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Major League Soccer (MLS) is the United States' and Canada'snote  top-tier professional soccer league. Its predecessor league, the North American Soccer League (NASL) closed its doors in 1984. MLS was founded in 1993 as a condition FIFA imposed on the US Soccer Federation in exchange for allowing the United States to host the 1994 World Cup. MLS operates more like the other North American professional sports leagues. Unlike almost every other men's (or women's) Association Football league in the world, it currently does not have a relegation/promotion system. Each of the teams in the league are franchises granted by the league, as opposed to being completely individual entities like their European counterparts. The A-League in Australia is the only other men's soccer league to operate the same way; both countries' top women's leagues, the National Women's Soccer League in the States and the W-League in Australia, also use this model.note  Also, unlike any of the traditional major leagues of the US and Canada (MLB, NFL, NBA, NHL), MLS operates on a "single-entity" model, in which all teams—and even (technically) player contracts—are owned by the league itself. The team operators, who do enjoy much the same control that team owners do in other major leagues, are actually shareholders in the league. The second-level USL Championship (formerly the United Soccer League, a name now used by the governing body of several lower-level leagues) serves as Major League Soccer's minor league, with each MLS team either owning their own reserve team or affiliating with an independently-owned team (although this has not yet been strictly enforced). Starting with the 2019 season, a few MLS teams have their reserve sides in USL League One, a new third-level league operated by the USL organization, rather than the USLC. One team (the Chicago Fire) had affiliated sides in both the USLC and USL 1 in 2019, but the USL 1 side folded after that season.

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Another difference between MLS and its European counterparts is that the season runs from spring-to-fall. This has been criticized by its European counterparts and FIFA on the grounds it conflicts with the FIFA calendar and major summer tournaments, especially the World Cup. So far, the main reason MLS have opposed a fall-to-spring schedule is because of winter weather in Canada and some parts of the US. Plus, from a marketing standpoint, a spring-to-fall schedule means MLS only has to compete against Major League Baseball and NASCAR in the US and the CFL in Canada for viewership during the summer. A FIFA-compatible fall-to-spring calendar would mean MLS would be in competition against both several other American sports leagues (NFL, NBA, NHL and NCAA college football) and soccer leagues from abroad. Most of the other countries with soccer leagues whose seasons fall within a single calendar year are either in the Southern Hemisphere, where such a league would play a fall-to-spring calendar (e.g. Brazil), or far up north (e.g. Sweden).

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MLS also relies on an American-style playoff format to determine its championship.note  It currently has 24 teams, 21 in the U.S. and three in Canada. Former USL Championship side FC Cincinnati is the league's newest entry for 2019, while Inter Miami CF and Nashville SC are currently planned as the league's 25th and 26th teams, joining in 2020. Austin FC will join in 2021 as the 27th team, and an as-yet-unnamed team in St. Louis and Sacramento Republic FC will become the 28th and 29th teams in 2022. MLS commissioner Don Garber had said many times that the league would expand to 28 teams at a future date, but announced in April 2019 that the league would instead expand to 30 teams. Garber added that MLS had entered into exclusive talks with the backers of new teams in Sacramento and St. Louis, and these talks resulted in the official addition of both cities in 2019.

In all but a few cases, teams play at 18,000 to 30,000-seat soccer-specific stadiums, which are less expensive to construct and maintain, give MLS team investor-operators greater revenue control, can also be used to host other events such as concerts and high school and college football games, and look much better packed with fans than in the early years of the league, when the majority of teams played in NFL and large NCAA stadiums which are downright cavernous for soccer. In the early years of MLS-specific stadiums, they were often built in the suburbs; however, the trend has since shifted to building them within the city proper. The teams who currently do not play in a MLS-specific stadium are Atlanta United FC, FC Cincinnati, the New England Revolution, NYCFC, the Seattle Sounders, and the Vancouver Whitecaps. Atlanta, New England, Seattle and Vancouver share an NFL or CFL stadium, while FCC plays in a college football stadium and NYCFC plays in an MLB ballpark. FCC is building its own stadium and will open it in 2021, and both New England and NYCFC are actively seeking their own stadiums. As for the five confirmed future teams:

  • Inter Miami will play at a rebuilt Lockhart Stadium until opening its own ground in 2022.
  • Nashville SC plans to begin play in 2020 at the Tennessee Titans' Nissan Stadium while their own soccer-specific stadium is under construction.
  • Austin FC, the St. Louis team, and Sacramento Republic FC will have soccer-specific stadiums in place by the time they debut (Austin in 2021, St. Louis and Sacramento in 2022).
In a reversal to the trend, the Chicago Fire plans to break its lease at their suburban MLS-specific venue in favor of returning to the larger Soldier Field for the 2020 season. note 

Unlike most soccer leagues, MLS does not employ a single table, double round-robin format for its regular season; instead, the league is divided into Eastern and Western Conferences using an unbalanced schedule. In the current format, teams play 34 games, playing their conference opponents twice and teams in the opposite conference once. The standings are determined by the standard FIFA point system, with a win equal to 3 points, a draw with 1 point, and none for a loss. At the end of the regular season, the team with most points wins the Supporters' Shield trophy, and gains the top overall seed in the playoffs.

For the 2019 season, the top 7 teams in each conference qualify for the MLS Cup Playoffs. Rather than the two-legged ties used during the Conference Semifinals and Conference Finals in years past, all matches in the 2019 playoffs will be single-elimination matches. The conference champion receives a bye in the Conference Quarterfinals while the remaining higher seeds host the lower seeds (2 vs. 7, 3 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 5) Similar to the NBA playoffs, the MLS Cup playoffs will use a fixed bracket without reseeding, meaning the top seed will face the winner of the 4/5 quarterfinal match rather than the lowest surviving seed. From the league's inception until the 2011 season, the MLS Cup championship was held in a predetermined site, similar to the Super Bowl.

In continental club competition, three to five MLS clubs participate in the CONCACAFnote  Champions Leaguenote . The United States is given four direct berths in the tournament while Canada is given one direct berth.note  Three of the United States' CCL berths are allocated through MLS, which are currently awarded to the MLS Cup champion and the two regular season conference champions. The fourth United States CCL berth is awarded to the winner of the Lamar Hunt US Open Cupnote , which is also contested by lower division professional teams and men's amateur teams sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federationnote ; however, except for one year, MLS has dominated the US Open Cup since its 1996 launch. If a US-based team earns qualification by more than one method or if a Canadian team holds any MLS-allocated berth, then the affected berth is given to the highest ranked US-based team in the Supporters' Shield standings which has otherwise failed to qualify. For the single Canadian direct CCL berth, the three Canadian MLS teams play in the Canadian Championship against other professional lower division Canadian teams.note  Starting in 2017, teams must start at least three Canadian players during the Canadian Championship. The competition expanded in 2018 to include the winners of the semi-pro League1 Ontario and Première Ligue de soccer du Québec. It expanded further for 2019, with all seven teams of the newly launched Canadian Premier League also competing for the Canadian Championship. To date, no MLS club, American or Canadian, has won the Champions League in its current format, which has been largely dominated by Liga MX clubs; however, Real Salt Lake, the Montreal Impact, and Toronto FC have reached the Champions League finals in 2011, 2015, and 2018, respectively, and DC United and the LA Galaxy have won the Champions League's predecessor tournament, the CONCACAF Champions' Cup, in 1998 and 2000, respectively.

The MLS is generally looked down upon by European fans/fans of European teams, who look at it as the place that over-the-hill European players go to get one final paycheck after they can't cut the mustard in Europe. The lack of relegation/promotion, the Eastern/Western Conference league structurenote , and the use of a postseason playoff rather than the Supporters' Shield to determine the league's champion doesn't help.

However, like the US national team, it is beginning to, slowly, get respect, with European players like Steven Gerrard (talismanic captain of Liverpool FC, second most successful club in English history, considered by his peers to be the best player in his position on the planet in his prime and winner of just about every trophy short of the Premier League itself - and he was one slip away from winning that, too) a major 2015 acquisition of LA Galaxy, firmly insisting that he hadn't come to just see his career out and wanted to win trophies. On top of that, players that go to play in the MLS are often still in demand in Europe, with AC Milan and Paris St. Germain, two of the biggest clubs in Europe, taking David Beckham on loan in the MLS off-season; Frank Lampard forming a key part of Manchester City's team after New York City FC loaned him back; Landon Donovan having several highly successful stints at Everton FC, a well-regarded English club which was the long term home of US goalkeeper Tim 'Secretary of Defence' Howard, and becoming a fan favourite; and Zlatan Ibrahimović, who came from Man United to the Galaxy about a month into the 2018 season and ended the season as a finalist for league MVP, being a speculated target of several big European sides before signing what was reported to be the richest MLS contract in history to stay in LA.

Now, the US is seen as the sleeping giant of football, thanks to increasing awareness of the game thanks to television coverage of English Premier League, which has the advantage of a similar culture/appealing to America's rampant Anglophilia, and a sprinkling of US players, the growing success of the national team (now regarded as a disciplined second tier team that can be a real threat to traditional power houses England, Germany and the Netherlands) a growing Hispanic population which is football mad and as a result, many of the big (and rich) European teams regularly come on tour to the US, some, like Manchester City, forging links with MLS clubs (meaning that in time, we're likely to see talented young players from Europe being blooded in the MLS) while other teams set up academies to pick up talented players.note  In short, for the MLS and Association Football in the United States as a whole, the future looks bright.

Though team names originally followed the American convention of [City/Region] [Nickname], many teams have switched to European-style names (Ex: The Kansas City Wizards are now Sporting Kansas City), or a hybrid of the two (Ex: "Seattle Sounders FC"). Many teams, especially those brought into the league in the last few years, are reincarnations of teams from lower-tier national leagues such as the USL and NASL (Ex: Portland Timbers). Officially, such teams are disbanded and the new team formed with the same management, and staff, but they generally acknowledge continuity with the prior franchise for record-keeping purposes.

Eastern Conference teams

  • Atlanta United FC
    First Season: 2017
    Current Head Coach: Frank de Boer
    Current Captain: Michael Parkhurst
    Stadium: Mercedes-Benz Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: AmFamnote 
    Trophies Won: 2018 MLS Cup, 2019 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 2nd. Overall: 3rd. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Atlanta United 2 (directly owned)
    One of two new clubs for 2017. Arthur Blank, founder of The Home Depot and owner of the Atlanta Falcons, owns the team. Between 2008 and 2014, Atlanta was the largest media market without a MLS club, and it was also the last top 10 media market to enter the league. Due to construction delays with Mercedes-Benz Stadium, the team played its home matches at Georgia Tech's Bobby Dodd Stadium during the first half of its debut season. Notably ended the Seattle Sounders' reign as the league’s attendance champion, drawing over 48,000 per home game in its inaugural season and well over 50K in both following seasons. Home of Venezuelan international Josef Martínez, who currently holds the MLS record for career hat-tricks (6) and set a record for single-season goals in 2018 (31) that lasted all of one season.
  • Chicago Fire
    First Season: 1998
    Current Head Coach: Veljko Paunović
    Current Captain: Dax McCarty
    Stadium: SeatGeek Stadiumnote note 
    Shirt Sponsor: Valspar
    Trophies Won: 1998 MLS Cup, 2003 Supporters Shield, 1998, 2000, 2003 & 2006 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 8th. Overall: 17th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Indy Eleven (affiliated)
    One of the first teams established after MLS' launch along with the now-defunct Miami Fusion FC, the Fire won both the MLS Cup and the US Open Cup in their inaugural season in 1998. They've fallen on hard times recently but have started to undergo a renaissance. They're also known for being the first club for Carlos Bocanegra, the former United States national team captain, and as the last club of Bastian Schweinsteiger, who retired at the end of the 2019 season. Named for the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; in fact, the official announcement of the team's entry into MLS was made on the anniversary of said event. In 2019, the club announced its intentions to abandon its MLS-specific stadium in suburban Bridgeview in favor of returning to the larger Soldier Field, at least temporarily, starting in the 2020 season.
  • Columbus Crew SC
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Caleb Porter
    Current Captain: Wil Trapp
    Stadium: Mapfre Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Acura
    Trophies Won: 2008 MLS Cup, 2004, 2008 & 2009 Supporters Shield, 2002 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 10th. Overall: 20th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: None currently
    One of the ten charter clubs, the Crew are notable for celebrating the working-class side of their fanbase. Won the MLS Cup in 2008, as well as three Supporters' Shields. The team is credited with building the first MLS-specific stadium, with other teams following suit. In October 2017, then-team owner Anthony Precourt announced his intention to move the club to Austin, Texas in 2019 if he didn't get a new stadium built in downtown Columbus. This potential move not only angered Crew supporters, with some rival supporter groups showing their disapproval as well, but it also threw a monkey wrench into San Antonio's expansion efforts.note  The city of Columbus and state of Ohio also filed suit, citing a state law that had been passed in the wake of the even more controversial relocation of the Cleveland Browns. The Crew's situation resonated with the Browns ownership, and they entered into talks with MLS and Precourt to buy the Crew. Just before the end of 2018, a settlement was reached: Columbus and the state of Ohio dropped their suit; the Browns owners bought the Crew and kept the team in Columbus, pledging over $200 million for a new Crew stadium; and Precourt got a new MLS team for Austin, with a stadium deal in that city having been inked while the negotiations with the Browns were nearing their end.
  • D.C. United
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Ben Olsen
    Current Captain: Vacant
    Stadium: Audi Fieldnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Leidos
    Trophies Won: 1996, 1997, 1999 & 2004 MLS Cup, 1997, 1999, 2006 & 2007 Supporters Shield, 1996, 2008 & 2013 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 5th. Overall: 10th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: Loudoun United FC (directly owned)
    Second to the LA Galaxy in overall honors, with 4 MLS Cups and 4 Supporters' Shields. One of the founding members of MLS, the name "United" was adapted from English club names (like Manchester United and Leeds United) and is a reflection of Washington D.C.'s status as the capital of the United States. For most of the early years of MLS, D.C. United had the only European-style name. From 2005 to 2008, D.C. United shared its home ground with a Major League Baseball team when the Nationals played at RFK Stadium, meaning they played on turf laid over dirt in some places for part of the year. After playing in RFK Stadium from their 1996 inception until 2017, the club opened the new Audi Field in the District during the 2018 season.note  Longtime Manchester United and England star Wayne Rooney was captain for two seasons until returning to England after the 2019 season to become a player and assistant coach at Derby County.
  • FC Cincinnati
    First Season: 2019
    Current Head Coach: Ron Jans
    Current Captain: Kendall Waston
    Stadium: Nippert Stadium note 
    Shirt Sponsor: Mercy Health
    Trophies Won: None
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 12th. Overall: 24th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: None yet
    FC Cincinnati was announced as the next member of MLS in May 2018, becoming the seventh team to be promoted to MLS from a lower-level league. Founded in 2015 and playing its first season in the United Soccer League (now known as the USL Championship) in 2016, FCC is backed by a group led by local billionaire Carl Lindner III. During its time in the USL, FCC was the best-supported U.S. soccer team outside of MLS, consistently drawing crowds at the University of Cincinnati's (American) football stadium that would place the team safely in the top half of MLS (and, in fact, fourth in 2018). It had been the early favorite to snag one of the franchises awarded in the 2018 phase, but initially lost out to Nashville due largely to problems finding an appropriate site for a new stadium. Shortly before the MLS announcement, FCC reached a deal with the city of Cincinnati for a new stadium in the West End, near downtown and the rapidly gentrifying Over-the-Rhine, that is expected to open in 2021. Although FCC's entry was announced after Miami and Nashville, it joined MLS in 2019, largely because its current home could easily accommodate crowds larger than the new stadium can hold.note  While Cincy's media market is smaller than that of any previously existing MLS team, the market of another future MLS entry, Austin, is smaller still. Even though the team propped up the MLS table in its first season, the fans turned out in droves, placing FCC third in average attendance behind the attendance giants of Atlanta United and the Seattle Sounders.
  • Montreal Impact
    First Season: 2012
    Current Head Coach: Wílmer Cabrera
    Current Captain: Ignacio Platti
    Stadium: Stade Saputonote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Bank of Montreal
    Trophies Won: 2013, 2014 & 2019 Canadian Championship
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 9th. Overall: 18th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Ottawa Fury FC (affiliated)
    The third Canadian team to join the league (after Toronto FC and the Vancouver Whitecaps in that order), they replaced a second-division (USL/USSF/NASL) club of the same name in 2012. Some high-profile matches are played at the larger Olympic Stadium; the Impact's regular home ground, Stade Saputo, is located just north of Olympic Stadium. The Impact became the first Canadian team to reach the CONCACAF Champions League final in 2015, losing 5-3 on aggregate to Mexican club América.
  • New England Revolution
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Bruce Arena
    Current Captain: Carles Gil
    Stadium: Gillette Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: UnitedHealthcare
    Trophies Won: 2007 US Open Cup
    2018 Position: Eastern Conference: 7th. Overall: 14th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: New England Revolution II (directly owned; starts play in USL League One in 2020)
    Perhaps the least successful among the ten charter franchises, not counting the Tampa Bay Mutiny, who folded after the 2001 season. The Revs have not won the Cup, nor have they won the shield... despite being runners-up five times in the Cup, and second overall once. Their only trophies have been from the Open Cup or international competitions. Sister team of the Patriots and play in Gillette Stadium.
  • New York City FC
    First Season: 2015
    Current Head Coach: Domènec Torrent
    Current Captain: Alexander Ring
    Stadium: Yankee Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Etihad Airways
    Trophies Won: None
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 1st. Overall: 2nd. Playoffs: Bye to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: San Antonio FC (affiliated)
    One of the two 2015 expansion teams, and the second team based in the New York metropolitan area. Unlike the Red Bulls or the NFL's Jets and Giants, they're trying to play in the Big Apple itself; until a stadium is built, Yankee Stadium in The Bronx will host their games, becoming the second club (after D.C.) to share its stadium with a Major League Baseball club. (This is not by coincidence—the New York Yankees own a 20% stake in the team, with Manchester City owning the rest.) Had a couple of high-profile players in their early years in Andrea Pirlo and David Villa, but both are now gone.
  • New York Red Bulls
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Chris Armas
    Current Captain: Luis Robles
    Stadium: Red Bull Arenanote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Not applicable; team operator Red Bull places its logo on the shirts
    Trophies Won: 2013, 2015 & 2018 Supporters Shield
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 6th. Overall: 12th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: New York Red Bulls II (USL Championship), New York Red Bulls U-23 (USL League Two) (both directly owned)
    Originally the New York/New Jersey MetroStars (later just the MetroStars, with no region identifier), they are the only MLS team to have their sponsor, who also owns the club, included in the team name. Three-time Supporters' Shield winners (2013, 2015, 2018). They were the last club of Thierry Henry, who retired after the 2014 season. Also notable for having a severe case of Every Year They Fizzle Out (like cans of Red Bull) when they're in good years, especially as of late. Typically, the Red Bulls will field one of the most skilled and talented squads in the league, but fail to make the cup. They also have one the most developed soccer academies in US soccer, directly one of the best USL Championship team (New York Red Bulls II). The Red Bulls' 2018 Supporters Shield win set the MLS record for most points attained in a single season (71) as well as the most wins since regular season penalty kicks were eliminated in 2000 (22). They still hold the wins record, but the points record fell the next season to LAFC.
  • Orlando City SC
    First Season: 2015
    Current Head Coach: James O'Connor
    Current Captain: Nani
    Stadium: Exploria Stadiumnote note 
    Shirt Sponsor: Orlando Health
    Trophies Won: None
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 11th. Overall: 22nd. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Orlando City B (directly owned; USL League One)
    A 2015 expansion team, they are the first club based in Florida and the Southeastern US since the contraction of the Tampa Bay Mutiny and Miami Fusion FC after the 2001 season. Their ascent comes at the tail end of a whirlwind grassroots rise as a third-division minor league team. The final club of Brazilian Ballon d'Or winner (Ricardo) Kaká, who retired after the 2017 season; Portugal international Nani is the current captain. Also one of four MLS clubs with a Distaff Counterpart in the National Women's Soccer League; they operate the Orlando Pride, which joined the NWSL in 2016.note 
  • Philadelphia Union
    First Season: 2010
    Current Head Coach: Jim Curtin
    Current Captain: Alejandro Bedoya
    Stadium: Talen Energy Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Bimbo Bakeries USA
    Trophies Won: None
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 3rd. Overall: 5th. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Bethlehem Steel FC (directly owned)
    An expansion team started in 2010 and is based in the riverside suburb of Chester with a stadium having a beautiful view of the nearby Commodore Barry Bridge. A lot of their culture is related to Benjamin Franklin and The American Revolution — they have 13 stars on the crest, their name is a reference to the union of the Thirteen Colonies, they put a snake on the crest to reference Franklin's famous "Join or Die" political cartoon, their oldest and biggest supporters group is called the Sons of Ben... you get the idea. Prior to the Union's establishment in 2008, Philadelphia was the largest media market without an MLS franchise, holding this distinction for nearly a decade.
  • Toronto FC
    First Season: 2007
    Current Head Coach: Greg Vanney
    Current Captain: Michael Bradley
    Stadium: BMO Fieldnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Bank of Montrealnote 
    Trophies Won: 2017 MLS Cup; 2017 Supporters Shield; 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2016, 2017 & 2018 Canadian Championship
    2019 Position: Eastern Conference: 4th. Overall: 9th. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Toronto FC II (directly owned; USL League One)
    The first Canadian team to join MLS, having started play in 2007. Though their MLS career started out rather undistinguished (until 2016, they had never finished higher than 11th in the league), they have been more successful in the Canadian Championship (contested by Toronto FC, Montreal Impact, and Vancouver Whitecaps FC since 2008, and also by Ottawa Fury [formerly NASL, now USL] since 2014 and FC Edmonton [then NASL; since 2019 in the Canadian Premier League] from 2011–2017), winning four years in a row from 2009-2012. Rather unlucky in the league for many years, as they were known for purchasing great new players and performing well in the regular season, but missing the playoffs by one or two spots; however, they overcame this in the 2016 playoffs to become the first Canadian team to reach the MLS Cup game, beating national rivals Montreal in the Eastern Conference final. The next year, TFC became the first Canadian team to claim the Supporters Shield and the MLS Cup. In addition, because they also won the Canadian Championship, it means that TFC became the first Canadian and MLS team to achieve a domestic treble. Home of American internationals Michael Bradley and Jozy Altidore.

Western Conference teams

  • Colorado Rapids
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Robin Fraser
    Current Captain: Vacant
    Stadium: Dick’s Sporting Goods Parknote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Transamerica
    Trophies Won: 2010 MLS Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 9th. Overall: 16th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC (affiliated)
    One of the ten charter franchises of the MLS, they are not exactly a decorated club; although they do have one MLS Cup to their name, the Rapids hold the dubious distinction of being the only MLS club (to date) to lose the US Open Cup final to a lower division team. Also notable for being the last team to put advertisements on their kit, finally doing so during the 2014 season. They are owned by Stan Kroenke, owner of the NFL's Los Angeles Rams, the NBA's Denver Nuggets, the NHL's Colorado Avalanche and majority shareholder of English Premier League club Arsenal. Longtime USA international keeper Tim Howard ended his career in 2019 as the Rapids' captain.
  • FC Dallas
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Luchi Gonzalez
    Current Captain: Reto Ziegler
    Stadium: Toyota Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: AdvoCare
    Trophies Won: 2016 Supporters Shield, 1997 & 2016 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 7th. Overall: 13th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: North Texas SC (directly owned; USL League One)
    Formerly the Dallas Burn, they are another one of the 10 charter clubs of MLS. They changed their name upon transferring to a soccer-specific ground, Pizza Hut Park (now Toyota Stadium), in 2005. The team is owned by Kansas City Chiefs owner Clark Hunt; his father Lamar Hunt was one of MLS' key investors, and the Hunt family also previously owned Sporting Kansas City and Columbus Crew SC. Won their first Supporters' Shield in 2016.
  • Houston Dynamo
    First Season: 2006
    Current Head Coach: Davy Arnaud (interim)
    Current Captain: Vacant
    Stadium: BBVA Stadiumnote note 
    Shirt Sponsor: MD Anderson Cancer Center
    Trophies Won: 2006 & 2007 MLS Cup, 2018 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 10th. Overall: 19th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Rio Grande Valley FC Toros (hybrid affiliation; the Dynamo controls the playing roster, while the separate Toros ownership runs business affairs)
    An expansion team in 2006note . Originally named "Houston 1836" to reflect the year Houston was founded and to have a European-style name along the lines of Schalke 04. However, the name displeased the Hispanic community in Houston, who related 1836 with the war for Texas independence. "Dynamo" comes from Houston's energy industry and many former Soviet Union-era clubs such as Dynamo Moscow. They immediately won two MLS Cups, but then went more than a decade without further silverware until claiming the US Open Cup in 2018. Another MLS team with a Distaff Counterpart, namely the Houston Dash. The ownership team includes former boxing great and current promoter Oscar De La Hoya and Houston Rockets superstar James Harden.
  • LA Galaxy
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Guillermo Barros Schelotto
    Current Captain: Zlatan Ibrahimović
    Stadium: Dignity Health Sports Parknote note 
    Shirt Sponsor: Herbalife
    Trophies Won: 2002, 2005, 2011, 2012 & 2014 MLS Cup, 1998, 2002, 2010 & 2011 Supporters Shield, 2001 & 2005 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 5th. Overall: 8th. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: LA Galaxy II (directly owned)
    Five time MLS Cup champions, their most recent Cup broke a tie with D.C. United for most decorated team. Made big news in 2007 by signing David Beckham, and later in 2015 by signing Steven Gerrard and 2018 by signing Zlatan Ibrahimović. As a result of this, and other major signings, possibly the best known MLS team in Europe. Current team of Ibrahimović and Mexican international Jonathan dos Santos, and also home to Landon Donovan for most of his MLS career (2005–2014, plus a short comeback in 2016).
  • Los Angeles FC
    First Season: 2018
    Current Head Coach: Bob Bradley
    Current Captain: Carlos Vela
    Stadium: Banc of California Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: YouTube TV
    Trophies Won: 2019 Supporters Shield
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 1st. Overall: 1st. Playoffs: Bye to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Orange County SC (affiliated)
    A 2018 expansion team which replaced Chivas USA as the Los Angeles market's second team. Unlike the Galaxy, LAFC plays in the Los Angeles city limits. British people, think of Galaxy as Manchester United and LAFC as Manchester City. LAFC's ownership group includes names like Vincent Tannote , Magic Johnson, Mia Hamm, and Will Ferrell. The team's stadium, Banc of California Stadium, is adjacent to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum on the site formerly occupied by the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena; unlike most of LAFC's expansion contemporaries, who spent (or will spend) at least part of their first season in a temporary stadium, LAFC's stadium opened in time for their first season. Captained by Mexico international Carlos Vela, who scored an MLS record of 34 goals in 2019, breaking Josef Martínez' record from the previous season. Speaking of records set in 2019, LAFC claimed the crown for points earned in a season with 72, one more than the Red Bulls' record total from the season before.
  • Minnesota United
    First Season: 2017
    Current Head Coach: Adrian Heath
    Current Captain: Osvaldo Alonso
    Stadium: Allianz Fieldnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Target
    Trophies Won: None
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 4th. Overall: 7th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: Forward Madison FC (affiliated; USL League One)
    The second of the two expansion teams for 2017. Minnesota United became the sixth MLS club to be promoted from a lower-division league. The club's ownership group includes former NASL franchise owner Bill McGuire, Timberwolves owner Glen Taylor, and Twins owner Jim Pohlad. Minnesota United originally planned to build their new stadium near the Twins' home of Target Field; however, the team instead built the stadium in St. Paul after plans in Minneapolis stalled. MN United spent its first two MLS seasons at the University of Minnesota's TCF Bank Stadium, but moved to the new Allianz Field for 2019 and beyond.
  • Portland Timbers
    First Season: 2011
    Current Head Coach: Giovanni Savarese
    Current Captain: Diego Valeri
    Stadium: Providence Parknote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Alaska Airlines
    Trophies Won: 2015 MLS Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 6th. Overall: 11th. Playoffs: Conference Quarterfinals
    USL Affiliate: Portland Timbers 2 (directly owned)
    Joined the league in 2011, replacing the United Soccer Leagues team of the same name. Has found quite a fanbase, hosted the 2014 All-Star game and won their first MLS Cup in 2015. Still another MLS team with an official Distaff Counterpart, namely Portland Thorns FC. Providence Park is the only MLS-specific stadium to use artificial turf rather than natural grassnote , since the stadium has also served as the home of the FCS Portland State Vikings of the Big Sky Conference. However, now that the Vikings have moved most of their home schedule to a smaller venue in suburban Hillsboro, the Timbers may install a grass surface as early as 2020.
  • Real Salt Lake
    First Season: 2005
    Current Head Coach: Freddy Juarez (interim)
    Current Captain: Kyle Beckerman
    Stadium: Rio Tinto Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: LifeVantage
    Trophies Won: 2009 MLS Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 3rd. Overall: 6th. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Real Monarchs (directly owned)
    One of the first expansion teams, along with the now-defunct Chivas USA, to be established after the contraction of the Tampa Bay Mutiny and Miami Fusion FC in 2001. Based in Utah, the "Real" in its name is meant to associate themselves with Real Madrid as well as having a European-sounding name. It was not until 2006 when Real Salt Lake and Los Blancos established a mutual partnership, with RSL and Real Madrid meeting twice a year for a friendly (one at home and one away), the training of RSL players at Santiago Bernabeu, and the establishment of a Real Madrid youth academy in Salt Lake City. Replaced Sporting Kansas City as the fourth MLS team with an official Distaff Counterpart in the 2017 offseason; Real launched Utah Royals FC in the 2018 season to replace the defunct FC Kansas City in the NWSL.
  • San Jose Earthquakes
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Matias Almeyda
    Current Captain: Chris Wondolowski
    Stadium: Avaya Stadiumnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Sutter Health
    Trophies Won: 2001 & 2003 MLS Cup, 2005 & 2012 Supporters Shield
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 8th. Overall: 15th. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Reno 1868 FC (hybrid affiliation)
    A 2008 expansion team that replaced the original San Jose Earthquakes team that moved to Houston after the 2005 season. Officially a continuation of the original team in terms of history and records, they are the 2001 and 2003 MLS Cup Champions, as well as the 2005 and 2012 MLS Supporters' Shield Champions. They played some of their better-drawing games in Oakland their first few years back due to the stadium issues that were still present. However, a voter referendum for a new stadium in San Jose went their way and they opened their new digs, Avaya Stadium, in 2015. Originally known as the San Jose Clash, the Earthquakes adopted their current name from the original NASL franchise of the same name just after the conclusion of the 1999 season. Their current captain, Chris Wondolowski, passed Landon Donovan as the league's all-time goal scoring leader during the 2019 season.
  • Seattle Sounders FC
    First Season: 2009
    Current Head Coach: Brian Schmetzer
    Current Captain: Nicolás Lodeiro
    Stadium: CenturyLink Fieldnote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Zulily
    Trophies Won: 2016 MLS Cup, 2014 Supporters Shield, 2009, 2010, 2011 & 2014 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 2nd. Overall: 4th. Playoffs: Advanced to Conference Semifinals
    USL Affiliate: Tacoma Defiancenote  (directly owned)
    The first club to be promoted to MLS from a lower-division league, joining MLS in 2009. Has had a good run in the league so far, leading the league in ticket sales each year until Atlanta United came along, winning the US Open Cup four times (including three in a row), and also claiming the Supporters' Shield in 2014. While local businessman Adrian Hanauer has been the principal owner since 2002, the ownership group includes plenty of star power. Shortly before the team joined MLS, comedian and game show host Drew Carey and Seahawks and Portland Trail Blazers owner Paul Allen joined the group; Allen's interest passed to his sister after his 2018 death. In 2019, a group of 11 local families purchased the interest of a retiring minority owner; the most notable new members of the group are Seahawks quarterback Russell Wilson, his wife Ciara, and hip-hop artist Macklemore. The final team of Clint Dempsey, captain of the U.S. national team before his retirement after the 2018 season. Since 2019, has loose connections with the NWSL team Reign FC, which moved from Seattle to Tacoma after the 2018 season. Hanauer and his mother, as well as the ownership group of Minor League Baseball's Tacoma Rainiers, each have separate minority stakes in Reign FC.note 
  • Sporting Kansas City
    First Season: 1996
    Current Head Coach: Peter Vermes
    Current Captain: Matt Besler
    Stadium: Children’s Mercy Parknote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Ivy Funds
    Trophies Won: 2000 & 2013 MLS Cup, 2000 Supporters Shield, 2004, 2012, 2015 & 2017 US Open Cup
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 11th. Overall: 21st. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Swope Park Rangers (directly owned)
    Formerly the Kansas City Wizards, they adapted the "Sporting" name in association with European club names like Sporting Lisbon. Winners of two MLS Cups (2000 and 2013), plus the Supporters' Shield in 2000 and the US Open Cup in 2004, 2012, 2015 and 2017. Most notable for defeating Manchester United in a friendly on July 25, 2010. Their home stadium is in Kansas City, Kansas, whereas most franchises in the Kansas City area play their home games in Kansas City, Missouri (which is the larger of the two). From 2015 through 2017, the club also had a Distaff Counterpart in FC Kansas City, though that club was separately owned. FCKC folded after the 2017 season and was effectively replaced by the aforementioned Utah Royals.
  • Vancouver Whitecaps FC
    First Season: 2011
    Current Head Coach: Marc Dos Santos
    Current Captain: Jon Erice
    Stadium: BC Placenote 
    Shirt Sponsor: Bell Canada
    Trophies Won: 2015 Canadian Championship
    2019 Position: Western Conference: 12th. Overall: 23rd. Playoffs: Did not qualify
    USL Affiliate: Fresno FC (affiliated)
    Began MLS play in 2011, having also played in the USL with Seattle and Portland. The second Canadian team to join the league after Toronto FC. One of the club's owners is now-retired NBA All-Star and South African-born, British Columbia-raised Steve Nash. In 2015, they finally became the third MLS team to win the Canadian Championship after having previously managed the unenviable feat of five consecutive second-place finishes (to Toronto FC from 2009-12 and to Montreal Impact in 2013).

Defunct Teams

Three MLS teams have folded, two of which came in the same year, from the same state no less. Due to ownership and stadium troubles, the franchises both closed their doors after the 2001 season. The league has recovered since then, with no dying teams until 2014.

  • CD Chivas USA
    First Season: 2005
    Last Season: 2014
    Stadium: StubHub Centernote note 
    Trophies Won: None
    MLS' first attempt at a second team in the Los Angeles market. Before the 2014 season, it was under the same ownership as its then-parent club, the Mexican team Club Deportivo Guadalajara, whose nickname is "Chivas" (Spanish for goats). It was regarded by both Guadalajara and Chivas USA fans as the B-team of CD Guadalajara, making the former the only football club in the world with a reserves team playing in another country's top level league. Controversially known in the 2013 season for their push to have a team of all Mexican and Mexican-American heritage just like the Guadalajara Chivas, with two dismissed non-Latino youth coaches filing a discrimination lawsuit. Shortly before the 2014 season, the team was bought by MLS. After two seasons of abysmal numbers,note  the league decided to fold Chivas USA, and instead sold the franchise rights to an investor group led by venture capitalist Henry Nguyen. The replacement, Los Angeles FC, began play in 2018 and did not inherit any of Chivas' records or history, making that franchise effectively dead in MLS' eyes.
  • Miami Fusion FC
    First Season: 1998
    Last Season: 2001
    Stadium: Lockhart Stadiumnote 
    Trophies Won: 2001 Supporters Shield
    The Fusion were one of MLS' first two expansion teams, joining in 1998 alongside the Chicago Fire. They were the first team to pick a hybridized name. They were a decent team overall, making the playoffs in three of their four years of existence and winning the 2001 Supporters' Shield. However, their incredibly low budget, equally low revenue, and lack of support meant that MLS pulled the plug on the franchise before the 2002 season.
  • Tampa Bay Mutiny
    First Season: 1996
    Last Season: 2001
    Stadium: Raymond James Stadiumnote 
    Trophies Won: 1996 Supporters Shield
    A MLS charter club, the Mutiny started off as one of the hottest teams in MLS, winning the Supporters' Shield for the inaugural season with Colombian legend Carlos "El Pibe" Valderrama. However, they ended up losing the Eastern Conference final to eventual champions D.C. United. They went into a funk over the next few years as the team traded off its stars and moved into a new stadium. They underwent a strong resurgence in 2000, but failed to make it past the quarter-finals. They followed this up with an atrocious 2001, in which they racked up only 14 points.note  This still stands as the worst season by points in league history, and it was on that note that the Mutiny folded.

Expansion

New expansion has been a hot topic since 2003, after the storm of the early-2000s downturn passed. Some have gone well, like the Cascadia Cup (Seattle, Portland, Vancouver). Others, not so much (Chivas USA). Some came out of left field (Salt Lake City, Toronto) but turned out okay. With LAFC having entered the league in 2018 and FC Cincinnati following in 2019, five announced future expansion teams are set to join:

  • Inter Miami CF
    First Season: 2020 (projected)
    Stadium: New Lockhart Stadiumnote 
    After several years in limbo due to stadium issues, the Miami franchise was finally made official in January 2018 and in September of the same year, the club's name was unveiled: Club Internacional de Fútbol Miami.note  The club was initially backed by retired English football icon David Beckham, his business partner Simon Fuller (creator of the Idol franchise), and Miami-based Bolivian telecom billionaire Marcelo Claure. In December 2017, the ownership group gained further financial clout with the addition of Miami construction magnates Jorge and José Mas and Japanese telecom billionaire Masayoshi Son (a business partner of Claure). Beckham exercised an option in his original MLS contract to buy an expansion team at a reduced price.note  After three failed stadium proposals, Miami Beckham United then planned to build their new stadium in the Overtown neighborhood. The Miami-Dade government had previously endorsed FIU'snote  on-campus football stadium as a short-term solution. The league sought to have the Miami team ready in 2018, to launch alongside LAFC; however, with the league's announcement of expansion for 2020 and intense competition for new franchises, Beckham's group could have lost their franchise rights if a stadium was not secured in time. More recently, rumors emerged in spring 2017 that the Beckham group may abandon Miami in favor of Las Vegas; however, in June 2017, the group acquired the last parcel of land necessary to build their stadium, and that October, a local judge dismissed a lawsuit seeking to halt construction. In July 2018, Beckham unveiled alternate plans for a stadium as part of a larger mixed-use development, dubbed Miami Freedom Park, on the site of the city-owned Melreese Country Club, near Miami International Airport. The Melreese site was approved by Miami-Dade voters in a November 2018 referendum, but the Miami-Dade council still has to approve it. In late January 2019, Inter Miami announced plans to redevelop the Lockhart Stadium site to serve as their permanent training ground; the development also includes a new 18,000-seat stadium which will host Inter Miami's future USL reserve side while also serving as an interim home for the first team for their first two seasons. The club received unanimous approval from the Fort Lauderdale city council to redevelop the Lockhart Stadium site in April 2019 and demolished the old Lockhart Stadium a month later. The aforementioned USL reserve side will start play in League One in 2020.
  • Nashville SC
    First Season: 2020 (projected)
    Stadium: Nissan Stadium note 
    Officially announced in December 2017, the club is fronted by local billionaire John Ingram, with backing by the Wilf family, owners of the Minnesota Vikings who lost out on the Twin Cities expansion bid in 2014, plus the support of several of the city's largest corporations. Nashville was initially seen as the longest shot among the final four candidates for expansion in 2020; while it had drawn large crowds for international matches, it had no professional soccer when it launched its expansion bid. However, a combination of cultural appeal, stumbles by the early expansion frontrunners (mainly Cincinnati's stadium site issues), and a well-advanced stadium plan, with a site nailed down at the former state fairgrounds just south of downtown, left Nashville as the clear front-runner. The city launched a USL Championship team, Nashville SC, in 2018, and club and MLS officials announced in February 2019 that the Nashville SC name would carry over to MLS, making it the eighth lower-division club to be promoted to MLS. In late January 2019, club officials announced that Nashville SC would play their first two MLS seasons at Nissan Stadium while the Fairgrounds Stadium is under construction.
  • Austin FC
    First Season: 2021 (projected)
    Stadium: Austin FC Stadiumnote 
    Austin, the rapidly-growing state capital of Texas, was initially planned as the future home of Columbus Crew SC, but the Cleveland Browns' interest in the Crew led to a change of plans. In the end, a win-win situation was found for everyone (with the possible exception of those wanting to see an MLS team in San Antonio): the Crew got stable ownership with the promise of a new stadium in their current city, while Anthony Precourt got an MLS team in his desired location. A site for a new stadium in the northern part of the city was confirmed in December 2018, shortly before the Browns–Crew deal was finalized. Precourt has since added several more members to the ownership team, most notably Texas native and Austin resident Matthew McConaughey.
  • St. Louis (team name TBA)
    First Season: 2022 (projected)
    Stadium: St. Louis MLS Stadiumnote 
    For decades, St. Louis has been one of the hotbeds of U.S. soccer, and the city has long been trying to get MLS' interest. In 2009, one group had all approvals for a new stadium across the Mississippi in Collinsville, Illinois, but MLS wasn't impressed with the group's financial resources. Other attempts were made through the 2010s, which accelerated after the Rams left for Los Angeles in 2016. The city's bid for a team looked to have died in 2017 when city voters turned down a tax package to fund a new stadium. However, IT billionaire Jim Kavanaugh, part of the previous ownership group and also principal owner of Saint Louis FC, the city's USLC side, didn't give up. He recruited several female members of the Taylor family, principal owners of the Enterprise Holdings car rental company, as lead investors in a new ownership group. The group got initial approval for a new stadium in downtown St. Louis, in large part because their stadium plan will almost totally use their own funds; the only new taxes for the stadium will be paid by fans who are attending the team's games. In August 2019, MLS officially announced that St. Louis would join the league, with a target date of 2022 for the team's debut. The ownership group is most notable as the first in MLS in which women hold a majority interest. It remains to be seen whether the new MLS team will take up the Saint Louis FC name, or whether SLFC will stay in the USLC as the MLS team's reserve side.
  • Sacramento Republic FC
    First Season: 2022 (projected)
    Stadium: Railyards Stadiumnote 
    California's state capital, despite having a very successful USLC side in Sacramento Republic FC, as well as a stadium site nailed down plus over 10,000 MLS season-ticket commitments, failed in the 2018 expansion cycle due to a relative lack of financial resources of the ownership, with several possible major investors backing out. In January 2019, Sacramento's bid got a major boost when billionaire investor Ron Burkle, co-owner of the NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins,note  became the new lead investor of the proposed Sacramento team, which will carry on the Republic name. Burkle also purchased the proposed stadium site, plus adjacent land that he plans to use for an entertainment district. Republic FC was officially announced as a 2022 MLS entry in October 2019, making them the ninth or tenth lower-division team promoted to MLS (depending on whether or not the St. Louis team takes up the Saint Louis FC name). The Republic ownership group may get an NWSL team in 2020; near the time of the MLS announcement, it had been widely reported that Republic and the NWSL were nearing agreement on a new franchise in that league.

Several other cities, particularly those with an existing NASL or USL team, are also seriously vying for expansion slots when the league formally reopens expansion for 2020. With Detroit and Sacramento losing out to Cincinnati and Nashville in the most recent round of expansion, they rejoined a pool of potential markets that also includes Charlotte, Indianapolis, Phoenix, Raleigh-Durham, St. Louis, San Diego and Tampa Bay. St. Louis and Sacramento have since been announced as the homes of teams 28 and 29.

Rivalries

As in any league, rivalries exist between teams. Many arise on their own, whether based on the teams' shared history (such as the Atlantic Cup between D.C. United and the New York Red Bulls, two of the league's founding teams) or geographic proximity (such as the California Clásico between the Los Angeles Galaxy and the San Jose Earthquakes, El Tráfico between the Galaxy and Los Angeles FC, El Califórnico between the Earthquakes and Los Angeles FC, the Hell Is Real Derby between FC Cincinnati and Columbus Crew SC,note  the former Honda SuperClasico between the Galaxy and CD Chivas USA, the Hudson River Derby between New York City FC and the New York Red Bulls, the Canadian Classique between Toronto FC and Montreal Impact, and the Cascadia Cup between the Portland Timbers, Seattle Sounders FC and Vancouver Whitecaps FC). Others were deliberately created by teams under common ownership (such as the Lamar Hunt Pioneer Cup between the Columbus Crew and FC Dallas) or other unconventional premises (Columbus Crew SC and Toronto FC, whose Trillium Cup competition began with a bet between the two cities' mayors and is named for the official flower of both Ohio and Ontario, and the San Jose Earthquakes and Seattle Sounders FC, whose Heritage Cup competition involves two teams that carry the names of their NASL predecessors).

Many such rivalries are officially recognized by the teams and have been assigned a trophy. While most such contests award the conventional plaque or cup, the Texas Derby between FC Dallas and the Houston Dynamo awards the winner possession of an 18th century cannon. The Other Wiki has plenty of information on recognized MLS rivalries.

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