Sometimes, writers can be a bit too eager.
We begin In Medias Res. We're in the middle of a fight scene, or some other action-packed sequence, and we have no idea whose side we're supposed to be on or even what they're so worked up about in the first place. The writer has no mercy though — they won't pause to explain who's who and what's what, you'll just have to work it out as you go along.
And then they forget to leave the hints.
Characterisation usually suffers from this most. Perhaps the story has Loads and Loads of Characters, and they've all been named within the first five minutes with no time taken to "flesh out" or even caricature their personalities and roles. This can be lethal to a work if many of the characters look similar to each other and Color-Coded Characters isn't employed. If you've introduced Character With Long Dark Hair #1, Character With Long Dark Hair #2, and Character With Long Dark Hair #3 in a fight sequence without telling us anything about their background, personality, or allegiance, then you will find that we can't tell the three of them apart when they reappear twenty pages or one episode later. People are often disinclined to continue when they have to spend ten minutes working out just who is speaking and why they should care.
Falling afoul of this can turn a perfectly lovely Plan or game of Xanatos Speed Chess into a Mind Screw: what good is your ability to see through Bob's complicated plan if you cannot remember which character is Bob? A possible explanation for this is the writer attempting to avoid including too much exposition in the opening; unfortunately they don't always remember that there's a lot of room between 'too much exposition' and 'no exposition at all'.
Slow-Paced Beginning is the other extreme, where there is too much exposition.
- This criticism has been levelled at Doki Doki School Hours, especially in comparison to the more widely recognised Azumanga Daioh. While Azumanga began by giving the viewer short segments to establish a small, core set of personalities, Doki Doki begins with a group of students finding their diminutive teacher lost in a crowd of first-year students. The characters already know each other, so no exposition is given. Instead, eyecatches of each student are used as "personality profiles" (breaking the rule of "show, don't tell" to which most writers adhere). This, in combination with a much larger cast, means that it takes time to memorise which personality belongs to which student, even if the characters are arguably more visually distinct than those of Azumanga Daioh.
- Azumanga Daioh itself suffers from this a little, at first (and only in the manga). Not because it fails to introduce characters properly, but because the art style is very simple and a large number of characters are visually non-distinct. There are at least four characters with straight, loose, short-to-medium length black hair in identical school uniforms (Tomo, Chihiro, Kaorin and Osaka) and little obvious other than hairstyle to distinguish the characters. Colour-coded hair is not employed.
- Boy Princess is a story of gender bending and cross dressing set in a world of complex political intrigue...so it's a pity the writer doesn't take the time to fully "set up" this political intrigue before starting the story, instead seeming to make it up as the plot moves along. In addition, the characters are visually similar to each other (even people on opposing sides look alike) and personalities aren't clearly defined at the start, making it nearly impossible to keep track of the hero, let alone anyone else...as if the disguises didn't make it difficult to keep track of who's who anyway.
- This is the main problem with the Saikano anime. It would have been far better had they not sped through the plot at mach 12, and stretched it to 26 episodes or so instead. It's still an effective Tear Jerker, but not nearly as good as the manga.
- The Fate/stay night: Unlimited Blade Works movie adaptation cuts out the exposition so much that only those who have played the route in the game has a hope of understanding it.
- Ikki Tousen starts out without this problem, but as soon as Volume Two starts, the plot takes off and doesn't let you come with. Thankfully, every volume opens with a character guide.
- The anime adaptation of Wandering Son suffers from this trope, since the part adapted starts from the middle of the story. By this point, everyone knows everyone else and have built complicated relationships, which aren't easy to define even for people who have read the manga from the beginning.
- The movie version of Berserk, being a Compressed Adaptation, falls victim to this. The main character's painfully tragic backstory is portrayed only as a short series of disjointed flashbacks, making his attitude problem in the early episodes a bit of a mystery to new viewers. Much of the political subplot is cut, downplaying themes of classism and social injustice that make up a large part of the antagonist's motivation, and the members of the Hawks other than the main three are not developed, making the Downer Ending of the third movie less poignant.
- BlazBlue: Alter Memory tends to leave important things out, such as what Ars Magus and the Nox Nictores are, as well as Terumi establishing a lifelink with Noel, which is why Ragna didn't kill him near the end. It also has a habit of forgetting characters beside a few main characters, despite the game giving each character their own story to explain their background and actions during the time the game takes place.
- All-Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder suffers from this, to the point where figuring out the series's timeline is nigh-impossible.
- A highlight is the portion where one of two things happened: either the police gave up on finding Dick Grayson, put his picture on a milk carton, printed and distributed that milk carton to stores, and Alfred went on a shopping trip all in under 12 hours, or it took 6 weeks or more for Superman to fly a car across the ocean.
- A complaint about the first issue of All-New Wolverine is that it begins with Wolverinenote in Paris in the midst of trying to stop an assassination, with no context for who she was protecting, why they were a target, or who the assassin was. It's not until the second issue that these details start getting filled in.
- A common complaint in the FF.net reviews is that Knowledge Is Power is hard to pick up, with the actual fact of what's happened not becoming clear until the end of Chapter 3.
- About the film Elizabeth (starring Cate Blanchett), a critic wrote that we can't tell "which conspirators are on which side, or even who is a conspirator."
- This is one of the reasons that Primer is so confusing. What's unique in this case is that you don't even learn the movie started In Medias Res until a ways into the movie (assuming you realize that at all the first time you watch it), and you're probably already lost by then.
- A Man Called Hero suffers from this in the movie version. The story actually starts more or less in the beginning, but because it's a Generational Saga, it has flashbacks from Hero's son Sword asking various people about his father. Even given all the facts, it seems like the story is missing details.
- Hornets' Nest suffers from this. It's chock full of characters with different motivations, including factions within factions, but the viewer is just dropped into the middle of their lives. Some of the plot (Turner wanting to blow up the dam, the kids wanting revenge for their town) is self-explanatory and discussed up front. Other elements, such as von Hecht's hatred of the SS and the hunter's code he lives by, Aldo's attitude towards his friends and his antagonistic with Scarpi, what Gunther is doing hanging around von Hecht's headquarters, etc. are there, but presented without explanation or discussion and so the audience is left to deduce a lot of the "hows," "whos" and "whys" for themselves. Michael Avallone's Novelization clears a lot of it up, though.
- If you can make it past the first hundred pages of Game of Kings in the Lymond Chronicles without giving up in confusion, you might possibly survive until the end. It's possible to make it through to the third book of six without understanding the first thing about what's going on - it's an excellent read anyway.
- Robert Adams Horseclans series suffers horribly from this in combination with Loads and Loads of Characters, further complicated by the fact that a lot of those characters have names that are fairly similar (the Ehlenee names are particularly bad), and by the fact that the series stretches over a timespan of decades, so genealogies sometimes come into play as well. You need an excellent head for names — or a scorecard — to keep track.
- Steven Erikson claims to have done this deliberately in the foreword for recent editions of Gardens of the Moon (the first book in the Malazan Book of the Fallen series), in order to weed out readers without enough patience to enjoy the series.
- Jacek Dukaj's style includes 1) very elaborate and exotic Worldbuilding and 2) as little and as late Exposition as possible, instead leaving it up to the reader to figure things out from context. This means that some of his more involved stories can be very confusing until about halfway through, and even then you might still not fully grasp everything.
- Power Rangers Samurai suffers from this, due to Nickelodeon skipping the origin episodes. Additionally, it is the first Power Rangers season to do so, as previous seasons start properly with the origin.
- While the first season of the Game of Thrones TV series eventually gets around to explaining who everyone is and what they're doing, the first episode includes scenes like three young, shirtless, dark-haired men getting shaves and haircuts (i.e., removing their only remaining distinguishing features). Little details like their names and the fact that one of them is a prisoner of war from another family aren't mentioned. If you can manage to tell the three apart, you'll notice that only one of them actually does anything for several episodes.
- Invoked in Farscape. Our hero John Crichton is a regular guy from Earth who gets sucked through a wormhole and ends up in the middle of a huge battle involving numerous alien species, and spends the next several minutes just as confused as we are.
- Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency revels in throwing a hodgepodge of nonsense at you from minute one and gradually explaining it through the season.
- X-Men 2: Clone Wars for the Sega Genesis is notorious for dropping the player into the game's first level (with a random character) as soon at the game is turned on. You don't even see the Title Screen until you finish it. This was probably a failed attempt at translating a cold opening to gaming.
- Final Fantasy XIII opens up right in the middle of a battle between a train of prisoners and the soldiers shuttling them to their execution. The characters toss around terms like l'Cie and fal'Cie without any exposition to explain exactly what they're referring to, the viewpoint character (and the supporting characters surrounding him or her) changes every fifteen minutes, and all in all the first couple of hours are confusing and chaotic. The only way to catch up with what's going on right away is to dive into the compendium, which is several dozen pages long.
- Ride to Hell: Retribution starts with the protagonist driving his bike, interspersed with scenes of him engaging in a turret sequence in the woods, having a fistfight in front of a waterfall, and jumping over a helicopter on said bike. The first two scenes are never explained or reappear again, and the third has little relevance in the storyline.
- Surprisingly enough, killer7 manages to be a purposeful and effective example of this. The first target, Angel, drops the player into a mission labeled "Assignment 33". There's basically no introduction to any of the numerous playable characters and allies (and there never will be), but this ends up working its favor because the chapter itself is much lighter on plot than the rest of the game, forcing the player to get acclimated to both the characterization and gameplay functions of all of the game's recurring characters. By the time you get to its ending, both how to play and the core concept of the story has been stealthily introduced to you while leaving you in the same state of confusion that the rest of the game will.
- Nine out of every ten readers have no idea what's going on in Xawu. Of the remaining ten percent, most are people the creator knows and has described the story in great detail to.
- In Homestuck the author loves to start new sections in medias res and it may not be clear how (or even if) they relate to the larger story for some time.
- The first few episodes of Code Lyoko explain virtually nothing about the premise. What is Lyoko? Who are the characters? How do they know each other, or how long have they? Who or what is Aelita? Who or what is XANA and why is he evil? Why can the characters go onto Lyoko? How do they know how to do the things they know how to do? How did they find out about the computer and Lyoko? Why is the computer stashed under an abandoned factory? How long has it been there and who put it there? It isn't until later that any of these questions are addressed.
- In the first episode of The Wild Thornberrys, Eliza Speaks Fluent Animal for unknown reasons, and she has an adopted Wild Child brother. These are briefly explained in the Opening Narration, but they're not discussed in detail for several seasons, when we get a Whole Episode Flashback about the former and a TV movie about the latter.
- Gormiti: The Lords of Nature Return never explains how everything began. You watch the first episode, and everything is already set in stone: Two brothers and their friends are informed by a talking lizard that evil lava men are doing stuff on Gorm Island that is changing the climate on Earth, so they all go inside the secret temple/library hidden inside their basement, where the dimensional portal sorts one of them to stay at home and control the operations while the other 3 go to Gorm, transform into elemental warriors and fight the lava men. Pamphlets found inside the toys explain that Razzle (the lizard) is a dinosaur who got the ability to speak and his knowledge of Gorm by a wizard who once lived on Gorm in order to find the new Lords of Nature after the old ones where all sucked in a dimensional rift, and comics give you a further explanation, but the latter were released only in Italy, Greece and a few other European countries.
- PJ Masks: At the start of the series, the PJ Masks already have their powers, vehicles, and HQ, and are already familiar with Romeo, Night Ninja and Luna Girl (who likewise already have their powers and tools). So far, no Origins Episode for either the heroes or villains has been shown.