Each color of magic in Magic: The Gathering is associated with a whole philosophy about life, particular goals, and a particular set of magical strategies for winning the game. They're even informally talked about as though they were characters.
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White is the color of light, law, and holy magic. It specializes in various forms of healing and protection (such as gaining life, preventing damage, and boosting creatures' toughness scores), efficient small creatures that reinforce each other, and abilities that dictate the flow of combat. White is chivalrous: rather than kill directly, it prefers to disable non-combative foes with spells like Arrest and Oblivion Ring, but has no qualms about killing creatures during the combat phase, as seen in cards like Divine Verdict and Ballista Squad, or using occasional mass destruction to wipe the slate clean equally. Read more about white here.
Apocalypse How: Armageddon, Wrath Of God, Balance, Final Judgement. While such outright killing is generally outside White's philosophy, these effects are acceptable because they create order by clearing away all those messy living things.
Apocalypse Wow: Wrath Of God is one of the most iconic cards in Magic, partially because of its effect (Destroy all creatures. They can't be regenerated.) and partially because of its artwork (a giant white sun crashing into the earth and obliterating EVERYTHING).
Absolute Xenophobe: White can become this in theory. See Fantastic Racism and All The Other Reindeer below.
All the Other Reindeer: White is the color of conformity, and doesn't care for those that are different unless they try to fit in.
Anti-Hero Substitute: The Archons, essentially. They function as White's iconic creatures when Angels don't seem appropriate, and emphasize White's more negative aspects.
Awesomeness Is a Force: Shown on Awe Strike. Like Blue's Awesome Presence, it's a serious take on the idea of Pure Awesomeness.
Feathered Fiend: Because of this, it is, after Blue, the colour with the most amount of birds. Villainous Aven like Kirtar from the Mirari Saga have so far been only White, and New Phyrexia's birds are also White.
So great is his certainty that mere facts cannot shake it.
Humanoid Abomination: Opposed to Black's own eldritch things, as part of their motif of opposition. Angels, especially in later settings like Zendikar and Bant, are portrayed as alien to mortal races and quite detached (being manifestations of pure White mana). Archons are essentially Nazgūl that are extremist instead of immoral.
Moral Sociopathy: At its worst; it is always moral, but being an enemy of Red, the colour of emotions, means that, at its purest, it has no empathy. Indeed, some pure White creatures, like Angels, sometimes appear rather robotic, following their duties at the expense of everything else.
No Cure for Evil: Averted with White characters that are evil, although curiously most White villains so far didn't have an explicit specialization in healing magic.
Omnicidal Maniac: The infamous Wrath effect spells, of which the vast majority are White. Several cards like Magus of the Disk show that this goes deep in White's idealogy as well; ultimate order is death, after all.
Recurring Element: White's iconic creatures are Angels, and its characteristic creatures are Soldiers.
Rocks Fall Everybody Dies: White prefers to delay any threat, but when it decides to kill something, then it kills everything.
Rules Lawyer: White is the color of bureaucracy, so of course white has the most bureaucracy.
Stone Wall: White has a long history of tough creatures with low power.
Blue is associated with knowledge, illusion, and mental magic. Its specialties are countermagic, drawing cards, and delaying your opponent by forcing them to replay or redraw the same cards, or skipping phases or whole turns. Because of its careful, analytical approach, blue is often reactive, and rarely rushes directly into the fray. Accordingly, its creatures tend to sacrifice brute force in favor of abilities like flying that allow them to gain an advantage in other ways. Because blue has traditionally had many of the most powerful cards, it has gained an unfavorable reputation in some circles, as satirized by this set of comic strips. Read more about blue here.
Above Good and Evil: Being blue often involves ignoring conventional morality in pursuit of knowledge.
Gameplay and Story Integration: Because many Blue creatures are aquatic, in the early days many of them had the keyword islandhome, which meant they couldn't attack a player unless he or she controlled an island. It was very unpopular, however, and development has since put more emphasis onto fun than logic.
Kraken and Leviathan: Blue gets some efficient creatures at the high end of the scale, but it isn't known for its mana acceleration, and leviathans in particular typically come with very inconvenient disadvantages.
Lack of Empathy: The darker side of blue can be sociopathic; while other colors can at least grasp sadism or extremist insanity, Blue at its worst just doesn't give a damn about anyone.
Master of Illusion: Some illusion creatures are unusually powerful, but have drawbacks to represent their unreality like returning themselves to your hand after each fight, or being sent to the graveyard if any spell or ability even targets one of them.
Mind Rape: Blue's milling ability is often flavored as erasing memories.
No Sell: Counterspell and its legacy. When a player's spell is countered, throwing the card away is a common response.
Recurring Element: Blue's iconic creatures are Sphinxes, and its characteristic characters are Merfolk.
My Rules Are Not Your Rules: Blue is the only color that can consistently interact with spells on the stack. It's a bit jarring to many players, as most interactions happen with permanents already on the battlefield.
The Unfettered: Actually more so than any other color; even Black tends to have empathy (even if twisted into sadism), while Blue is completely divorced from such "petty" emotions.
Black's goal is power, no matter the cost—black will do anything to win, even if it means sacrificing its own creatures or Hit Points to power its spells. Black specializes in death and decay; its power over death makes it excellent at both killing creatures and raising them from the dead to fight again. It's also the best color at attacking the opponent's hand through Mind Rape-styled discard effects, and offers Faustian bargains of powerful creatures and effects that match or exceed other colors' specialties, if you don't mind paying for the difference with something other than mana. Learn more about black here.
Above Good and Evil: Being black means abandoning morality in the pursuit of power. This leads to amorality and moral relativism, putting it into conflict with White's moral absolutism.
The Anti-Nihilist: In contrast to the other colors, Black doesn't concern itself with changing the world for the better, but rather it encourages people to make the best out of their lives in a world that can't be improved.
Ape Shall Never Kill Ape: A lot of black creature removal will destroy a creature, but only if it isn't black. Not that black actually cares about its own - it's just that black creatures are often impervious to the insanity, horror, and disease it uses to do its work.
Byronic Hero: What black may be when it steps into the light.
Dark Is Not Evil: While Black has many villains in its name, and is inherently ruthless, it has also some positive traits and a few characters to embody them. The vampire Sorin Markov is the closest thing to a Big Good the multiverse currently has. He worked to stop a bunch of world-eating EldritchAbominations, and set up a godlike White mana angel to protect the humans in Innistrad.
Evil Cannot Comprehend Good: An arguable example, but "personifying" Black in certain Wizards articles suggests that Black cannot honestly believe that anyone thinks differently than it does, defending its amorality with At Least I Admit It. White seems especially hypocritical to Black because Black is certain that nothing could really be that dedicated to altruism.
Nominal Hero: Black may help you, if you make it worth its while.
No Sell: Black is the color of death, corruption, and fear, so its abilities usually fail against other black creatures who are already dead or corrupt, or artifact creatures who were never alive to begin with.
Power at a Price: Black's specialty, whether it be discarding cards, paying life, or sacrificing creatures.
Pragmatic Hero: When Black is heroic. Black is always pragmatic regardless.
Recurring Element: Black's iconic creatures are Demons, and its characteristic creatures are Vampires.
The Sacred Darkness: While Black is often about corruption, it also represents death and decay, the end of the natural cycle responsible for getting rid of the old and making room for the new. This makes it necessary to make a natural plane stable (Alara could afford its absence in some shards due to the unique nature of the plane).
The Unfettered: As part of the opposite of white, where white establishes concepts of "right" and "wrong", black rejects those notions in its quest for power.
Uriah Gambit: "Sacrifice a creature" effects, along with creatures with disabilities that hurt you.
What Is Evil?: Black is the color mostly inclined towards moral relativism.
You Can't Fight Fate: Emphasized in the Theros block, with the followers and servants of the Black god, Erebos, making sure mortals meet their ultimate fate: death.
Red is the color of chaos, passion, and emotion. It's aligned with the elements of fire, earth, and lightning, and it specializes in direct damage and the destruction of all things material. Red lives in the moment and rarely considers the future consequences of its actions; this theme is frequently shown through powerful but temporary advantages such as Threaten and Ball Lightning, with creatures that aren't always quite controllable once they hit the field, and with excessive bursts of mana or effects that destroy your lands in return for immediate power. Red is designed to play aggressively and win quickly, and is in danger of stalling out if it doesn't maintain the initiative. Red reliance on spells that deal with fire and lightning have lead to the perception that red is not as diverse as the other colors, as satirized here. Learn more about red here.
Instant Awesome, Just Add Dragons: Word of God is that dragons are the most popular creature type in the game, and each block will ensure red gets at least one, even in settings like Ravnica (where dragons are supposed to be extinct) or Innistrad (where dragons just don't fit with Gothic horror). On top of that, red's dragons get a "dragon discount": they're slightly cheaper than a red flying creature normally should be.
Leeroy Jenkins: Red has the majority of creatures with the "cannot block" and "attacks each turn if able" abilities, and a variety of other effects like Lust for War that force creatures to charge recklessly into battle.
Green magic represents nature. Thanks to its mastery of life and growth, Green is the best color at creating swarms of token creatures, and its creatures tend to be bigger than those of other colors for the same cost, especially at the higher end of the scale. Green also has the ability to boost the size of its creatures, both temporarily and permanently, and is the best color at generating extra mana in the long term, often by playing additional lands. It has become the second-best color at card drawing, representing a growth of the mind to match the body. Green magic is rarely subtle and often relies on brute force - while it's perfectly willing to destroy the opponent's artifacts, enchantments, and lands, Green preferred means of dealing with opposing creatures is to outmatch them in combat as nature intended. Learn more about green here.
Anti-Air: Many. Very many. Good examples are Hurricane and Giant Spider (it has Reach, which lets it block fliers without having flying). Green creature removals usually only attack flyers.
Appeal To Tradition: Basically the jist of Green's rhetoric outside of "nature". Green is the colour most focused on the past, most focused on retaining the status quo, and as such it can get pretty damn obsessed over tradition, as many characters have learned the hard way.
Anti-Cavalry: Appears on Trip Line. Antiquated by the static ability Horsemanship disappearing.
Attack of the 50-Foot Whatever: One of green's trademarks is the absurdly large creature, whether large to begin with or magically pumped up that way.
Green Thumb: Druids always have abilities that either generate mana or improve the use and number of your lands. Common green spells pull lands right out of your deck and into your hand or onto the field.