Alternative Character Interpretation: Pretty much all over the goddamn place. Part of the point of the film's postmodernism is that a substantial amount of the film is up to interpretation, and in a number of cases, being up to interpretation is part of the point and is encouraged by Tarantino and the other filmmakers. As just a few examples:
To what extent Jules' "divine intervention" dilemma is just him trying to justify previous feelings of wanting to get out of the business. It already seems like he was considering retirement, and early in the film he expresses significant discomfort at Marsellus having another man thrown off his own balcony for daring to give Mia... a foot massage. (Which, as we can also later guess, Mia may well have pressured the poor guy into.) He clearly thinks Marsellus is, or is becoming, unhinged, but by this interpretation he's looking for some kind of outside justification to back it up and latches onto a mere stroke of luck to justify it.
Some fans hypothesize that Vincent and Mia actually lost the dance contest, but stole the trophy anyway. There's a legend that a news report heard in the background while Butch is sneaking toward his apartment announces the trophy's theft, though whether you can make anything out of the brief moment of garbled background noise is up to you.
Was Butch's decision to go back and rescue Marsellus done out of honor, or was he thinking he could use it to his own benefit? It did ultimately help him by allowing him to strike a deal with Marsellus to end the hit on him. Leaving Marsellus to die (or worse) might have caused more problems for him.
One theory about Butch's girlfriend Fabienne is that she's pregnant. Evidence? Telling Butch about imagining herself with a "pot" (pot-belly), where everything about you is the same except for a big belly. Then they have non-penetrative sex via "oral pleasure" for her. Then there's her insatiable appetite for a large breakfast for someone so petite, with a specific craving for blueberry pancakes.; Her mentioning to Butch that she has something to tell him. Also, her being pregnant is probably why Butch doesn't lay a hand on her when he loses his temper.
Come Oscar time, Pulp Fiction was nominated for 7 Awards but only won for Best Screenplay (Original). It lost Best Picture to Forrest Gump and also was up against The Shawshank Redemption, and there's been debate over which movie deserved the Oscars ever since. (In case it isn't clear: 1994 was a stacked year for important films.)
Subverted with the Cannes Film Festival, however, where it was awarded the Palme d'Or by a jury headed by Clint Eastwood, no less, to the shock of many film critics. This led to a hilariously awesome trailer starting with a deep, portentous announcer talking about how it's the winner of the Palme d'Or, before a few bullets interrupt him and the real trailer starts.
Awesome Music: If you didn't know "Misirlou" before, this movie ensured that you did, via Dick Dale's cover. Pulp Fiction made the song's iconic opening guitar riff as famous as those of "Smoke on the Water" and "Sunshine of Your Love".
Badass Decay: Not within the film, but Harvey Keitel as of late has playing his Winston Wolfe character in numerous Direct Line insurance adverts, which get tamer and tamer every year.
Base-Breaking Character: Jimmy. Some say Quentin Tarantino's Creator Cameo is entertaining while others say it's ruined by distractingly terrible acting. And then there's fans who think his appearance is fun even if they agree that the director's performance is bad.
"Five long years he wore this watch. Up his ass! Then... he died of dysentery."
Designated Love Interest: Mia, of a sort. We are told several times she is married to Marsellus, and it's even an important plot point, but they barely interact with each other and only appear on-screen together once and very briefly.
Ensemble Dark Horse: Winston Wolf was a pretty minor character, but he remains popular and memorable enough for Harvey Keitel to reprise the role years later in a series of UK adverts for an insurance company.
Everyone Is Jesus in Purgatory: How much divinity is involved in the film's events is a frequent matter of debate. Jules himself believes he was part of a Divine Intervention. A lot of people also like to argue about Marsellus Wallace, that he is the Antichrist because he has a band-aid on the back of his head which is supposedly covering up a 666, which is also the number needed to open up his briefcase. And the question of what, exactly, is in that suitcase. One such suggestion? Marsellus Wallace's soul.
At Jackrabbit Slim's, the dwarf host dressed as a bellboy shouts "Call for Philip Morris!" as he walks away from Vince and Mia's table. This is a reference to old Philip Morris cigarette commercials, which started with a dwarf bellhop making the same announcement.
If you know that The Wolf's car is a two-seater, you'll know that he didn't refuse to drop Vincent and Jules off because they live too far away. He never meant it.
When Lance sells Vincent his heroin he says "I'm out of balloons. Bag okay?" which Vincent agrees on. When we first see Mia she snorts cocaine and later OD's while snorting Vincent's heroin. For those that don't remember 90s drug culture: You store heroin in balloons and cocaine in bags; likewise, you shoot heroin and snort cocaine. Mia OD'd because Vincent's heroin was mislabeled and she thought it was cocaine.
Anyone who knows the geography of the greater Los Angeles area will enjoy some of the minor details. Jules comes from Inglewood, which has a historically large black population. Vince is from Redondo Beach, a whiter and wealthier area, which makes sense considering his nice car and European trips. He also says that he doesn't know the area of Toluca Lake very well, which is farther away from his home town than Jules'.
The Jack Rabbit Slim scene has some unexplained references to '50s figures. The waiter asks if Mia wants her milkshake "Amos and Andy or Martin and Lewis," which is actually asking about chocolate or vanilla as it refers to famous comedy duos, one black and one white. And the Douglas Sirk Steak can be served "burned or bloody," referring to the director's infamously melodramatic style with no half-measures.
Harsher in Hindsight: The line "Marsellus Wallace don't like to be fucked by nobody except Mrs. Wallace!" feels a lot more ominous after Marsellus gets raped.
Jules' famous Bible verse—which includes the line "And you will know my name is the Lord!"—becomes a lot funnier when you know that Samuel L. Jackson provided the voice of God in an audio version of The Bible in 2007.
Magnificent Bastard: Jules Winnfield is one half of a bad pair with his partner Vincent Vega, and easily the smarter compared to his slack-jawed partner. Jules is an audacious, foul-mouthed, Bible-quoting hitman who demonstrates his tendency to take control over any situation he's in by tormenting and blowing away a group of wannabe criminals who attempted to rip his boss Marsellus Wallace off. After a near-death encounter, Jules has a Heel Realization and tries to back out of the mob business for good, only to be held up by a robber couple in a restaurant. Utterly retaining his cool when faced with two guns in his face, Jules effortlessly flips the advantage back to himself by tricking and disarming one of the robbers, and uses his masterful control of the situation to give the two robbers a second chance, much in the same way Jules is finally affording an escape from the criminal underworld to himself.
The film spawned many memes that were especially popular in the 90's and endure even well into the 21st century. Samuel L. Jackson's performance in particular is one of the medium's best Fountain of Memes.
"I don't remember askin' you a goddamn thing!"
"What?" "English, motherfucker! Do you speak it!?"
"Say 'what' again!" This quote has become a popular image macro on the Internet of Jules wielding his gun with the caption "Say X again! I dare you! I double dare you, motherfucker!" Usually used to express annoyance at someone saying or doing something ad nauseam.
To "get medieval" on something.
"My (anything you want) is the one that says "Bad Motherfucker" on it."
Dick Dale's reprise has made most people associate the song "Misirlou" with this film (though some, particularly in France, will sometimes associate it with Taxi instead).
"Comanche" by The Revels will be forever associated with the film's hillbilly rape dungeon. Comments that are not about the film in the song's YouTube comment sections are as hard to find as a needle in a haystack.
Special Effect Failure: There is no muzzle flash or recoil movement from the gun hand when Jules shoots Brett's housemate in the beginning of the movie. Also, Brett's housemate appears to dodge the bullet initially, as the actor was apparently spooked by how loud the blank was before remembering that he needs to go limp and be dead. Additionally, a shot like that would get blood everywhere, but there's none to be seen in the few times he's visible after that (such as when Jules throws Brett's table in anger). To top it off, the actor can later be seen breathing.
In the opening scene, Vincent marvels that in Amsterdam, you can buy a beer in a movie theater and get pot legally. Both of these things are now easy to do in Los Angeles.
When Mia orders her milkshake, Vince makes a big deal about it costing $5, a price that's pretty reasonable 20 years later. For comparison, $5 in '94 would be equivalent to $9.08 in 2021, a lot more than you'd expect to pay for a milkshake.
Values Dissonance: Even in 1994, the infamous "assault" scene with Marsellus was certainly shocking and raised a few eyebrows, but for many it still would've been seen as hitting Acceptable Targets. In The New '10s of the 21st century and beyond, the scene is, by some, criticized for using both the stereotype of "homosexual men are masochistic rapists" and "country people are closeted (and cruel) homosexuals". Particularly since they're the only LGBT characters in the film.
Values Resonance: On the other hand, the scene above holds up by treating a man being raped with absolute seriousness and treating Marsellus as a victim as much as if it was a woman. He's also given catharsis and given the chance to gain revenge on his attackers, allowing him to reclaim his dignity. The film also puts much more emphasis on Zed and Maynard just being sadistic monsters rather than being gay/bi and makes it clear they'd be the same even if they were straight.
The memetic "English, motherfucker!" scene, due to its idiomatic nature, was translated differently in many foreign dubs:
In many western language dubs (mainly European Spanish, Italian, European French and likely others) and to avoid invoking Translation Convention, the "English" part was changed to "my language" instead.
The Japanese dub, on the other hand, does a more clever version of this: The "English, motherfucker!" line was changed with "America, you bastard!" instead, when Jules asks Brett from which country he is from, rather which language he speaks.
The Latin American Spanish dub tones down the profanity and invokes Translation Convention, as it was translated as "¡Castellano, malnacido!" ("European/Castilian Spanish, you bastard!"). It should be noted that "Castellano" is the European Spanish name for the Spanish language, while in Latin America, "Español" is used instead. Without going too far on this, due to the controversial nature of the use of that word, let's say Jules used "Castellano" instead of "Español", because, while the former can be equally understood in Latin America, the European dialect is widely considered there as archaic and old-fashioned, and he used that word as an insult.
"going Medieval on [someone's] ass" doesn't really work in Polish, so the translator went with a loose reinterpretation of it as "zrobić [komuś] z dupy jesień średniowiecza". It means "turn [someone's] ass into the time of decline of the Middle Ages" (literally "the autumn of Middle Ages"). The phrase quickly entered popular lexicon as a rough equivalent of "f*** somebody up" and has even been used, word-for-word, in at least one Polish movie.