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Myth / Russian Mythology and Tales

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Zmey Gorynych drawing by Viktor Vasnetsov.

Russian myths and folklore come from two sources: the pre-Christian Slavic paganism, and the legends and tales composed after Russia became Orthodox Christian.

Note that in this context, Russian is used with its antiquated meaning and referring to Kievan Rus', the medeival people from whom also Ukrainians and Belarusians descend.

Pagan spirits

The pagan myths of the ancient Rus told about a number of gods (mostly nature deities) and many kinds of spirits and faeries. We'll list some of them.

  • Baba Yaga is the most well-known Russian mythological character abroad. In earlier tales Baba Yaga is described as a monstrously ugly hag with a dry, bony leg and a penchant for human meat. But later she underwent some Villain Decay: some later tales described her being not very smart, and some (especially the more modern adaptations) as a Minion with an F in Evil or even making a Heel–Face Turn. Baba Yaga is famous for her magic hut on chicken legs, and for flying in a large wooden mortar. Another interesting fact is that Baba Yaga shows a special form of Even Evil Has Standards, and when reminded of the Russian hospitality she feels obligated to feed, bathe and prepare a bed for the hero of the story.
    • Some modern folklorists believe that initially she was a witch, or even a priestess to some goddess, living in the woods, that performs a kind of maturity ritual to the hero, first scaring and testing him and then, if he passes her tests, giving him some useful knowledge about how things work in the world. Later Christian morale stated that both witches and pagan priests are bad, adding a whole set of bad features and turning passing her trials into converting her to the right cause. Still, with the exception of a few kids' tales where she tries to cook and eat a stray child (and even those some see as an attempt to heal a too weak newborn by making him warm in a warm oven), she's mostly helpful, and her malevolent intents are never actually executed.
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  • The Firebird rivals Baba Yaga for being well-known. The firebird is a peacock-like avian with feathers that glow like a bonfire in red, orange, and yellow. She usually serves as a MacGuffin in Slavic Fairy Tales, stealing something, usually fruit, or trying to help someone but ending up leaving behind a single feather for a questor to come and find her. Her feathers continue to glow after being lost and are considered enchanting in their own right.
  • Koshchei the Immortal note  is the possible inspiration for D&D liches. A gaunt, skeletal, sorcerous villain that could only be killed by destroying the needle where "his death" was concealed. The needle was inside an egg, the egg inside a bird, the bird inside a hare, the hare inside a chest, the chest high in a tree, the tree growing on a magical island that is notoriously hard to find. Good luck questing for it, hero. Also, despite being skeletal, Koshchei is often depicted being horny, kidnapping beautiful princesses to marry them. In other tales, Koshchei possessed vast amounts of gold.
    • The Firebird ballet, set to music by Stravinski, combines the legends of the Firebird and Koschei, and is one of the most well-known versions of Russian folklore in the west.
  • The Nezhit note  and Nechist note  originally referred to a class of nature spirits such as the leshii and the domovoi (though there was a subcategory of nezhit called the zalozhny, humans that became supernatural creatures after they died), though in modern Russian, the word nezhit usually means "undead" and nechist "demon". After Christianity became widespread in Russia, their origin was somewhat retconned: these spirits came to be considered angels who fell but who were not evil enough to become demons. The type of spirit they became depended from the exact physical place where they did fall. For example, ones that fell into human homesteads became...
    • Domovoi, the household spirits, similar to English house brownies or house elves from Harry Potter. The belief in domovois was very persistent and survives to the present day. They are told to be little furry humanoids in homespun clothing, who have the power to become invisible (and are invisible most of the time). These spirits are often good and helpful, though somewhat mischievious. On Easter day Domovoi sleeps all day and is can be seen, so an evil one can be caught and evicted that day.
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    • Bannik, the bathhouse spirit, is known to be pretty jealousy and vindictive: he may make a person he dislikes sit on hot stones or slip on a wet floor and fall. Also, he bathes with his family in the "third steam", the time when the fire burns away, and may kill one that comes to the bath house in that time, so you may see him as a personification of carbon monoxide (and all other dangers that can happen in a bathhouse). It's usually prudent to leave him a basin full of hot water and a bath broom when everyone finishes washing.
    • Kikimora, the unkind type of household spirit, is sometimes a Domovoi's wife. They are almost always invisible, run very fast and never rest. They can communicate with people by knocking. Kikimora likes to do household woman's jobs, like knitting or spinning, but does them so badly that in the morning everything has to be undone and redone. It also tears patches of hair or fur from people and cattle, and feathers from birds, produces all kinds of sounds that disturbs sleep, howls in the chimneys. Modern Russians often call kikimora a forest or swamp spirit, but this is not historically correct. The word "kikimora" is sometimes used in modern Russian to describe, somewhat tongue-in-cheek, an ugly and/or bad-tempered woman (compare to "hag").
    • There are spirits governing almost every building in the household: Ovinnik in the threshing house, Dvorovoj in the courtyard and cattle house, Younik in the sheaves drying corner and so on.
    • Leshii, the woodland spirits, lords of forests. Legends tell that every forest (at least every Russian forest) is governed by a leshii, who commands all animals in it. Leshii are told to be usually indifferent to humans, but willing to defend the forests if they are despoiled (similar to J.R.R.Tolkien's ents). It's natural that the people living mostly in forests would have an Ent-like entity in their myths. A somewhat wicked sense of humor is attributed to leshiis: they like to lead travelers and foragers astray. The leshiis are descripted either as humanoids with their feet turned backwards or Ent-esque walking tree-things, and have the powers to change their size and weave illusions.
      • If you feel that Leshii is making you walk in circles in the woods, put your upper dress on turned inside-out and switch your boots. And don't swear, leshiis hate people who swear in the woods.
      • Leshiis are well known to gamble with their kind, and they gamble for animals in their forests, a whole kind as a bet (mice, then squirrels, hares, and so on, finally bears). So if a hunter returns empty-handed, it's because the local leshii has lost all the game to some other one.
    • Vodyanoi and Bolotnitsa, the water spirits, the former being the spirits of clear water, the latter of swamps. The Always Female Bolotnitsas are told to be outright malevolent to humans. They look like beautiful women with frog's feet, and lure men into the swamp where they drown them.
    • Rusalkas, spirits of drowned maidens, often the kind that drowned themselves after being jilted by their lovers. Love to lure young males to their watery grave. Became synonymous with "Mermaid" in modern language, often leading to Critical Research Failure when an illustration of Ruslan and Ludmila shows a fishtailed mermaid sitting on the branches. A Slavic rusalka was naturally as bipedal as a living human.
    • Poludnitsa, noon maiden, is walking the fields in summer and punishing those who work or travel when the sun is high and hot.
  • The Zmeis (Serpents) were the Russian dragons, who were evil and breathed fire, like their European counterparts. The most well-known was Zmei Gorynych (the latter literally means "son of the mountain"), the three-headed dragon. Some researchers consider them a personification of foreign invaders, primarily the Golden Horde — for example, a certain folk-tale Tartar bandit with no supernatural qualities earned himself the nickname of "Tugarine Zmei".
  • Vasilisa the Wise, though usually not a spirit, is a supernaturally wise young woman. Often is a relative of Baba Yaga, so her real nature is up to the reader. There is also Vasilisa the Beautiful, which may be the sister of the Wise, the same person with the Wise or completely unrelated to the Wise, depending on the tale version.
    • Note that "Vasilisa" is a contemporarynote  feminine form of the Greek title of "Basileos", and basically translated as just "Queen".
  • Likho (literally "bad luck"), a spirit of bad fortune, depicted as an ugly one-eyed creature, sometimes a crone, sometimes also one-legged. It appears from time to time in fairy tales and some modern books, but is not very famous. Typical plots see the Likho attach itself to the hero, who then either has to cheat himself out of its grasp or pass it on to another unlucky person (often deservedly).
  • Upyr (or Oupire), a vampire or, in a more modern meaning, a ghoul. Russia was one of the countries where belief in vampires was traditional. Oupires, like all other traditional folkloric vampires, were far from being gentlemanly or sexy, they were stupid, hungry zombie-like ghouls. The word "vurdalak" is often used as a synonym, but it's not a truly traditional term for a vampire, it was invented by Alexander Pushkin and derived from Greek "vrykolakas". In modern Russian the word "upyr" can be used as a mild insult, similar to "jackass".
  • Most of Slavic Mythology not listed here existed in medieval Rus in some form or other.


With Christianity becoming widespread, a new legendarium appeared in the Rus — the tales of Bogatyrs,note  heroic warriors who protected the land from beasts, monsters, and invading steppe nomads. The lays about Bogatyrs are called byliny (a nigh-untranslatable Old Russian word roughly meaning "the stories that did happen"; they are not to be confused with bliny, which are delicious pancakes).note  Many legendary Bogatyrs were indeed historical persons (the most well known one, Ilya Muromets, is a Russian Orthodox saint). But more obscure legends tell about fictional or even non-human Bogatyrs, such as the giant Svyatogor or the dog-headed Polkan, whose name is a popular dog name in modern Russia. Legends often place Bogatyrs in the court of Prince Vladimir I, much like the knights of King Arthur, ignoring the fact that the historical Bogatyrs lived in different times and could not have met (heck, they could not even call themselves Bogatyrs, because they lived long before the first encounter of Russians with Turkish tribes of polovets. The original slavonic word is horobr).

Notable Bogatyrs include:

  • Svyatogor.note  An ancient Bogatyr of tremendous height and power, which proves too much for Mother Earth, so he has to move into the mountains to avoid sinking into the ground. He often plays the Older and Wiser mentor role to younger Bogatyrs, especially, Ilya Muromets.
  • Ilya Muromets ("Ilya from Murom"). Regarded as the most badass among the Bogatyrs, Ilya spends the first 33 years of his life half-paralyzed and lying on a stove, until one day, two pilgrims heal him, foretell him that he "will not fall in battle", and send him off to kick ass. In addition to Super Strength he "inherits" from Svyatogor, Ilya relies on common sense and combat tactics to defeat even the deadliest enemies of Rus.
    • Is probably a conflation of several historical characters like a warrior monk and an Orthodox Saint Ilia Pechersky (Elijah of the Pechersk monastery), who's still interred in a Kievo-Pechersky Monastery, but who lived a couple of centuries after Vladimir I's time, and Dobrynya Malovich, Vladimir's maternal uncle, tutor, general and chief minister during his reign, who himself became a famous bogatyr.
    • This one was adapted into a film in the 50's by the USSR. Although far from bad, a... somewhat imperfect translation would later show up on MST3K.
    • There it touches German/Norse Mythology, where supposedly the same Ilya appears as the uncle of Hartnit (or Ortnit). According to one saga, Ortnit ruled in Holmgard (Novgorod) and won in an Engagement Challenge for a Valkyrie. Which may be a reference to the time when a tribe of German or Scandinavian descent called "Rus" half-conquered half-assimilated into its Slavic neighbours, turning into something new.
      • Hartnit is also mentioned in Thidreks Saga: Mimir gave to Sigurd (as an apology for trying to kill him) the armor he made for Hartnit of Holmgard.
  • Dobrynya Nikitich.note  A Cultured Warrior from Ryazan who proves himself a Worthy Opponent to Ilya Muromets himself and sports a "rap sheet" almost as extensive as Ilya's. Is based on a historical figure of the same name, despite also being one of the prototypes of Ilya, though his father (and Vladimir's maternal grandfather) was named Mal (a small one), not Nikita, in Real Life. Was probably subject to the same persecution as Vladimir himself, because his sister, Malusha, was a Princess Olga's favourite housekeeper, a slave's position in the Kievan Rus' note , so he had all the reasons to support his nephew.
    • His and Malusha's father, Mal (or Malk) Lyubechanin, was apparently a foreigner to the Kievan court — either a German (as his Lyubechanin — one of Lubek — appelation suggests) or, as some historian claims, a Drevlyan chieftain, Drevlyans being the main rivals of the Polyans, a Slavic tribe living around Kiev. This, and the fact that he was probably a prisoner of war (and thus a slave), can explain the condescending attitude that Kievans had to their family, which forced Vladimir and Dobrynya to became The Chessmasters they were.
  • Alyosha Popovich. Born in Rostov in a clergy family ("Popovich" literally means "son of priest"), he is The Trickster and a Kid Hero among the Bogatyrs, who rounds up the famous Power Trio with Ilya and Dobrynya.
  • Volha/Volga Vseslavovich (Svyatoslavovich in some versions). A Magic Knight and a Shapeshifter, he scores a preventive strike against the Indian King, saving Rus from his impending invasion.
  • Mikula Selyaninovich ("Mikula the Villager's son"). Of common descent, he nevertheless possesses the sheer strength of Mother Earth herself, making him even stronger physically than Svyatogor. There's also a ballad in which Volha met and befriended him, and was quite impressed, especially when several of his men failed to lift a golden plow Mikula lifted with one hand. Other than that, however, he didn't earn much fame. With all his strength he's a ploughman, not a warrior (in one of bylins Svyatogor failed to lift a satchel with "the whole essense of the earth", while Mikula did it easily).
  • Mikhailo Potyk. The Boisterous Bruiser and The Big Guy, who, for example, wins Bukhara Kingdom... in a game of checkers with its Khan.
  • Princess Nastasya of Lithuania. One of the few female Bogatyrs you'll find (normally, women play either antagonistic or trusty adviser roles in byliny), she is an exceptional Archer but is accidentally killed by her own husband.
  • Sokolnik. Ilya's bastard son who tries to kill him but fails.
    • Some versions (and the aforementioned movie) have him surviving. Also, in another story he is replaced by Ilya's daughter. In either case, after the Luke, I Am Your Father moment, the child attempts to murder Ilya in his sleep... due to being offended at their bastard background (sometimes killing the mom first). Ilya survives thanks to his cross serving as a Pocket Protector.
  • Vasilisa Mikulichna, another female warrior. She came disguised as a man to Prince Vladimir's court to claim her husband Stavr Godynovich from Vladimir's prison, then dared his best warriors and bested them, then passed a wit contest, and then won the riddle game, finally getting her husband back as part of a bet made by the Prince. In addition, her riddle was of a very erotic flavour; it told about the game of a silver spike and golden ring, so no wonder that only Stavr could solve it. By her patronimic, she may be considered as a daughter of Mikula Selyaninovich. The legend was adapted into a cartoon in 1975... minus the riddle, of course.
  • Alexander Peresvet. A semi-historical, rather than legendary, Warrior Monk who participated in the Battle of Kulikovo and was slain by a Crimean warrior named Chelubey in a Mutual Kill.
  • Bova-korolevich (Bova son of the king) is the folklore retake on the French poem character Bovo d'Antona (in XVII - XVIII centuries there was a very popular series of colored woodcuts of his story, first printed in Croatia based on an Italian translation of the poem, then translated into Belarussian, and later into Russian).
  • Voivode Polkan, the character from the same poem. While there he was named Pulicane, and was a half-man-half-dog, his Russian name sounded so similar to "half-horse" that he transformed into a centaur. Best friend and a military leader of Bova, later sacrificed his life to save Bova's family from raging lions.

Ilya Muromets, Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich are the most well known Bogatyrs and, in modern depictions are often shown as a team of three. Early stories, however, did NOT differentiate the Bogatyrs into the "famous trio" and "everyone else" the way modern stories are likely to do. One possible reason for the change is the Three Bogatyrs painting.


Different myths and fairy tales name some pretty specific artifacts that the heroes possess.

  • Skatert-samobranka (self-laying table cloth), is (obviously) a table cloth. Whenever unrolled, it provides a variety of foods and drinks (with an almost mandatory bucket of vodka). Sometimes, it provides the foods on rich silver plates, but require that all the dishes are returned after it's eaten; if anything is taken, it will further provide rotten food until all the silverware is returned. Also sometimes it requires that the bones and other leftovers are also put back when rolling it.
  • Kover-samolet (flying carpet). A flying carpet as it is.
  • Shapka-nevidimka (invisible hat), also pretty straightforward, it's a hat or a helmet that, when worn, turns its wearer invisible.
  • Sapogi-skorohody (outrunner boots), or semimilnye sapogi (seven-mile boots), both providing great speed by allowing the wearer to cover great distances in one step.
  • Volshebnij klubok (magical ball of string), is usually a gift of Baba Yaga. It rolls in front of the hero showing him the way. Leaves no thread when rolling, but somehow runs thinner as he approaches his destination.
  • Yablochko na bludechke (apple on the saucer), sometimes specified as "a ripe apple on a golden-edged saucer", is another tool of Baba Yaga. Rolling the apple on the saucer, she is able to scry and see what happens in distant lands.
  • Alatyr-kamen (Alatyr stone), or Bel-goryuch kamen (white burning stone), the father of all stones, a sacred stone, sometimes covered in letters containing all the wisdom in the world, can heal any wound or disease and ignite love in the coldest heart.
  • Mech-kladenets (kladenets sword) is a pretty fresh addition to a Slavic mythology, most probably the word only appeared in XVIII century (from the aforementioned woodcuts of Bova-korolevich, the sword's name originally was Klarentsa). It's not a name of a sword, but a kind of one. The name implies "hidden" or "treasure" sword; usually, it is a relic of older times found in a barrow or cache. You do not forge a kladenets sword, you find it by digging it out; or, alternatively, Svyatogor the precursor bogatyr can give you his.
  • Aspid-zmey (Aspid-snake), a sword that can turn into a black, very venomous snake, or even into a fire-breathing dragon.
  • Mech-samosek (self-swinging sword), a sword with its own will that can swing and cut even without a hand that holds it. In other legends it kills anyone with a single swing, but if you try to hit the dead body once more, it will cut your own head off.
  • Nerazmennyj rubl (unspendable rouble), a silver coin a man can obtain from the demonic creatures, that will always return to its owner's pocket. Here the tales differ: one says that it only does so if after paying with it you take any change (then one of the smallest coins in that change will turn into that silver coin), the other forbids taking any change when paying with such a coin (which is used to show that Greed is bad). The common thing is: when you get this coin, you should bring it home without turning back or talking to anyone, or it will lose magical powers.
  • Living water and Dead water, used to bring someone Back from the Dead - the dead water removes the dead person's wounds and rot (but kills the living) and the living water is then used to bring them back to life.