In Real Life, Mars is the lifeless, dusty red planet next door to the lush, blue planet we call home, Earth. The implication that barren Mars once was as bountiful and full of life as Earth and has become a wasteland entirely through the activities of today's threat gives a chilling demonstration of what kind of potential damage could happen to our world. Often this sort of damage starts with Mars first and goes from the outside of the solar system to the interior.
Stories where Mars had a thriving civilization are getting to be a Discredited Trope these days due to real-life Martian probing finding little or no archeological evidence. The theorized reasons why Mars isn't thriving like Earth now has a lot to do with its significantly lower gravity being unable to hold in an atmosphere with enough air pressure to keep liquid water from evaporating away, or any ozone layer to protect it from deadly solar radiation; a slow environmental death of natural consequences. However, in the past before space probes, astronomers only had their telescopes and their imaginations pointed at Mars, giving plenty of room to think up entire alien civilizations living on it.
For another trope relating to our changing view of our planetary neighbors, see Venus is Wet.
- In The E.Y.E.S. of Mars, human civilization has mostly destroyed Mars' once lush ecosystem.
- Bad Planet shows Mars teeming with life before the arrival of the death-spiders that harvested all life on their world and reduced it into a designated "bad planet".
- In Warlord of Mars, Mars was once depicted having massive oceans and the greatest superpower at the time being the seafaring empire of the White Martians. But a disaster lead to the oceans drying up and the atmosphere being slowly destroyed.
- Dan Dare: In The Red Moon Mystery it is shown that a thriving civilisation once existed on Mars: Dan's Uncle Ivor is an archaeologist who specialises in Martian ruins. Ivor discovers that Martian civilisation was destroyed by something called The Red Moon, just in time for said object to return and threaten Earth. Clues left by the last Emperor of Mars enable Earth to be saved and the Emperor to get his posthumous revenge.
- Ice Age 5: Collision Course reveals that Mars was indeed wet and green and on the verge of birthing life. However as the first amphibian crawls out of the water, it gets accidentally destroyed along with the rest of the planet by a Flying Saucer piloted by a mad squirrel with an acorn obsession.
- In the movie John Carter, it's said that Mars is dying out due to the actions of the Therns, and after the Therns are done with Mars they'll just move on to Earth. This doesn't happen in the book; in the book Mars is dying on its own and the natives have multiple methods in place to slow down the planet-dying process.
- Near the end of Mission to Mars the astronauts discover an ancient Martian orrery that explains that Mars was once very Earthlike and had spacefaring intelligent life on it. The planet suffered a cataclysm and the Martians abandoned their homeworld and seeded Earth with life on their way out of the Solar System.
- Total Recall (1990) showed that Mars was once inhabited by ancients, who had a massive machine that maintained a breathable atmosphere and biosphere on the planet—which was being uncovered by the mining operations going on in the movie's present.
- Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster states that Martian civilization was wiped out by the titular monster (this only applies to the English dub; in the Japanese version, it was Venus that was destroyed).
- Species II: A disgraced scientist claims that Mars was once a thriving planet a billion years ago before the antagonistic aliens wrecked the entire ecosystem and are now trying to do the same thing to Earth. He was locked up to keep him quiet.
- Life: A group of astronauts in the ISS discover a life form that anihilate all life on Mars and now wants visit Earth.
- In Sergey Sukhinov's The 21st Century Chronicles series, it's eventually revealed that not only was Mars once habitable, but the Martians were a thriving, space-faring civilization. They had tech like Deflector Shields, powerful weapons, and devices for reconstructing past events by largely undetectable trace evidence. However, an even more advanced race arrived from another system and soundly defeated them, rendering Mars uninhabitable. Some of the survivors may have been taken as slaves, and others were forced to resettle to the neighboring planet, possibly becoming our ancestors.
- In the Animorphs book about the Ellimist, he first visits our solar system around the time the dinosaurs died out. He mentions that Mars has life, but it's dying and, unlike on Earth, isn't going to recover.
- A throwaway line in the first Jack Blank book shows that the planet of Mars once was as green as Earth, and that the reason it's as barren as it we know it is because the planet-consuming Rüstov already finished with it, and they are presently attempting to invade the Earth.
- In John Carter of Mars, Mars once had thriving seas and green life, but the planet is now on life support, with its great canals and even its atmosphere sustained artificially by its inhabitants who haven't given up the ghost. Its seas are so long gone that there are ancient ruins in the plains that used to be the bottom,
- Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles showed a civilization living on Mars who didn't think Earthlings existed until they started landing on the planet, which the Martians attempt to resist as much as possible. Eventually, the Martians die off from a mild Earth disease and humans are all that remain on Mars.
- In C. S. Lewis's Out of the Silent Planet, it turns out that Mars was once lushly habitable before being attacked and ravaged by the bent Oyarsa of Earth (i.e., Satan), and now life there is mostly limited to a few geothermal oases.
- One of Larry Niven Svetz stories, Rainbow Mars involves time travel to Mars' verdant past, and chronicles what happened to it.
- H. G. Wells War of the Worlds had the Martians invade the Earth because Mars was dying. They would go to consume their solar system inward if they hadn't made their lifestyles so sterile that they couldn't survive an encounter from Earth's abundant microorganisms.
- In Leigh Brackett's Planetary Romance The Sword of Rhiannon, present-day Mars is a desert planet (although the canals are water-filled) inhabited by Human Alien Martians, but a million years ago Mars was much warmer, with extensive oceans.
- Doctor Who: In the serial "Image of the Fendahl", the Doctor says the Fendahl were responsible for Mars becoming a dead planet.
- In Kamen Rider Build, the first manned mission to Mars in 2007 discovered ruins and a mysterious object that researchers dubbed "Pandora's Box". Later in the series it's revealed to be the work of a roving planet-destroying entity named Evolt, who used the Box to create an Unrealistic Black Hole that devastated the planet's surface — and he's seeking to do the same to Earth.
- Rocket Age's Mars was once a cool, idyllic world, until some Ancient Martian scientists managed to knock their own planet out of its correct orbit by firing the Planet Killer Rocket at their enemies, turning Mars into a hot desert world.
- In Doom III, a civilization existed on Mars that was destroyed by the Legions of Hell. The exact same legions that are faced by the human space marine protagonist.
- In Ultima: Worlds of Adventure 2: Martian Dreams, the Avatar travels in time to the 19th century, and from there, to Mars, where a native civilization is discovered. Said civilization is in ruins, however, and the Avatar needs to help them with restoring Mars to a habitable state. Ultimately, Mars's environment cannot be saved. The Avatar is, however, able to place the minds of the surviving Martians into robots and re-locate them to Earth. Over the course of the next century or two, Mars's ecosystem dies completely, and the planet is reduced to the dusty, dry world we know today.
- Mother: Cognitive Dissonance has Mars dotted with wreckage and abandoned laboratories. The Data Logs detail that the Martians were leading a prosperous civilization, but it was ruined after a war with Jupiter caused by a misunderstanding, and another war in which they lost to Giegue who then turned the remaining Martians into Starmen.
- In Crash Team Racing, a Dummied Out piece of dialogue from N. Oxide infers that he's responsible for this:
You're the fastest racer so far? You're the best this planet can offer? This is going to be a bigger joke than that last civilization I challenged. What was it called... on that red planet so close to here... Oh, yes. I think you call it Mars. Now that was an easy win. What? You say there is no civilization on the planet Mars? (laughs) Not anymore! They lost the race!
- In Waking Mars, it's theorized that Mars was indeed once green, except the lifeforms there were nothing like we're used to. The pseudoplants (called Zoa) you find and spread are recovering from a billion years of dormancy due to increased volcanic activity in the area. You eventually encounter the Sentients, native Martians, who are true Starfish Aliens. If you didn't know it, you could easily confuse them for yet another kind of Zoa. In the end, you can either have the Sentients revive Mars (which will only work for a few months) or escape the planet with you either staying aboard or going back to the Base Camp.
- In the Ben 10: Alien Force episode "Fool's Gold", mischievous but harmless aliens come to a village every 17 years where they eat massive quantities of popcorn and defecate solid gold. When the town's mayor gets greedy and kidnaps one, he gives the alien a steak, causing the alien to grow into massive size and defecate unstable uranium. The alien's friend tells Ben that Mars "used to be called The Popcorn Planet" before his kind came there.
- The first episode of the Justice League cartoon displays an invasion of aliens coming to Earth. These aliens previously had taken Mars, leaving the Martian Manhunter as the sole survivor, who comes to Earth to warn the planet and help form the Justice League to fight them off.
- Biker Mice from Mars managed to use the trope twice:
- The red planet is shown to have been a lush place before the Plutarkians invaded and literally stole away every resource, including the fertile soil.
- The 2006 revival shows that, before the Plutarkian invasion, the Martians themselves had ruined the ecosystem, but had repaired it with the Regenerator. The revival's Myth Arc deals with the attempt to recover the original Regenerator (now in the hands of Ronaldo Rump) or build a third one after the second one, who had apparently been used to restore Mars' resources after the Plutarkian's defeat, was destroyed before it could restore the water and fully revive the planet.
- In Real Life, our probes have uncovered a lot of evidence indicating Mars once had oceans and running water, organic matter has been located by the "Curiosity" rover, and possible fossilized microbes have been found on meteorites in Antarctica traced back to the Martian crust. For its first billion years of existence perhaps, Mars might have had a magnetic field strong enough to sustain a decent atmosphere and protect a primitive biosphere—but being smaller and further from the Sun its core might have cooled fairly quickly, weakening that magnetic field to the point its atmosphere was (and still is being) stripped by the solar wind. There's also some evidence that a very massive object, possibly a dwarf planet like Ceres, impacted Mars in such a way as to throw the core itself off balance and likely disrupt its magnetism—the fact that the Southern Hemisphere crust is significantly thicker than the Northern is related to this.
- Leaving possible human-directed Terraforming aside, in a few billion years as the Sun's luminosity increases Mars will have Earth-like temperatures. However this trope will very likely be averted, as it's too small and geologically inactive -change cold, dry and airless with hot, dry and airless as with no magnetic field to speak of and its low gravity Mars' water will be lost in space- and in any case once the Sun goes full red giant it will be a scorched, lava-covered, Death World.
- Venus is also thought to have once had water (and possibly microbes) on it, until its own lack of a magnetic field caused the water to become disassociated by solar radiation, leaving nothing to prevent a runaway greenhouse effect that rendered the planet uninhabitable.