The Devil's Advocate is a person who attempts to provide justification for something that opposes their personal viewpoint in a particular instance. The Devil's Advocate may have been appointed to provide this viewpoint, or may be stalling for time, but in the truest sense of the trope is attempting to leave the argument having settled on the best possible result, even if that result is different from their preferred result. A person enacting this trope may be seen as either fair or argumentative, depending not only on how suddenly and fervently they change their position, but also on how often they take the opposing side, and more importantly, whether they bother announcing beforehand that they're attempting this.
Possibly named for the canon lawyers appointed by the Catholic church to provide an opposing argument for canonization, which may have itself been named for the idiomatic meaning of this phrase. As with other adversarial proceedings (such as civil and criminal trials), the idea is to thoroughly test an idea or proposition before acting upon it, on the assumption that any concept that withstands intense criticism has a better chance of being correct. The current modern term is "ombudsman", used by companies and governments to address complaints against the organization.
Compare and contrast Strawman Political, The War on Straw, and other strawman tropes, which are insincere and work to undermine the opposing side rather than strengthen the final resolution. Bothering by the Book has the same purpose but it may or may not provide a more accurate version of the opposing argument. For the negative connotations people sometimes have about adversarial proceedings, compare and contrast Amoral Attorney. For a version of this idea in comedies and morality tales, see I Don't Think That's Such a Good Idea. The Commander Contrarian can sometimes be this. See also The Complainer Is Always Wrong, as the trope is generally enacted specifically because the nonexistent complainer might be right. The Drag-Along may be this from a Doylist point of view, but is almost never a Devil's Advocate in-continuity. Also, this trope should not be confused with someone who just happens to hold a minority view. A person who does this just for fun is The Gadfly.
Not to be confused with the movie The Devil's Advocate, which is about more a literal interpretation of this phrase. If you're looking for a trope that's a more literal interpretation, it's probably Mouth of Sauron.
- An advertisement for Regis University, a Jesuit college in Denver, read "A faith-based university not afraid to play the devils advocate."
- In White Sand, when Kenton tries to figure out how the plot of poisoning the Sand Masters was enacted, Aarik helps him by pointing out holes in his logic and offering opposing viewpoint whenever necessary.
- As a rationalist, Harry Potter-Evans-Verres in Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality has it as a defining character trait that he must assess all available sides of an argument, whether no true advocate of that argument is present, or even exists. This has led to him acting as the Devil's Advocate for himself, as well as using the trope for other people as a form of the Socratic Method of argument.
- In the Captain Planet and the Planeteers AU/Reboot fic Heroes for Earth, Wheeler gets upgraded into this role due to being the most social-savvy Planeteer; this is particularly interesting when he's talking with Gi who is very eco-savvy but social naive due to having been homeschooled by her parents.
- In The Thrawn Trilogy, Captain Pellaon acted as this trope to Grand Admiral Thrawn; in Hand of Thrawn, he commended his subordinate for doing the same.
- Marco of the Animorphs would sometimes offer the Devil's Advocate view on missions.
- In The Quest for Saint Camber, Bishop Wolfram de Blanet acts as devil's advocate at the hearing establishing the legitimacy of Duncan McLain's brief marriage to Maryse MacArdry.The Church hierarchy would be happy for Duncan to have a legitimate heir so that he could resign his secular titles and lands, leaving him free to concentrate on his spiritual duties, but they also wish to avoid seeming to bend the rules for one of their own. Using an adversarial proceeding helps them avoid the appearance of favouritism.
- In the book of Job in The Bible, some interpret Satan himself as taking this role against Job when he says to God that the only reason that Job follows God is because Job has a really nice life and if that changed, Job would curse God. God takes him up on it. It should be noted that Satan is Hebrew for "the accuser". His entire character was originally this trope.
- Within The Prince Machiavelli says that such a minister or adviser who is willing to play The Devil's Advocate can be useful to have around because they can find flaws or issues in a plan a Prince makes, which can aid the Prince if there was a good chance of the plan failing due to those flaws.
- In World War Z, this is stated to be the reason Israel was able to survive the zombie outbreak more or less intact as a nation. After the Yom-Kippur War, the Israelis instituted a system wherein at least one person must take a threat seriously and dig deeper into the evidence for or against it, no matter how ridiculous it sounded. Thus, while all the world's nations were going "A zombie plague? That's stupid!", Israel's government took a harder look at the evidence, saw the truth of the matter, and took steps to defend the nation before everything went to hell.
- Since Perry Rhodan is SF, there it can be done by computers invented exactly for the trope's purpose. They question everything, assume 1:1000000 hypotheses...and are usually right (which of course is what plot demands - even in-universe, they probably are most frequently wrong). By extension, also the specialists trained in interpreting their wacko output fall under this trope.
- A Devil's Advocate is an important character in A Canticle for Leibowitz, arguing against the sainthood of the title character Leibowitz.
- The Dan Brown novel Angels & Demons depicts a "devil's advocate" whose job it was to provide negative information on each candidate for Pope. The devil's advocate procedure has never been used in the papal selection process.
- Star Trek: The Original Series: Spock occasionally performs the duty of the Devil's Advocate, typically countering McCoy's or Kirk's spontaneous, Gut Feeling-inspired actions.
- Star Trek: The Next Generation: Riker often plays this role. When a crew member suggests a course of action, Riker either suggests something else or says why they should not do it. This is part of his job as First Officer, to make sure The Captain considers all options and consequences. In "Measure of a Man", a scientist wants to disassemble Data for study, and Data refuses as a sentient being. A hearing is held to determine whether Data is sentient. Picard is Data's defense counsel, and Riker is appointed as the prosecution - so he has to argue that Data isn't sentient. He risks summary judgement against Data if he slacks off on the job. Riker feels guilty about doing it, but Data is grateful - or anyway as grateful as an android who allegedly has no emotions can be - since if Riker had refused to do it, they would have decided against Data (for if he isn't a sentient being, he lacks the right to bodily autonomy; such are the rules of procedure in the 24th century).
- The Devil's Advocate ball gets passed around the cast of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, but tends to land in Xander's lap very often. The opposing viewpoint is commonly prefaced with "Not to be the bad guy here, but..." or some form of "I don't want to be that guy, but..." In the Season 3 episode "Graduation Day: Part 1" Xander actually prefaces a sentence with "I don't mean to play devil's advocate here, but..."
- Head of the Class: In a school debate club meet Alan, an Alex P. Keaton conservative type, has to extemporaneously defend a position he is personally against. He wins the debate.
- The West Wing often used one of their characters to argue against their viewpoint to portray both sides of the debate on the issue at the forefront. One hilarious example had Sam getting hounded by Mallory for advocating for school-voucher programs. Mallory was actually rather touched to find out that Sam took the time out of his busy schedule to argue education policy with her. She made an appointment, and dammit, Sam honors appointments.
- Happens in JAG when one of the characters has to either prosecute an innocent person or defend an obviously guilty one. In addition, it is more frequently used in arguments between the characters, both inside and outside of court.
- In Exalted, this is The Ebon Dragon's original Hat, and it's obvious when you see his character sheet: all beings that exist (and some that don't) always have Virtues, which color their actions and interactions with others. The Ebon Dragon (nee The Dragon's Shadow) is defined by his lack of Virtues, making him an excellent foil to all the other entities. If not for his darkness, Creation would suffer from endless ruinous light of the Holy Tyrant. TED used to be genuinely caring of Creation. The Exalts broke the Ebon Dragon by making him an actual being instead of just The Shadow of All Things, turning him from Devil's Advocate into just a plain devil.
- The Milton Library Assistant aka Milton in The Talos Principle. He frequently questions the player's understanding of philosophy and morality and finds holes in their logic, and he encourages the player to question the nature of the godlike Elohim, who refers to Milton as "the serpent" spreading doubt. Being a Devil's Advocate is in fact Milton's purpose within the simulation, testing the AIs independence and willingness to think for themselves. Appropriately, he shares a name with John Milton, who was himself something of a literal Devil's Advocate.
- The Wolf Among Us. Depending on how Bigby is played: you can have him take the side of people he doesn't agree with, especially in Snow's case, who can have Knight Templar tendencies and take lawfulness too far.
- In the Ace Attorney games, the rival prosecutors sometimes become this, rather than your true opponent. In the Phoenix Wright trilogy, once he warms up to Phoenix, Edgeworth isn't acting as a prosecutor because he wants him to fail, but because he wants all the holes in the logic of the case to be filled satisfactorily; and in Apollo's arc, Klavier Gavin is always focused on finding the truth instead of getting a guilty verdict, being the only prosecutor in the series that had this as his goal from the beginning of his career.
- xkcd invokes this trope, but does not actually use it here. The trope itself is used without Name Drop in the Wright Brothers example. Used and namedropped here, with a character getting Literal-Minded about it to prove it's bad practice or maybe just to be annoying.
- Karate Bears actually advocate for the devil's advocate!
- Please Listen To Me: Not All Men Man insistis on playing Devil's advocate in a conversation about sexism, bursting through a wall to do so.
- In The Order of the Stick #399, during a discussion about how to deal with the Linear Guild, Vaarsuvius decides to adopt Belkar's viewpoint and advocates killing them as the simplest solution.
- This is a feature in Movie Fights. If all the three panels are in agreement on a topic, one of them may play the devil's advocate by switching their stance, and would get double points if they win the debate.
- Louder With Crowder: Crowder has an occasional segment dubbed "Devil's Advocate", where his character Skyler Turden argues basic progressive talking points against various opponents.
- Video "Sexual Assault Is Way More Common Than You Think" with Rachel Bloom has a rather literal (but also actual) version. Devil has hired an attorney named Jeremy to argue that rape culture is just a trendy term that incorrectly implies all men are super pro-rape; he also brings up false accusations and the fact that men are victims of rape, too.
- The Simpsons:
- Parodied. Homer states that he's about to "play devil's advocate" in regards to helping Krusty... it then cuts to him playing a pinball game called "Devil's Advocate".
- The family discover that a famous chimp carer and scientist is in fact using them to mine for diamonds. Bart suggests they actually look for evidence before they persecute her, gaining stunned glances:
Bart: I haven't said anything in a while.
- Steven Universe: Blue Zircon is essentially forced to take up take up this role when Steven is put on trial by the Diamond Authority for Rose's supposed murder of Pink Diamond. Steven is blatantly in a Kangaroo Court and the Diamonds (mainly Yellow) are dead set on a guilty verdict, but they still feel obliged to give him a chance to defend himself. Except not really. It quickly becomes apparent that the "Devil's Advocate ensuring a fair trial" angle is just for show; the second Zircon starts winning and ripping apart the prosecution's flimsy argument, Yellow Diamond throws a tantrum and smashes Zircon unconscious, declaring Steven guilty right than and there.
- As noted above, the Devil's Advocate is the name for a person who argues against the formal recognition of someone as a Saint by the Catholic Church (though it's officially called Promoter of the Faith, but that just doesn't sound as cool). The job has been taken up on at least one occasion (Mother Theresa) by an outright atheist (Christopher Hitchens). Its abolition as an official office in 1983 has not coincidentally led to an exponential increase in people accepted for sainthood.
- In Jewish Law, when judging capital cases, if all 23 judges of the Beth Din produce a unanimous guilty verdict, then the accused is immediately declared "not guilty" and freed. The rationale being that there must be something wrong with the court if it cannot produce at least one devil's advocate to defend the accused.
- During the Three Kingdoms, the Jin empire prepared for an invasion of the rival state of Wu (the last of the titular Three Kingdoms, as Shu was destroyed in 263/264 and Jin itself was the successor state to Wei). The high official Jia Chong opposed the invasion, believing that it was too risky and would take too many resources to pull off. When the Jin Emperor Sima Yan commanded the invasion begin in 279, Jia Chong was chosen to handle the logistics of the operation, and despite his personal opposition he successfully carried out his duties, leading to Jin's complete victory over Wu and Wu's destruction. His opposition may actually have helped him in his work, as he was so focused on the ways the invasion could fail that there was no problem he hadn't accounted for.
- Wilbur and Orville Wright have been said to engage in this activity, switching sides during arguments to gain a clearer picture of the argument as a whole. xkcd continues this to the illogical conclusion.
- In most cases, anyone with enough money can hire a lawyer to be their Devil's Advocate. In certain countries (such as the U.S.), a lawyer is appointed to this position by the state when they can't afford this (only if it's a criminal case, ordinarily).
- Debate competitions have one side act as this if everyone participating agrees on the topic of debate, but someone has to "play the other side". Some debate assignments do this intentionally for both sides, by setting it up so that each pair disagrees on a topic and giving each side their less-preferred standpoint to defend.
- It's a standard of practice to have or be a devil's advocate for one's own work within the scientific community.
- Thomas Aquinas acted as his own Devil's Advocate in his works. He listed a few possible objections to his viewpoints before debunking them later.
- Take care when engaging in this on a forum; very often people don't take kindly to hearing opposing views and will quickly resort to name calling and take the argument personally. If this happens, just drop the whole thing. It's simply not worth your time dealing with the ignorance.