (and two more semifinals) and lost them all. For women, Brazil (one lost final, one third place, despite the tournament's highest scorer ever, Marta) and Sweden (one lost final, three third places).
- For men, this was also the case of Spain for a long time before their 2010 win. If you watch a Spanish show made before 2010, there is a big chance that someone will complain that the national team never wins. If you watch a show made after 2010, there is a big chance that any flashback will have a character commenting that the mere idea of the national team winning is ridiculous.
- Mexico have made it out of the group stages on nine occasions, including seven in a row since 1994, and yet they've only managed to pass the round of 16 twice, by virtue of being the local team in Mexico '70 and '86.
- England are the archetypal example, and up to the 2014 World Cup, were invariably hyped up by the English press as this being their year, despite a penchant for going out in the Quarter Finals - or, in 2010, the Round of 16 in a 4-1 loss to Germany. In 2014, they didn't even manage to get out of the group. At this point, either the manager, the long English season (the only European one without a Winter break - although no mention is ever made of the players for other countries who play for an English team) or the referee is usually blamed. In the 2010 example, there was actually some justice to this accusation: when Germany were 2-1 up, England midfielder Frank Lampard shot from distance and the ball hit the bar, going in, before being scrambled out. However, the referee deemed that it hadn't crossed the line, changing the entire complexion of the game (though it doesn't change the fact that England were played off the park). There is also some justice to England being a much fancied team - frequently ranked in the top 8 in the world, the 'Golden Generation' side of Terry, Ferdinand, Cole, Gary Neville, Lampard, Gerrard, Beckham, Rooney and Owen contained some of the best players on the planet, with plenty of top players to spare, and was capable of putting in some truly spectacular performances in qualifying (being the highest scorers in the run-up to the 2010 World Cup) and friendlies (notable victories including the 5-1 demolition of Germany in Munich in 2001). They just had terrible luck with injuries, tended not to play as a team (the Gerrard-Lampard dilemma baffled four successive England managers) and for a group of players who were almost all Champions League and Premier League winners, peculiarly prone to stage fright.
- This streak seemed to be broken in 2018, when the least fancied, least experienced, and arguably least talented, England squad of modern times under former U-21 manager Gareth Southgate went to Russia, with the expectation being that they'd go out in the Round of 16. Reaching the Quarter-Finals would be a major achievement. Instead, captained by ultimate Golden Boot winner Harry Kane, they cruised to a first semi-final appearance since 1990 (before 17 out of 23 of the squad were even born), finally broke the penalty curse after a bad-tempered Round of 16 match against Colombia, and only conceded four goals along the way - one of which was a late consolation for Panama, who they thumped 6-1, and another of which was in a 1-0 loss to Belgium in the last group game, where England (having already qualified with Belgium) put out their second side - though, to be fair, so did Belgium. No one quite knows what to make of this, least of all the English.
- Exposition Diagram: You don't understand what a 4-4-2 formation is? Wait for some graphics to come up at the start of the match to show you!
- Failure Gambit: In 1954, West Germany were about to face favorites Hungary in the group stage. Manager Sepp Herberger rested several key players and played others out of position so they'd lose (and did handily, 8-3 to the Magyars!), but would be at full force for the game against Turkey that would determine who would qualify. Finishing second also guaranteed easier match-ups in the playoffs against fellow group runner-ups, until an Heroic Rematch against Hungary, who against a German squad not holding back lost their first game in 5 years in the Final.
- Germanic Efficiency: Germany are the only country to win both the men's and women's World Cup, and only the Brazilian men and US women have more titles than them. Germany's efficiency even extends to their penalties, as they owned the longest streak of converted penalties in history, and it was treated as a national shock when Lukas Podolski missed a penalty in 2010. This makes them the direct opposite of England, who are generally considered to be unable to score a penalty to save their collective livesnote - English striker Gary Lineker once famously remarked: "Football is a simple game. Twenty-two men kick a ball around for ninety minutes and at the end, the Germans win." The only cups that averted this were 1938 (despite being reinforced by Austrian players due to the Anschluss, Germany lost to Switzerland in round 1), 2011 (as hosts and two-time defending champions, lost in the quarterfinals to Japan), and 2018 (as defending champions, ignominiously went out in the group stage, at the bottom of the group, after losing to Mexico and South Korea).note
- Heroic Rematch: At times, a decisive knockout game will be a repeat of a group-stage match (the 1954 and 1962 finals, the Brazilian semifinals in 1994 and 2002), or of a previous tournament (both the 1986 and 1990 finals for men and the 2011 and 2015 for women had the same teams but different results; meanwhile, the 2018 final was a rematch of one of the 1998 semifinals). And it might happen even in the group stage, as the first match of 2010 finalists Spain and Netherlands in the next World Cup was against each other.
- History Repeats: Many matches repeat often. The men's record is 7 for Brazil vs Sweden (including the 1958 Final, and the Swedes never won: 2 draws, 5 defeats), Germany (West Germany) vs Serbia (Yugoslavia) (4-1-2), and Germany vs Argentina (4-2-1, including three different finals; Argentina only won the 1986 final, and one of the draws was a knockout game the Germans won on penalties). The women's one is 6 for USA - Sweden (4-1-1, all in the group stage).
- Brazil, Italy, and Germany all won their fourth titles 24 years after the third, eliminating the hosts in the knockout stages, and with a final that entered extra time (only the Germans averted the penalty shootout) against a team that primarily wears blue (though France had to play Italy on white jerseys). And all their third titles were against a fellow two-time champion that eliminated the home team.
- England going out in the quarter-finals was something you could set your watch to, until 2010 (when they went out in the Last 16) and 2014 (when they were eliminated after two matches). Then in 2018, they promptly reached the semi-finals, to massive bafflement.
- Speaking of group drawing, since 1994 in the men's tournament, Argentina and Nigeria have fallen into the same group five times out of seven (the exceptions being 1998 and 2006, for which Nigeria did not qualify). Their 2010 group was even a near-repeat of the 1994 one, with Greece and only a different fourth country (Bulgaria in 1994, South Korea in 2010).
- Mexico have gone out in the round of sixteen in the last seven tournaments.
- On the women's side, the 2019 tournament was the sixth time that the USA and Sweden, both of which have qualified for all eight tournaments to date, were together (only being apart in 1995 and 1999). Their 2003 and 2007 groups were identical, with Nigeria and North Korea joining them. The 2011 group was a near-repeat of the previous two, with Nigeria replaced by Colombia. From the USWNT's perspective, the 2003 group was a near-repeat of 1999, with Sweden replacing Denmark.
- This means that not only has the USWNT been drawn with Sweden in five straight Cups, it was with North Korea in four straight (19992011).
- Hoist by His Own Petard: Own goals. 2014 had one starting the Cup, 2015 had a spectacularly unfortunate one ending England's hopes of reaching the final, and 2018 had one starting the final match.
- Home Field Advantage:
- The host usually outperforms (Sweden's only final, Chile and South Korea's only semifinals, Mexico's only quarterfinals and Switzerland's last, Russia's first post-Soviet playoff), at times even winning (all champions except Brazil and Spain have done so; in fact, England's only title, in 1966, was at home). For the drawing of opponents, hosts are also placed among the top seeds (if they're not already there), ensuring that their opponents in the first round will be weaker on average than if they were drawn normally. The only true Epic Fail by a home team was South Africa in 2010, becoming the first to not even pass to Round 2 — though they did go out with a win against France (even if this is somewhat tempered by the fact that the French had gone on strike) and considering South Africa's lowly status (while its people enjoy football, they're still more of a rugby nation), it wasn't a surprise.
- Since 1975 Brazil epitomized this trope: winning 62 straight competitive international matches on their home turf. This trend continued through the 2014 tournament which was held in Brazil... until the Germans absolutely destroyed them in the semifinal by a score of 71. The third place match was also a blowout, 03 to the Netherlands, with the home crowd booing.
- In an expanded sense of home field, all but one of the tournaments on European soil were won by European teams (Brazil won in '58), and all but one of the tournaments on the Americas were won by South American nations (Germany won in 2014). The tournaments hosted in Asia and Africa were won by Brazil (the only one to win in three continents, if both Americas are counted together) and Spain respectively.
- While in the male tournament it's very common, in the women's cup only the United States managed to get to the semifinals or further at home (won in 1999, third in 2003). The others all fell in the quarterfinals: China (1991 to Sweden, 2007 to Norway), Sweden (1995 to China), Germany (2011 to underdog Japan, who went on to win the Cup), Canada (2015 to underdog England - and given their possible path to the finals was somewhat easy after Brazil lost, many argued FIFA had purposely seeded the tournament so the home team could get to the decision), and France (2019 to the top-ranked USA, which went on to win the Cup).
- Homogenous Multinational Ad Campaign: In the biggest sporting event in the world with ad boards, the only way to work.
- Instant-Win Condition: The short-lived "Golden Goal" rule (the team that scored first in the extra-time would automatically win the game) allowed Laurent Blanc (France v Paraguay '98), Henri Camara (Senegal vs Sweden '02), Ahn Jun-Hwang (S Korea vs Italy '02) and İlhan Mansız (Turkey vs Senegal '02) to end the game, no questions asked. Nia Künzer took it Up to Eleven, winning the World Cup for Germany in 2003 against Sweden. The rule, which was first implemented in Euro '96, was abolished in 2004, when it was replaced with the Silver Goal (the game goes on even if a team scores, but if there's no equaliser before the end of the first half of extra time, the match ends at 105 minutes), which only lasted through the 2006 tournament.
- Internal Homage: The official mascot of France 2019, a young anthropomorphic female chicken known as ettie (officially lower case), was the in-universe daughter of Footix, the official mascot of France 1998.
- Karma Houdini: Sometimes players go scot-free after committing a foul that should have been a straight red card or a yellow card; in other cases, the foul might not be called at all.
- Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics: Football coverage in general.
- Large Ham: Mexican coach Miguel "Piojo" Herrera went viral in Brazil 2014 for his highly passionate reactions to his teams' performance.
- Large Ham Announcer: Mexican commentators.
- Long-Runners: Three men have played in five World CupsAntonio Carbajal (Mexico, 19501966), Lothar Matthäus ([West] Germany, 19821998), and Rafael Márquez (Mexico, 20022018).note On the women's side, seven have appeared in five World Cups; Japan's Homare Sawa in six (19952015); and Brazil's Formiga in seven (19952019).
- Loophole Abuse
- The whole "interfering with play" part of the offside law has been much abused by attackers. Italy and AC Milan former international striker Filippo Inzaghi was said to have been "born offside"; he was more often than not caught in the wrong.
- The Non-Aggression Pact of Gijón took loophole abuse to a completely new level. It was bad enough that it caused FIFA to change the rules and comparisons to Gijón always arise when two teams could benefit from an agreement.
- Averted when North Korea tried to bring in a striker in one of the three roster spots reserved for goalkeepers, as FIFA stated he could only enter the pitch as a goalie.
- Men Buy from Mars, Women Buy from Venus: Ad breaks tend to involve commercials aimed at men during the World Cup, even though there is a high number of women watching. Indeed, the Trope Namer Mars have made themselves the Official Chocolate Supplier to the England Team.
- Mis-blamed: Each time a team has been eliminated from the competition, many people mock the fans of that team that they suffer retribution for their own arrogance instead of the players' arrogance. For example, when Mexican fans burned to ashes Germany's flag in 2018, many fans outside of Latin America claimed this led to Mexico's loss to Brazil in the next round, with Spaniards also saying that Mexico was also getting payback for insulting them in a racist way when Spain lost to Russia the day before. None of these actions had been done by the Mexican players, but by their fans.
- Moral Myopia: Sometimes, the team that lost will complain to the referee which has being helpful to the other team in order to ensure the win by not calling their fouls or they don't give that player a card, when actually they do the same, if not worse. Only South Korea's matches against Italy and Spain in 2002 hold true that the referees were more forgiving to the former team.
- Music at Sporting Events: Every match is preceded by the playing of both teams' national anthems. Much national pride ensues, especially when the fan contingent from one country is large enough and sings along loud enough to be heard on television. Brazil took a step further at home in 2014. As the Brazilian anthem is too long, a shortened version is played at World Cup matches. By the end of it, however, the crowd kept singing until the real end of the lyrics at every match.
- Subverted quite brutally in 2010. Matches in general showcase songs and music from the nations of the two teams playing, as well as the Cup hosts. Italia 90 featured Luciano Pavarotti. With that in mind, people were looking forward to the soulful music of South Africa when they ventured to the Cradle of Human Life. And instead, they got this.
Des Clarke: I thought the vuvuzela was an absolute assault on the ears... and this is coming from someone that comes from a country that produced the bagpipes.
- Subverted quite brutally in 2010. Matches in general showcase songs and music from the nations of the two teams playing, as well as the Cup hosts. Italia 90 featured Luciano Pavarotti. With that in mind, people were looking forward to the soulful music of South Africa when they ventured to the Cradle of Human Life. And instead, they got this.
- Obvious Rule Patch: The infamous Non-Aggression Pact of Gijón caused a rule change requiring the last two matches of each group to be played at the same time.
- Opposing Sports Team:
- The United States, whom everyone loves to thump on even though they are a mid-level team at best (at least on the men's side, the women's team is hated exactly because it's dominating). A lot of this has to do with the other kind of football that they like, and how obnoxious the arguments between each side tend to be. There's a mixture of this and Every Year They Fizzle Out, since the USA consistently make it out of the Group Stage, only to be knocked out by teams ranked worse than them (especially infamous in 2006, given that at one point in time, they were the #5 team in the world and only managed to win one point). American fans and players, however, see themselves differently.
- A few (particularly Wales, Scotland and either side of Ireland) consider the England team to be this as well - just google "Anyone But England".
- The infamous 'Disgrace of Gijón' in the 1982 World Cup made West Germany this, to the point where some of their supporters even disowned them. During the match, one German fan took his disgust Up to Eleven, burning a German flag in the stands.note
- South Korea in 2002 is considered this due to their infamous win against Spain, where the referees blocked the Spanish goals for offside, same thing happened to Italy in the previous round.
- Any team that Spain face in any round could be considered this, because the opposing team more often than not should end the match with at least ten players in the field. It is also note to say that people believe Spain is the best example of this trope for a European team while in fact is the other way around.
- "Rashomon"-Style: It's a sport event, you hardly ever will encounter a match where everyone saw it all.
- Retcon: As noted above in the "Women's Tournaments" folder, the 1991 edition wasn't called the Women's World Cup at the time. By the time the 1995 edition rolled around, FIFA had changed its mind, retroactively calling the 1991 tournament the first Women's World Cup.
- Second Place Is for Losers: Not only players feel terrible for the defeat - just see Messi's sadness receiving the Golden Ball - but the runner-ups hardly get any historical love, with the exception of the Hungarian "Golden Team" of 1954 and the Dutch "Clockwork Orange" from 1974\8.
- Shirtless Scene: Now banned by FIFA (the rules do state that taking off your shirt awards you a yellow card, though most of the time, players do it anyway), but that didn't stop Andrés Iniesta from shedding his to showcase a shirt honoring his dead friend when he scored the Cup-winning goal against the Netherlands in 2010.
- This also happens in the women's game, though less frequently - and even when it does, the fairly heavy-duty sports bras mean that it's not much different from the men's game. A famous case was Brandi Chastain after scoring the title-winning penalty in 1999.
- Taking You with Me: Sometimes a team already eliminated from the group stages may end up taking with them a group-mate at that time still in contention. Notorious examples include South Korea shocking defending champions Germany in Russia 2018, 2-0, allowing Sweden and Mexico to qualify, even as the former thrashed the latter, 3-0, which nevertheless had enough points for insurance.
- Throwing the Fight: While sometimes teams can end the group stage not playing at their full and being accused of this, the one blatant case of apathy bordering on unfair play was the 'Disgrace of Gijón' between West Germany and Austria, where after the Germans scored the goal that would qualify both teams, the players just kicked around without any intent to change the score. The audience was furious, and even the announcers from both countries got disgusted.
- Tough Act to Follow: Being eliminated in the group stage when you're the defending champions. It happened to Brazil in 1966, France in 2002 (where they didn't win a single game or even score a single goal), Italy in 2010 (where they failed to win any games and came last in a group where the other teams were underdogs), Spain in 2014 and Germany in 2018. It also technically happened to Italy in 1950, but since there was a 12-year gap between the two tournaments—and the 1950 team had nobody from the 1938 team, and many of the players who would probably have starred for the 1950 team had died in a plane crash the previous year—it's debatable whether that counts. This has yet to happen in the women's version; the only defending champion that failed to reach at least the semifinals was Germany in 2011, who went out in the quarterfinals.
- Trade Snark:
- According to ESPN, it is not the World Cup, but the World Cup (yes. Every single graphic, regardless of context, says this).
- FIFA has also aggressively been trying to combat non-sponsors making "unauthorized associations" with the tournament, primarily by forcing host countries to ban "ambush marketing" in and around tournament venues. In 2006, a Dutch brewery got in trouble for having fans wear "leeuwenhose" (orange coloured overalls with a lion's tail and their logo on it, distributed with their beer before the tournament) to a Dutch game, considering it ambush marketing. They pulled the same stunt in 2010, but this time with orange miniskirts that were modelled by the wife of a Dutch player in advertisements; a group of 36 attendees wearing them were ejected from the game, two were arrested and sent to court, and an ITV Sport personality got fired after it was revealed that he had resold tickets intended for family to the brewery.
- In 2010, discount airline Kulula was pressured into pulling an advertisement that contained football and South African imagery (yes, even Vuvuzelas), and had described themselves as "The Unofficial National Carrier of the You-Know-What", all but lampshading that they were not an official sponsor. After FIFA complained, they introduced a new ad further lampshading the incident with the new tagline: "Not next year, not last year, but somewhere in between". Furthermore, they offered free flights to anyone named Sepp Blatter (the current FIFA president) "for the duration of that thing that is happening right now"; and of course, the honors went to a Boston Terrier named Sepp Blatter.
- Trope Codifier: The language-neutral yellow and red penalty cards, based on similarly language-neutral traffic lights, were introduced at the 1970 World Cup and have spread to other sports since then.
- Trope Co. Trope of the Week: Four of the individual awards have one of the partner's names ("Mastercard All-Star Team", "Gillette Best Young Player", and two for Adidas, Golden Ball — best player — and Golden Boot — top scorer). Plus, the "Budweiser Man of the Match" chosen in the website by fans.
- Unknown Rival:
- English fans universally see Germany as their eternal rival, due to England having been knocked out of several World and European Cup tournaments by either West Germany or Germany, and twentieth-century history. German fans generally don't give a crap about England - and when they do, they usually think it's funny - instead concentrating on their mutual rivalry with the Netherlands and the Italians.
- The same tends to apply between Scotland and England, with the English not remotely caring, though less so these days - Scotland haven't qualified for the World Cup since 1998.
- Unnecessary Roughness: A few games get so violent that one of those, the 2010 final (46 fouls, 13 yellow cards and one red), illustrates that trope's page. Four others are known as "Battle of *". Brazil-Colombia in 2014 had a record 54 fouls, one giving Neymar a Game-Breaking Injury. And the 1982 semifinal had German goalkeeper Toni Schumacher tackling French striker Patrick Battiston so hard it caused unconsciousness, broken teeth and cracked ribs. And worse, the referee didn't even stop play.
- Use Your Head: On one hand, we have head goals (the arguably most famous being Pelé's in the 1970 final). On the other hand, we have the infamous Zidane headbutt in the 2006 final, which got him expelled from the last game in his career.
- Watch Out for That Tree!: One of the earliest surviving World Cup clips is French goalkeeper Di Lorto slapping the ball onto his goal, only to slam his face in the goalpost while trying to fix it.
- We Will Meet Again: Due to the way the knockout stages are set up, you don't usually see two teams play each other twice, as the two top teams are put on opposite halves of the bracket, meaning they could only ever meet again in the Final or Third-Place Match, but it occasionally happens. Aside from the ones listed on Heroic Rematch, there's a third place match example in 2018, as England-Belgium already happened in the Group Stages (Belgium won both games).
- We Win... Because You Didn't!: Any match where a draw is enough to qualify a team while the other one absolutely needs to win. Moreover, a draw for a poor team against a good team feels like a win for them, and a loss for the good team (case in point, the Trinidad & Tobago team holding Zlatan Ibrahimović's Sweden to a 0-0 draw in 2006).
- This was rather humorously taken quite literally by the New York Post in a now-memetic reaction to the USA's 1-1 draw with England in 2010◊. So much so that any time a minnow team is able to come away with a point against a team easily expected to win (Iceland-Argentina 2018, for instance), they are said to have "won" the game.
- Who Needs Extra Time?: A few even prevent knockout games from going into extra time, such as Italy scoring a penalty against Australia in the 95th minute in 2006, and Belgium finishing a comeback against Japan in the 94th in 2018. Or in "Who Needs Penalties", finishing in extra time - Germany 21 Sweden in the 2003 final had a sudden-death goal in the 98th minute, while England 1-0 Belgium in the 1990 round of 16 (a then-record goal at 119'), Italy 2-0 Germany (2 goals, at 119' and 121') in the 2006 semifinal, and the 2010 and 2014 Finals, both of which ended 1-0 with goals scored in the 110th+ minute.