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Fifteen men on the dead man's chest—
Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!
Drink and the Devil had done for the rest—
Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!
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Treasure Island, written by Robert Louis Stevenson in 1881, is a classic tale of pirates and buried treasure, which created many of the pirate tropes, including

  • X marks the spot on a Treasure Map to show where the Pirate Booty is hidden.
  • A peg leg and a parrot as the standard pirate look (despite Silver not having a peg leg in the original book).
  • The excessive use of nautical slang by pirate characters ("Shiver me timbers!").
  • The "Black Spot" as a death sentence handed out to traitors by pirates. (Though historically this may have been done with the Ace of Spades).

In the book, Jim Hawkins, an ordinary (although quick-witted) lad, discovers a treasure map among the effects of a deceased resident at his family's inn. He shows it to two local gentlemen (a landed noble and a wealthy doctor), who charter a ship to search for the treasure on Skeleton Island, but they hire sailor-turned-tavern-owner Long John Silver as their cook, unaware that he is a pirate. Long John becomes Jim's mentor, while winning over most of the crew — who he helped hire.

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By chance, Jim overhears Long John's plotting, and warns his friends, just as they arrive at the island. Over the next few days, Jim repeatedly wanders into danger, meets a scary hermit and kills a pirate by himself, while Long John keeps switching sides, and the treasure is found.

Jim and his friends return home rich, Long John escapes with some of the treasure, and the rest of the pirates get marooned on the island or killed.

This book has been adapted into several movies and television series, including:

Although originally published chapter-by-chapter in a magazine, when published as a book it became very popular, the British Prime Minister Gladstone staying up until two in the morning to finish it. It is also the ultimate inspiration for all the subsequent pirate movies and other novels, down to Pirates of The Caribbean. Many of them include a Shout Out to Treasure Island. E.g., in Peter Pan, it is said that Captain Hook was the only man Long John Silver ever feared, while Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest features the "Black Spot" (in a flashier form) and the song quoted at the beginning of this entry.

Starz's Black Sails is a Prequel to Treasure Island, notably featuring Captain Flint and a young John Silver as its protagonists.


The novel provides examples of:

  • Adults Are Useless: Averted. Jim does his share of actions to stop the pirates, but Captain Smollett, Doctor Livesey and Squire Trelawney act competently within their ability to do so and Ben Gunn saved the day by moving the treasure from the place it was buried, allowing the loyalists to lay an ambush on the pirates.
  • Affably Evil: Long John, one of the ultimate exemplars of this trope. Sure, he's a lying, thieving, murdering scumbag pirate... but he's also a lovable, charismatic anti-villain! How can you hold anything against him? And, despite everything, his affection and respect for Jim are completely genuine.
  • The Alcoholic: Almost all of the pirates and Mr. Arrow. Billy Bones's stroke at the beginning is attributed to drinking little but rum at the Benbow Inn, and Captain Flint was allegedly killed by rum as well.
  • All for Nothing: When the Captain's party gives up their stockade, part of their supplies and the map to Silver, he knows something's going on, but he never mentions his suspicions to the other pirates. When they arrive to the point where the treasure had been buried, they find that someone (Ben Gunn) had done it before - and the Captain's party ambushes the pirates, rendering all their efforts to nothing.
  • The Aloner: Ben Gunn, who was marooned on the island by his mates after a failed search for the treasure.
  • Ambiguous Time Period: The year is given as "17--" and the mentioning of King George not clarifying which King George it is, the setting could theoretically be anywhere from 1714 to 1799. Some textual evidence does allow us to narrow it down further, however - the suggestion that England is at war with France would imply a range of 1740-63. Bow Street Runners are mentioned, dating it to after 1749. Stevenson's treasure map includes a date of 1754, and Flint has been dead at least three years, so it must be after 1757. And since they visit a friendly port in Spanish America, it's presumably before Spain entered the Seven Years' War in 1762, so it most likely takes place in the last years of the 1750s or the first two years of the '60s. (The Disney version sets it in 1765, incidentally.)
  • Antagonist Title: The story was originally published under the title "The Sea Cook" in reference to the narrative's Big Bad, Long John Silver.
  • Anti-Villain: Although Silver is the mastermind behind the mutiny, he ends up suffering a mutiny in turn, and is forced to ally with the heroes.
  • Arc Number: Number three is used several times throughout the novel. "Admiral Benbow" is visited three times by the pirates: first its Black Dog, then Blind Pew, and then Pew and Dog with the rest of their gang; there are three major adult characters and Jim's friends: Dr.Livesey, Squire Trelawney and Captain Smollett; as their evil counterpart there are three major mutineers: John Silver, Israel Hands and George Merry; Squire takes on the journey three of his servants (all of whom end up dead); there are three secret locations on the island where Flint hid his treasure, as indicated by the map; there are three major mountain tops on Treasure Island (named respectively after three types of masts); the "pointing arrow", which shows direction to the treasure is situated near three big trees; Ben Gunn spent three years marooned on the island; all the major action on the island happens on the course of three (and a half) days; at the end there are three surviving pirates left on the island; Ben Gunn spent all of his share in three weeks time.
  • Badass Boast: Silver sways one of the honest sailors into joining the rebellion with one.
    Silver: There was some that was feared of Pew, and some that was feared of Flint; but Flint his own self was feared of me. Feared he was, and proud.
    • Silver is so badass he even gets boasts by proxy.
      Israel Hands: A lion's nothing alongside of Long John! I seen him grapple four and knock their heads together—him unarmed.
  • Badass Crew: The crew of the Walrus prior to the events of the novel. With Flint as captain, Billy Bones as first mate, Long John Silver as quartermaster, and seamen such as Israel Hands, Ben Gunn, and Pew, it's no wonder they were able to amass such a huge hoard of treasure.
  • Beware the Silly Ones:
    • Ben Gunn may be addled and harmless-seeming, but he sailed with the most evil-minded band of brigands that ever sailed the seas, and to prove his loyalty to the doctor he sneaks into the pirates' camp and bludgeons two of them to death in their sleep without being detected.
    • Squire Trelawney is a textbook Upper-Class Twit and a Horrible Judge of Character, but absolutely lethal with any firearm he can lay his hands on.
  • "Blackmail" Is Such an Ugly Word: The pirates prefer to be called "gentlemen of fortune."
  • The Cabin Boy: Jim serves as cabin boy on Captain Smollett's ship.
  • Catapult Nightmare: At the very end of the book, Jim Hawkins says that the worst dreams he ever has are when he "start[s] upright in bed with the sharp voice of Captain Flint [the parrot] still ringing in my ears."
  • Catch Phrase: Silver had quite a few, including "You may lay to that!" ("You may depend on that"), "By the Powers"/"By the living thunder", and of course the immortal "Shiver my timbers!"
  • Children Forced to Kill: Jim kills Hands in self-defense.
  • Churchgoing Villain: Silver and the other pirates, who are worried about bad luck when one of their own cuts a page from The Bible to create a Black Spot.
    • There is apparently an upside to possessing a mutilated Bible, which Silver touches on briefly: you can swear on it to tell the truth, and then lie without fear of the consequences.
  • Coming-of-Age Story: For Jim Hawkins. He starts as just an assistant inn keeper working for his parents, and learns to confront betrayal and violence in the quest for treasure. Ultimately, he decides that even the promise of more treasure would not entice him to revisit the adventure.
  • Dressed to Plunder: The Trope Codifier, almost singlehandedly popularizing the look.
  • Due to the Dead: According to some of the pirate comments, not even Captain Flint would rifle the pockets of a corpse. This makes the way Allardyce's skeleton is used as a map point even more disturbing to them.
  • Enemy Mine: Long John spells this out to Jim when Jim's captured by the pirates. Silver knows that Jim is the one who knows where the ship is, and torturing it out of him will satisfy his mutinous crew. However he also knows that the Captain's party ceding the stockade and stores and staying out of their way surely means that they know something he does not and have a plan, while at this point the other pirates are one disappointment from killing Silver too. If they find the treasure then he can ransom Jim, but if things do go bad Jim owes him for his protection and can vouch for him with his friends.
  • Euphemism Buster: When Jim first hears Silver talk about how he and the others are "gentlemen of fortune", he thinks to himself in shock that it means nothing more nor less than garden variety piracy.
  • Even Evil Has Standards: Pirate, mutineer and murderer Long John Silver may be, but he bends over backwards, even risking the Black Spot, to keep Jim Hawkins alive, even when he stands to gain nothing by it.
  • Evil Cannot Comprehend Good: Averted with Silver, but played straight with the other pirates. Near the end of the book, Silver even points out to Dr. Livesey when the latter contemplates checking up on the surviving pirates, "...these men down there, they couldn't keep their word... and, what's more, they couldn't believe as you could."
  • Evil Cripple:
    • Pew is entirely blind, but still enough of an Ax-Crazy bastard that the remainder of Flint's crew still lives in fear of him, with only Silver and (possibly) Billy Bones being able to stand up to him.
    • Silver is famously one-legged, but doesn't let that prevent him from organizing mutinies and committing murders.
  • Face Death with Dignity: When Jim is captured by the pirates and is given the offer of joining them or else, he delivers a defiant Facing The Bullets Speech outlining how it was him the whole time that kept screwing up their plans, that the laugh's on his side and he no more fears them than he fears a fly, but he'll put in a word at court for them if they choose to spare him.
  • Fluffy the Terrible: Walrus, Captain Flint's ship. It is brought up in conversation that many of the pirates would have liked to rename the ship to something more badass, but renaming ships is bad luck.
  • Foregone Conclusion: The story is introduced as Jim's tale of his adventure retold at the request of Squire Trelawney and Dr. Livesey, which keeps you from getting too worried whenever their lives are at risk. Considering that the story already includes a boy getting hit by a thrown knife as well as being captured by pirates and threatened with torture, this may have been necessary at the time to keep the story from feeling too dark and shocking the audience.
  • Freudian Trio: Squire Trelawney is the Id, Captain Smollett is the Ego, Dr. Livesey is the Superego.
  • Genre Blind: Crewing out a ship for a secret mission in search of buried treasure, the characters hire a one-legged, tattooed old sea-dog with a Bristol accent and a parrot. But then, Long John Silver is the one who made all these traits stock attributes of pirates in the first place. Jim Hawkins still might have known better since he was specifically warned by Billy Bones to beware of "a one-legged sea-faring man" — they just decide he couldn't possibly have meant this particular one-legged sea-faring man (but then again, considering England's history in naval warfare and amputation being the safest medical practice of the day, a one-legged old sailor wasn't exactly rare either).
  • Good Is Not Nice: Cpt. Smollett delivers a blunt assessment of his displeasure over the crew, expecting to be dismissed. Jim dislikes him from the beginning, and Trelawney comments on finding his behaviour "downright un-English;" however they soon discover that he was quite right, and he leads the party's resistance for most of the story.
  • Handicapped Badass:
    • Long John Silver killed an honest crewman who refused to join the pirates, by hurling his crutch at him, thus breaking his spine, and then hopping one-legged to him and slitting his throat.
    • Pew is fully blind, yet most of the survivors of Flint's crew fear him only slightly less than Billy Bones or Silver.
  • Happily Married: What little is said about Silver and his black wife seems to indicate that they get along well.
  • Heel–Face Revolving Door: Silver is an opportunist who will jump to any side if it seems to be the winning one.
  • Hollywood Healing: Jim doesn't seem to suffer any long-term effects from being wounded and pinned to the mast by Israel Hands's dirk (which had previously been used to kill another pirate), or having to tear a bit of skin off of his shoulder to escape the pinning. It isn't even mentioned when Doctor Livesey sees him again.
  • Honor Before Reason:
    • Jim keeps his promise not to escape with the doctor even though his life is in danger if he stays, at the point where even the doctor himself is ready to break his word because he can't bear the thought of young Jim being tortured to death. This is the turning point in Jim's Coming-of-Age Story.
    • Similarly, during Long John's final escape, he has everything to gain by shooting Jim, but he can't do it. He likes Jim too much.
    • The Pirates are able to shell the Loyalist base by aiming at the flag flying above the trees. The defenders are aware of this, but striking their colors is unthinkable.
    • Dr. Livesey is determined to heal the ill, even if they are ruthless pirates.
    • In a lesser (but rather more baffling) case, Jim's mother, who rifles through the recently deceased Captain's sea chest but refuses to take any more money than what the Captain owed them for room and board. Which resulted in her doing arithmetic over the sea chest even when she knows that Pew's gang is coming at any minute to take the chest and slit everyone's throats.
  • Horrible Judge of Character: Squire Trelawney, in keeping with his Upper-Class Twit status, unknowingly hires a bunch of pirates to sail his treasure-hunting vessel. He also mistakes Captain Smollett's plain speaking, sensible caution and firm-but-fair approach to discipline for "unmanly" character, until events prove that Smollett was right (or if anything under-cautious).
  • Improbable Aiming Skills: Squire Trelawney may be a bit of a stereotypical landed-gentry Englishman, but he's also a crack shot. At one point, the mutineers' gunner — his intended target — is roughly a hundred yards away, on the deck of the ship, stooping over a cannon muzzle. Trelawney himself is seated in an 18-foot "jolly boat," which is overloaded with 4 other men and a ton of supplies. And he's armed with a musket. Despite all this, only a Coincidental Dodge saves the intended target's life — and Trelawney still picks off one of the other villains.
  • In-Series Nickname: Long John Silver is often called ”Barbecue” by his old shipmates.
  • Karma Houdini:
    • Long John Silver, who gets away with his life and a few hundred pounds from the treasure (rather less than one tenth of one percent).
    • Also Ben Gunn. Nobody seems particularly bothered that he was a part of one of the most feared pirate crews that ever sailed, and he gets a larger share of the treasure than Silver did (which he manages to blow in three weeks, at which point he is given a pension). Presumably, the characters and readers consider his time marooned on the island punishment enough (not to mention it mellowed him out considerably).
  • Kid Hero: Jim does a good job of screwing up with the pirates' plans - starting with his taking the map and accidentally eavesdropping on Silver's mutiny plans.
  • Knife Nut: Silver kills with a knife "on camera"; Israel Hands kills with a dirk "off camera" and tries to kill Jim throwing the same dirk; Tom Morgan threatens Jim with a knife, and "the captain" offers to pin Dr. Livesey to the wall with one early in the book. Truth in Television: knives were cheap, easily carried, and unaffected by the occasional dousing with seawater.
  • Laser-Guided Karma: Pew leads the men to find the treasure map in the Admiral Benbow, ordering the men to burn the place down later. He gets so angry that all the other pirates run away while he screams at them - at which point a soldier patrol arrives on horse, accidentally running over Pew.
    • For saving Jim, Trelawney and the others agree to bring Silver back to England with them, instead of abandoning him on the island, and don't seem to be too upset when Silver escapes with a few hundred pounds of the treasure. Similarly, Ben Gunn's crimes as a pirate are pardoned and he is given a share of the treasure (and a job after he blows it all) after he pretty much saves the day by hiding the treasure away.
  • Leave Behind a Pistol: For Ben Gunn. But they also left behind a shovel and a pick.
  • Leave No Witnesses: Captain Flint killed the sailors who helped him bury the treasure. Considering that there were six of them, nobody has any idea how the hell he managed it.
  • Loophole Abuse: During his confrontation with Knife Nut Israel Hands, Jim manages to prime his two pistols while Hands is still too far away to stab him with his dirk, and tells Hands in no uncertain terms that he'll shoot if Hands comes any closer. Hands responds by throwing his dirk at Jim.
  • Loveable Rogue: Long John Silver, verging on Magnificent Bastard.
  • Lovable Traitor: Long John Silver. Silver is a charismatic and likeable figure, who spends the entire series playing Xanatos Speed Chess with both the mutineers and the loyalists to ensure that he comes away from the island with as large a cut of the money as he can manage.
  • Make It Look Like an Accident: The death of Mr. Arrow, who apparently fell overboard one night in a drunken stupor. In most adaptations that include this incident, a scene is shown of Silver blatantly slipping him rum so that he would be drunk all the time and no one would inquire into his death too much; in the book, Jim merely guesses (from overhearing Silver casually mention that he has a key for the keg) that this is what happened.
  • Manly Tears: Trelawney is not afraid to cry when his servant Tom Redruth is dying.
  • The Medic: Doctor Livesey, being a medical man and all. He spends significant time tending to injuries and diseases among the party, even treating the mutineers.
  • Mundane Luxury: Ben Gunn swears Undying Loyalty to Dr. Livesey in exchange for a palm-sized piece of cheese (parmesan, to be precise), something he has craved for years.
  • The Mutiny: Silver recruits most of his old pirate compatriots to crew the Hispaniola, and plans to mutiny after they have dug up the treasure. Unfortunately for Silver, they're all so excited about the treasure that he can barely get them to remember the part about mutinying after they find it, and the fighting breaks out almost as soon as they reach the island.
  • Not So Above It All: Silver frequently boasts about how much better he is than the other pirates, ranging from being the only man that Captain Flint feared to not being as drunk or incompetent as they are. However throughout the story he is shown to be blind-drunk on numerous occasions, and to be in such mortal terror of Flint that he gets shaken up just by talking about him.
  • Obfuscating Disability: Pew is blind, but he is also a lot more capable than what he initially seems to be. There's a reason why nearly all the other pirates are afraid of him.
  • Offscreen Moment of Awesome: In a flashback, Captain Flint goes ashore with six crew members (all of them hardened pirates) to bury his treasure; later he comes back on board alone, having singlehandedly killed them all.
  • Pirate Booty: The treasure, of course. The book is the Trope Codifier if not the outright Trope Maker.
  • Pirate Parrot: The Trope Maker. Although it's quite likely that real Caribbean pirates may have kept the occasional parrot, this is also true of monkeys and cats, and one of these animals is far more associated with pirates than the others.
  • Posthumous Character: Captain Flint, who died prior to the events of the novel but whose actions are central to the plot.
  • Pre-Insanity Reveal: Ben Gunn was once a part of Captain Flint's crew, though unliked by his shipmates. He knows the location of Flint's treasure, but no one believes him. Marooned on a deserted island, he becomes more than a little addled, talks in the third person and has an obsessive craving for cheese.
  • "The Reason You Suck" Speech: Silver delivers an epic one to his crew when they try to throw him out.
    Long John Silver: Why, I give you my word, I'm sick to speak to you. You've neither sense nor memory, and I leave it to fancy where your mothers was that let you come to sea. Sea! Gentlemen o' fortune! I reckon tailors is your trade.
  • Red Shirt Army: Trelawney's three manservants are all given single cabins, as if they were important passengers; yet they are all quickly slain and receive little characterization.
  • Retired Badass: "The captain," aka Billy Bones, only wants to be let alone at the Admiral Benbow Inn to drink, sing, and enjoy his own "fair" share of the ill-gotten gains. His former crew, excepting Pew, are still terrified of him.
  • Retired Monster:
    • Flint, the captain who murdered a good chunk of his own crew to hide the treasure's location, was afraid of Silver. Silver has been peacefully running an inn and living happily with his wife for some years when the story begins, and he continues this after making off with a part of the treasure in the end.
    • Billy Bones had also settled down quite comfortably at the "Admiral Benbow" and was quite content to drink and eat away his share of the plunder before his past caught up with him.
  • Robinsonade: Ben Gunn has been marooned on the island.
  • Stiff Upper Lip: Most of the sympathetic characters. Captain Smollett maintains rigid discipline throughout their ordeal. Hawkins maintains his dignity and poise even under threat of death. The Squire's servants are said to react to every calamity without complaint or even much surprise.
  • Stolen MacGuffin Reveal: Do you think the treasure is where the map says it is?
  • Surrounded by Idiots: Silver actually has a rather simple plan: Let Captain Smollett get the ship to the island, let Trelawney and Livesey find and dig up the treasure, and then kill them on the way back to England and take the treasure. Unfortunately the rest of the pirates can't figure out why they shouldn't kill the honest crew now, and by the time they reach the island it's all Silver can do to stop them from breaking out into open mutiny before they get any clue as to where the treasure is hidden.
  • Switching P.O.V.: For practical reasons, the doctor picks up the narration when important events occur that Jim didn't witness.
  • They Call Me Mister Tibbs: After successfully seizing control of the Hispaniola, the pirates start referring to their leader as "Captain Silver".
  • Treasure Map: The map Hawkins pilfered from among Billy Bones' possessions is the Trope Codifier, and possibly the Trope Maker too.
  • Trojan Prisoner: Long John Silver pretends to hold Jim hostage. Or does he?
  • Trope Maker: Many of the tropes associated with pirates today come from this novel, such as the way Silver's parrot was fond of repeating "pieces of eight."note 
  • Upper-Class Twit: Squire Trelawney to an extent, although he himself had followed the sea at one point and, as noted above, he does have some skills.
  • Wooden Ships and Iron Men: Long John Silver and his crew exemplify this trope.
  • We Named the Monkey "Jack": Captain Silver has a parrot named Cap'n Flint.
  • What the Hell, Hero?: During a parley scene, Cpt. Smollett orders John to sit down, which John does on the condition that someone help him up after the conversation is finished. No one does, and Jim feels rather bad about this. This is all part of Smollett's plan. He wants to anger Silver so that he will order an immediate attack by the pirates, while the gentlemen are alert and prepared for it.
  • When It All Began: When Captain Flint buried his treasure on the island.
  • Year X: The story takes place "in the year of grace 17—".

Tropes from adaptations that don't have their own pages:

  • Anthropomorphic Animal Adaptation: Animal Treasure Island is a partial example. There are a few human children (notably Jim, the main character), but all the pirates are portrayed as animals. There is also The Legends of Treasure Island where everyone is an animal.
  • Left Stuck After Attack: In the Soviet animated adaptation, a drunken fight between Israel Hands and O'Brian starts with them angrily bashing on a table. Hands bashes through the table, and O'Brian uses it to bitch-slap him, only to run away in terror when Hands lifts the table and chases him waving it over his head. He quickly gets stuck in a door and O'Brian again scores some free kicks, until Hands finally breaks the table.
  • Lost in Translation: In the original Jim views the whole story as an ordeal, wants nothing to do with it, of which he says in not uncertain terms, and he's still often thrown off the bed when he dreams of it. In fact, the very first paragraph implies that he wasn't particularly keen on writing the story, but did so only because Trelawney and Livesey asked him to. The most popular Russian translation by Nikolay Chukovsky, while pretty faithful in most regards, throws his attitude completely out of the window, making it as if Jim likes the adventure.
  • Papa Wolf: Silver has been portrayed as this many times towards Jim.
  • Seadog Peg Leg: Long John Silver is one of the Trope Codifiers, although he didn't have a peg leg in the original book, using a crutch to help him move around instead. The peg leg would originate in later adaptations.

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