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Use of Weapons is a science-fiction novel of The Culture by Iain M. Banks. It focuses on Special Circumstances and their extensive use of the Omniscient Morality License via the character of mercenary-extraordinaire Cheradenine Zakalwe, a man from outside of the Culture, but who does their dirty work. The story is told through chapters alternating between those going in normal chronological order and those in reverse order that slowly reveal the main character's Dark and Troubled Past.
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This is actually the first novel Iain Banks wrote, although it was published much later. Many consider it his masterpiece. As a side note, this article completely fails to do it justice, so be prepared for emotional gut punches by the dozen if you actually read it. Also be aware that most of the spoiler tags below hide something you really don't want to know before reading it.


Use of Weapons provides examples of the following tropes:

  • Ambiguously Brown: Diziet Sma is described as having tawny or fawn-colored skin with dark blue-black hair and eyes of the same color.
  • Anachronic Order: It tells one story going forward with alternating chapters going in the opposite direction to provide flashbacks to Zakalwe's past. To make it even more convoluted, sometimes he has flashbacks within the chapters. This is so confusing with respect to the first and last chapters that fans disagree on whether they detail past or future events. One online reviewer jokingly referenced the novel as The Melancholy of Cheradenine Zakalwe.
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  • Arc Words: The Chair and the Chairmaker. The ship that was not a ship.
  • Arc Symbol: The Chair. Whenever a chair appears in the flashbacks Zakalwe makes a point of noticing it and
  • The Atoner: Zakalwe's work for The Culture is an attempt to be one of these, but since a lot of it is dirty work in war settings, he seems to just keep getting burdened by more and more guilt. Although the ending of Surface Detail suggests that he is still trying and has, to an extent, succeeded.
  • Badass Bookworm:
    • Sma is a poet and patron-of-the-arts as well as an extremely competent Special Circumstances operative.
    • Subverted with Cheradenine, who wanted to be a poet (which he thinks of as the opposite of being a warrior), but he found that he had no talent for it.
  • Bait the Dog: For a lot of the book, it's easy to think of Zakalwe as a really cool and badass secret agent and to think that his handlers from the Culture are off-base when they refer to him as a dangerous psycho. Certain events in his past change that impression. Although the Culture finds out about the events in his past in the same moment the reader finds out about it, at the end of the chronological story.
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  • Batman Gambit: Zakalwe's plans usually account for his foe's reaction, most notably at the climax of the book, where he crosses the Moral Event Horizon knowing that his opponent will respond by killing himself.
  • Becoming the Mask: Elethiomel borders on this in a twisted way; part of him really has come to believe that he is Cheradenine.
  • Beware the Nice Ones: This is the Culture's hat throughout the series, but there's a rather good quote about it in this book (posted on the Quotes Wiki).
  • Cain and Abel: Cheradenine and Elethiomel Zakalwe are an interesting take on this, as the flashbacks present Cheradenine as something of the Cain, being a jerk to his adopted brother Elethiomel, then it turns out that the Cheradenine of the novel is actually Elethiomel and he did a Moral Event Horizon crossing event that made him the Cain figure.
  • Citadel City: What Elethiomel makes the city the Staberinde is docked at by turning the Staberinde itself (an extremely powerful battleship) into a nigh indestructible fortress rooted in the ground.
  • Coitus Uninterruptus:
    • Implied at one point when Zakalwe calls Sma up to report on his mission. She takes his call, but seems... preoccupied.
    • Also in the incident that inspires the later Chairmaking.
  • Combat Pragmatist: Done on both a strategic and tactical level by Zakalwe and Elethiomel, especially in the flashbacks (because the latter has assumed the former's identity). It's not called Use of Weapons just because of the guns. In particular, unconventional warfare plays a huge part in the plot, whether it's Elethiomel's psychological warfare, or the turning of a naval battleship into a fortress rooted into the ground on land. Cheradenine later displays similar strategic flexibility in war later in the book. Minor foreshadowing that the Cheradenine we see throughout most of the book is not the real Cheradenine, who is a far more conventional thinker.
  • Continuity Nod: Before setting out to recover Zakalwe, Sma tells Skaffen-Amtiskaw to "send a stalling letter to that Petrain guy." The novella State of the Art is introduced as a later communication from Sma to Petrain recounting her time on Earth.
  • Dark and Troubled Past: Zakalwe's past isn't exactly rosy, to say the least.
  • Deadpan Snarker: Skaffen-Amtiskaw, more than most Drones, even.
  • Dead Person Impersonation: The protagonist of the novel is actually Elethiomel, who took Cheradenine's identity.
  • Despair Event Horizon: Cheradenine goes through two in the course of the book. The first when Darckense is murdered by Elethiomel and made into a chair. The second after Elethiomel adopts Cheradenine's identity and leads the forces of an unwinnable war to victory but was supposed to lose, ultimately creating a far bloodier disaster than was at all necessary.
  • Driven to Suicide: What Elethiomel tried to do with The Chair. In this case the victim knows full well that this is the intention but still goes through with it.
  • Exact Words: Exploited by the narration to keep the twist ending; during a flashback, a piece of Darckense's hip bone gets lodged next to "his" heart, but it's never explicitly said whose heart. The rest of the book implies that it was Cheradenine's, since the fragment is often alluded to, but the ending reveals it was actually Elethiomel's.
  • Exposition of Immortality: Zakalwe, in pillow talk with Shias Engin, tells her he's 220, 110 or 30. He was born 220 years ago, he's lived for 110 of them and he's physically about 30.
  • Fight Fur Your Right to Party: Sma attends a costume party/orgy dressed in a furry-suit modeled on the form taken by a ship's Avatar.
  • Flashback B-Plot: The story is told through chapters alternating between those going in normal chronological order and those in reverse order that reveal Cheradenine Zakalwe's past, which merge in the finale.
  • Futureshadowing:
    • All those references to the atrocious and enigmatic Chairmaker.
    • Each of the chapters that progress "backwards" to the beginning contains at least one sentence which focuses attention on one or more chairs.
  • Genius Bruiser: Zakalwe doesn't look particularly burly, but he definitely fits the trope. He's an insanely competent (and competently insane) soldier, but he's also clearly a genius. Despite coming from outside the Culture, he figured out how to copy several Culture technologies, and can out-think Special Circumstances.
  • The Handler: Diziet Sma, to Zakalwe.
  • History Repeats: Zakalwe is painfully aware that he has a bad habit of repeatedly making the same mistake of over-entrenching in an unwinnable situation and then not withdrawing when he should. He is otherwise depicted as a brilliant military mind, capable of turning the tide in a war despite overwhelming odds. At the end of the book, he accidentally wins an "unwinnable" war he joined the "wrong" side of, at ruinous cost of life and treasure, and when informed, he goes into a Heroic BSoD.
  • Heroic Comedic Sociopath: Zakalwe himself as well as Sma's drone companion Skaffen-Amtiskaw, though both of them also qualify for the Sociopathic Hero. Skaffen-Amtiskaw's earlier actions during Sma's career definitely, though it seems to have grown older and calmer.
  • Improbable Weapon User: Zakalwe's trademark, which gives the book its name. Some are downplayed, like using a stun gun at the maximum setting point blank to make a lethal damage threat, or using a plasma cannon that is for culture standards a relic with more archeological than tactical value, but he also uses a cosmetic surgery machine, plans to use a spaceship as a bomb, kills a man by stuffing his mouth with dried tongues until he chokes to death, gets rid of a knife-missile that was tailing him by rigging a medical imaging machine, and of course kills the opposing army leader by sending him a chair made of his sister's bones and skin, knowing that it will drive him to commit suicide.
  • It Works Better with Bullets: A king wakes up with an assassin in his bedroom. While he's being taunted, the king pulls a gun and tries to fire. The assassin off-handedly shows him the bullets and says, "It works better with these."
  • Kissing Cousins: Elethiomel is a cousin of the other three children. At one point he has sex with Darckense.
  • Love Triangle: Alluded to in the past segments, while Elethiomel holds Darckense hostage during the civil war before the Chairmaking between Darckense, Liveuta, and Elethiomel. By the present segments of the story he's murdered the former and driven the latter to despise him for it. Ultimately though, Darckense was only having sex with Elethiomel as an act of teenage rebellion, and Elethiomel claims to prefer Liveuta.
  • Losing Your Head: Special Circumstances operative Cheradenine Zakalwe crash-lands on a primitive planet and is sacrificed by the natives through decapitation. Fortunately his colleagues zoom in just in time to snatch back his head, but not before he's had a horrified moment to realise exactly what just happened. Later Zakalwe is in hospital waiting for a new body to be grown (they gave him the choice of remaining unconscious but he'd rather watch television) when the artificially-intelligent drone Skaffen-Amtiskaw (who doesn't like Zakalwe much, and has a twisted sense of humor) sends him a present. A hat.
  • Monster Clown: Zakalwe commits an assassination dressed as a jester, and the victim sees him as such, but it is suggested that Zakalwe's strikingly colourful outfit wouldn't look at all out of place in a Culture gathering.
  • Nice Job Breaking It, Hero!: At the start of the book, Zakalwe is using Culture rejuvenation technology to bribe rulers of a planet into being more benign, assassinating those who don't keep their end of the deal. This is an attempt to produce peace and prosperity without the convoluted planning and subtle prodding that characterizes Special Circumstances. Skaffen-Amtiskaw informs Sma that this well meaning attempts has resulted in all states being on the verge of a coup (mostly by the rulers' own immediate subordinates) that will produce unstability and war that will pretty much destroy the planet unless The Culture intervened swiftly.
  • Omniscient Morality Licence: The AI minds of Special Circumstances are much better than humans at acquiring and processing enormous amounts of information and predicting outcomes, so the missions often involve, for example, backing "the bad guys" knowing it will result in an uprising that will ultimately establish better conditions with less bloodshed than would have resulted from directly removing a tyrant.
  • Overly Long Name: Dr. Stapangarderslinaiterray, AKA Dr. Stap.
  • Really Gets Around: Sma isn't shy about her love of sex. She participates in an orgy on her first night aboard the Xenophobe, and when she asks Skaffen-Amtiskaw if he recorded any of it, it's mainly because she wanted to watch it.
  • Really 700 Years Old: Cheradenine Zakalwe and Diziet Sma.
  • Robotic Psychopath: Skaffen-Amtiskaw, who once bloodily massacred a group of bandits that tried to mess with Sma.
  • Scar Survey: Done by a poet-lover of Cheradenine Zakalwe, who's Covered in Scars from all the wars he's fought. Although he could lose the scars, Zakalwe claims to keep them to impress girls. He ends up losing the scars after being decapitated, then given a new clone body, whereupon he sheds Manly Tears as Every Scar Has a Story.
  • Sibling Rivalry: On a large and extremely brutal scale between Elethiomel, Darckense and Cheradenine.
  • Stuffed into the Fridge: Darckense Zakalwe is killed by Elethiomel. Her body is then used to create a chair which he sends to Cheradenine and Livueta, earning him his moniker. In fact, every flashback chapter has at least one female character in focus, who almost invariably comes to a bad end.
  • Swiss Army Gun:
    Skaffen-Amtiskaw: Micro Armaments System, Rifle. It's... oh, look, Zakalwe; it has ten separate weapon systems, not including the semi-sentient guard facility, the reactive shield components, the IFF-set quick-reaction swing-packs or the AG unit, and before you ask, the controls are all on the wrong side because that's the left-hand bias version, and the balance — like the weight and the independently variable inertia — are fully adjustable. It also takes about half a year's training just to learn how to use it safely, let alone competently, so you can't have one.
  • Title Drop: A passage describing Elethiomel:
    But such consummate skill, such ability, such adaptability, such numbing ruthlessness, such a use of weapons when anything could become weapon...
  • Trigger Happy: Zakalwe, hilariously so.
  • Twist Ending: The two main approaches to the ending is one story working forwards towards the events and a second story working backwards to their meaning. Keeping it a surprising twist under these circumstances is an achievement. The twist is that Cheradenine of the novel is actually Elethiomel from the scenes set in childhood. It's subtly alluded to shortly beforehand: "The doctors were still struggling to save [Cheradenine's] life when the soldiers trapped in the battleship made a break for it. It was a good fight and they almost succeeded." The doctors "almost succeeded", that is. Apparently, Elethiomel's forces did break out of the siege.
  • Unwitting Pawn: Zakalwe is a pawn of Special Circumstances. At one point, another mercenary tells him they can request to always be told the truth and Special circumstances will comply, but it will result in fewer missions, since keeping agents in the dark is sometimes crucial for the operation. At one point he ends up as a Spanner in the Works when he actually wins a battle he was expected to lose.
  • Utopia Justifies the Means: Special Circumstances' guiding philosophy.
  • Warrior Poet: Subverted. Zakalwe would like to be one, but all his efforts at poetry are amateurish. In a particular irony the novel is bookended by the much better poetic efforts of his co-workers.
  • Weaksauce Weakness: Cheradenine Zakalwe's aversion to chairs — although it makes a lot of sense once you find out what "the Chair" was.
  • Wouldn't Hit a Girl: For all his ruthlessness, Livueta is convinced Elethiomel is incapable of hurting Darckense, and is only keeping her hostage to keep Cheradenine from attacking him. Ultimately averted. It turns out he was terribly, horribly capable of hurting her.

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