When special effects look really cheap and dodgy, to the point of pulling the audience out of the narrative, you have a Special Effect Failure. All-too-common prior to 1980, and still with us today despite relatively inexpensive digital effects that can be very convincing and realistic... but often aren't.
The audience's expectations for effects have grown up with the media. For example, it is obviously a dummy being thrown from a train in The Great Train Robbery — but since it was filmed when filmmaking itself was in its infancy (1903 to be exact), people forgave it. If a modern remake had done that, however, they would not have been nearly as kind unless it was for other reasons; Star Wars raised the bar for visual effects so high that only the most advanced pre-1977 effects can measure up. It should also be noted that the modern push to update everything to HD can also result in a retroactive form of this, as a matte painting in a 1980s VHS release looks fine, but on the cleaned up, "remastered" Blu-ray looks like, well, a cheap matte painting in the background. Same for video games when prerendered backgrounds look weird.
Sometimes a Special Effect Failure is caused by resorting to Off-the-Shelf FX. Many examples are just plain Bloopers (a literal failure of the effects). In a video game it can be because of Model Dissonance being revealed by a glitch or oversight. In animation, it can be lumped in with Off-Model.
Examples with their own pages
- Anime & Manga
- Films Animated
- Films Live-Action
- Live-Action TV
- Professional Wrestling
- Video Games
- Web Original
- Western Animation
- The Chinese animated series The Adventures of Kiki and Qeqe have several animation errors; for example, one of the titular characters in the air appears frozen.
- Motu Patlu: In "Motu Banega Don", Motu and Patlu hide in one of the containers in a container yard to hide from John the Don's gang, who are chasing after them. Inspector Chingum notices John's gang entering the container and goes in as well. In the dark insides of the container, the characters can only be seen By the Lights of Their Eyes... but then they start to beat each other up, creating visible hit stars that light up the inside of the container just enough to make it noticeable that their eyes are actually the only part of their bodies that they animated for that scene, with the rest of their bodies nowhere to be seen.
- In-Universe from Calvin and Hobbes: The Series, combined with Nightmare Retardant:
Hobbes: Bumper cars are fine when there aren't ghosts constantly flying down in your face!
Calvin: They were paper and on fishing line!
- The destruction of the Munich terrorist facility in the James Bond fan film Diamonds Cut seems to intentionally go for the Camp factor with what seems like a really bad photoshop. Absolutely nothing collapses and the only signs of destruction are little tongues of flame with thin tendrils of smoke at the forefront.
- Essentially all of the special effects in the animated version of The End of Ends, but Count Logan's dragon form breathing fire stands out.
- In Parody Fic Plan 7 of 9 from Outer Space, the alien abductor D'Ork of the Thorkoth looks like a cheap prop from a Roger Corman film, has a Killer Robot that's just a diving helmet on a gorilla suit, and pilots a Flying Saucer that's held up by visible strings.
- In-universe example in Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Double Down, where Greg and Rowley try to create a homemade horror movie on No Budget:
Woman: I hope you don't mind if I don't turn around but I am really concentrating on doing these dishes.
- Rowley is the only actor, and has to act for many. Since Greg has no video editing skills, this means that no scene in the movie can feature more than one character.
- Rowley plays an unnnamed woman. Unfortunately, he refuses to wear a dress, and they don't have a wig for him. He ends up wearing yoga pants and a hooded sweater, and having the character never show her face.
- They try to make a scene in which an unnamed man tries to take a shower, but worms come out instead of water. Greg can't find a way to make it look natural, and settles for throwing gummy worms at Rowley's face and hoping it'll look realistic once they make the final cut.
- They use ketchup as fake blood.
- Discussed when Greg points out that he still hasn't figured out how to film the climax of the movie, which would feature a battle against a giant worm. Sadly, they never get around to attempting this scene at all.
- Digitally-overlaid graphics can often go awry;
- One time, ESPN's 1st down line during a football game rendered on an angle.
- During game 2 of the 2017 World Series, a Masterpass sign was digitally added to the outfield wall with a chroma key, but at one point, it accidentally overlaid on top of a player's head.
- The 2017 Army vs. Navy football game was played on a very snowy day in Philadelphia, leaving the field continuously covered in snow. The production crew must have changed the "greenscreen" effect of the play lines to white. This lead to the first down and line of scrimmage overlays to appear on the jerseys, gloves, and wrist tape of players.
- Disney Theme Parks:
- The Hatbox Ghost from The Haunted Mansion ride at Disneyland remained a legend for decades due to this. He was a skeletal old man with a hatbox in his hand, placed in the attic with the Bride figure, whose heart beat and glowed. Promotional materials said that in the story, the Hatbox Ghost was the groom, whose head faded from his shoulders and reappeared in his box in sync with his bride's heartbeat. (There is evidence that this was part of a murder story in the attic scene, with other hatbox heads in the attic, and the Hatbox Ghost exposing the Bride as the killer with his trick.) The effect was meant to be done with careful lighting- the light would go off above his shoulders, making his head seem to vanish, and go on in his box, revealing the second head inside. However, proximity of the figure to riders made the first part of the illusion fail and the Hatbox Ghost was removed very early in the ride's operation, never made it to the Walt Disney World version, and most riders never saw it, to the point that it was considered a myth until photos of the figure in situ emerged. After, the Attic scene was retooled to make the Bride a lonely, mournful character due to the lack of a victim. After several decades, during which a new murderous Bride story was implemented with more detail, the Hatbox Ghost was finally brought back to Disneyland in 2015 with much more complex effects, with fluid animation, a projected, animated face, and a head-traveling effect that worked while the character was placed right next to the riders' vehicles. (Part of this is due to the new figure being hollow and the head being pulled into the body when the "switch" occurs.) While the new Bride is more obviously murderous, the Hatbox Ghost assumes a similar narrative role to before, likely showing what's in the attic hatboxes, as the hats are on a rack.
- One Man's Dream II: The Magic Lives On at Tokyo Disneyland ended with a musical number where the company sings the praises of Mickey Mouse, complete with Mickey himself rising from the stage via an elevator. One performance had the elevator get stuck midway, causing the show to end abruptly. Mickey's performer is visibly confused at the malfunction, and some of the dancers can be seen booking it off the stage and behind the curtain when they realize what happened.
- Quite a few examples exist of two main failures: putting up the wrong headline or accompanying image (the small pics appearing next to a news anchor's head for each story) and someone who decided to wear the wrong shade of blue or green, causing the clothing to pick up images or video meant for the green/blue screen behind the anchor. Weather forecasters are particularly prone to the second one, given all the use of this type of imaging in their segments.
- People responsible for news graphics are only human, and sometimes they put up a picture of the wrong person. Or in one case, show a hamster instead of a murder suspect.
- Pretty much the whole of the Avatar: The Last Airbender fancomic How I Became Yours. Special mention goes to all the copied poses. Diaz copies from everything, mostly the show itself (though she often uses Ichigo as a model for Zuko), and often uses the same artwork over and over (Iroh is depicted in the "holding out the white lotus tile" pose from "The Waterbending Scroll" several different times). He's also depicted in a pose from "The Storm" wherein he is in a dark room and lit from below by a fire, and no attempt was made to change the lighting, despite the How I Became Yours scene taking place in bright sunlight.
- She also has a nasty habit of making characters change position by rotating their models, which tends to make them look more like mannequins than people. The most infamous example is when Sokka and Zuko carry Aang off after a sparring session, but it also makes the Toph/Aang sex scene unintentionally hilarious when you realize that the characters are in the same position the entire time.
- When Diaz doesn't copy, the characters tend to look Uncanny Valley, like one scene where Aang has a twelve year old's face, a teenager's body, and elongated limbs.
- Ever-omnipresent, as long with Off-the-Shelf FX, in The B-Movie Comic.
- In Commander Kitty, Mittens and Fluffy's plan for creating a fake teleporter effect involves distracting Ace right before CK himself shows up with an accompanying spray of glitter. The actual execution leaves much to be desired as well.
- Parodied by Freefall, where cheesy special effects have been painstakingly re-created by CGI. Sam considers the programmers responsible to be geniuses.
- Referenced in Skin Horse where UNITY refers to Tip's new wolf form as a plywood shark.◊
- In El Goonish Shive, this trope is used intentionally to make Sarah throwing a couch look fake as intended in-universe.