Some people are willing to suffer some pain or discomfort for the sake of fashion. And then there's these folks, who deliberately don clothing that hurts them for non-fashionable reasons. Often, they do so as a sign of piety. In other cases, they do it as a form of penance. Either way, they tend not to be trendsetters.
Western culture actually has a word for this - cilice. Traditionally, cilices were garments or undergarments worn close to the skin and made from coarse cloth or animal hair. They were deliberately designed to irritate the skin, and in some cases, they also included twigs and thin wires for added discomfort. In modern religious parlance, cilice is now an umbrella term for any item of clothing designed to cause discomfort.
A sub-trope of The Penance.
- In Berserk, main character Guts wears the Berserker armor, which snaps his bones and tears his flesh in order to keep him fighting through otherwise crippling injuries even as it slowly eats away at his soul. This has nothing to do with penance as such, since he needs it to defeat powerful demons, but it is the price of using such a dangerous artifact to enhance his power.
- In Astro City, the original Confessor wears a cross on his costume, which leaves him in constant pain because he's a vampire. He does this because he's a fallen priest who acts as a superhero for penance.
- Marshal Law: The title character has barbed wire wrapped around his arm as a symbol of his self-loathing, although his Super Soldier augmentation makes it impossible for it to actually hurt.
- After becoming the only active member of the New Warriors to survive the Stamford Incident, in which 612 people — many of them kids — died, Robbie Baldwin, formerly known as Speedball, started calling himself Penance and donned a new costume, the inside of which was lined with 612 spikes that constantly pierced his flesh, to remind him of all the people who died. This was also because his guilt over the mass death made him psychosomatically incapable of using his powers unless he was in pain. Combined with his narm-filled dialog, this led to him being given the Fan Nickname of Bleedball, and it's considered a serious Dork Age for the character.
- In A Christmas Carol, Marley's ghost wears heavy chains as penance for his sins in life.
- In The Da Vinci Code, the numerary Silas wears a spiked chain around his right thigh as part of his religiously motivated self-torture.
- In The Divine Comedy, Hypocrites are punished in Inferno by wearing robes of gilded lead.
- In The Edge Chronicles, Vilnix Pompolius wears painful clothing while torturing, so that the pain robs him of any kindness and mercy.
- In The Master and Margarita, Margarita wears metal undies at Satan's ball. They keep cutting her skin, but she never complains, because all the other ladies at the ball are stark naked.
- In Skulduggery Pleasant, the Necromancers wear robes that completely fail to keep them warm in their freezing cold temples during winter, claiming that "To suffer is to live". Subverted when it's revealed that at least a few of these necromancers are deeply wrapped in thermals beneath their robes.
- In A Song of Ice and Fire, the Warrior's Sons and the Poor Fellows, the militant wings of the Faith of the Seven, wear hair shirts.
- In the Dresden Files novel Storm Front, Harry is given an amulet that belongs to the man he's been hired to locate. It's made from a dead scorpion, and Harry muses about how nasty it would be to wear against bare skin, where its pincers could catch in a man's chest hairs or scratch the top of a woman's breasts; unfortunately, wearing a shirt in between would spoil whatever magical benefit it might confer.
- In the Warhammer Sigmar prequel trilogy, the Thurinigans are berserkers who like to cut themselves to build into a frenzy before battle, and often wear clothes and ornaments designed to help them with that. Their king's crown has spikes facing inwards, while their warriors often chain themselves to their weapons using shackles with spikes on.
- The Wouldbegoods: When the titular group of children try to reenact the pilgrimage from The Canterbury Tales, Denny secretly puts dry peas in his boots as a Holier Than Thou show of penitence. Reality Ensues and he quickly injures his feet, putting an end to their hike.
- On The Big Bang Theory, Leonard forgot to return a VHS tape that Sheldon rented, and as punishment has to wear a very itchy Homemade Sweater from Hell with nothing underneath until he can return it.
- In one episode of How I Met Your Mother, Marshall wears a leather bracelet because it makes him look "tough" to Lily and it turns him on, but throughout the episode, his hand gets more and more swollen because he's allergic to the leather, and by the end it's like a balloon.
- Father Brown: Prominent in "The Upcott Fraternity", which takes place at the eponymous Upcott seminary school. The murderer wears a cilice around his leg, leaving a trail of blood.
- In Hex, Raphael briefly persuades Ella to wear a spiked bracelet as punishment for her sexual attraction to Malachi.
- The Bible: A lot of Old Testament Prophets would wear hair shirts. John the Baptist wore one, made of camel hair. Often people would wear them while doing penance for sins, or as part of mourning rituals. It's also translated as "sackcloth". i.e. burlap-like material.
- Some Catholics practice self-mortification. Probably the best known are the children who saw Our Lady of Fatima in 1917. Hearing her request them to make "sacrifices "to save sinners from hell," they wore rough twine under their clothing, put thorns in their shoes and inflicted pain and suffering on themselves in a variety of ways. They were ten, nine and seven years old at the time.
- Dungeons & Dragons: The demons assaulting Ashardalon's lair in the Positive Energy Plane wear jewellery that's enchanted to gouge into their flesh. The overwhelming latent Life Energy of the Plane instantly heals the wounds, without which they'd explode from Phlebotinum Overload.
- In Pathfinder the worshipers of Zun'Kuthon, god of pain, often wear extreme versions of this kind of clothing, which is sometimes embedded in their flesh so extensively that it can't be removed without killing them. Giving and receiving pain are both considered religious experiences among them.
- Followers of Slaanesh wears these in Warhammer and Warhammer 40,000, though it's less repentance and more getting a kick from the sensations, as well as powering their god.
- The Pain Glove, despite its name, covers the entire body. It's used to cause pain without damaging the body, and is extensively used by the (good guy) Imperial Fists chapter to continuously strengthen themselves or for spiritual reasons.
- Imperial flagellants in Warhammer are based (loosely) on the previously mentioned Christian practice of self-mortification. Their main gimmick is, unsurprisingly, self-flagellation, but they also have a habit of wearing spiky clothes, crowns of thorns, and various other types of painful clothing.
- In Tartuffe, the titular character wears a hair shirt... but in a sign that his supposed piety is all an act, he wears the shirt inside out, so that he doesn't actually feel any discomfort.
- In Disgaea: Hour of Darkness, flavor text for healers say they wear barbed clothing as self-inflicted punishment for being healers.
- In the Dragon Age universe, Qunari mages, called saarebas, all wear heavy chains and masks to make it hard for them to move freely. It causes them a considerable amount of pain, but being Qunari, they willingly submit to such treatment.
- In Yet Another Fantasy Gamer Comic, Charlotte wears her studded leather armor with the studs on the inside. Like a lot of drow, she's a big masochist.
- The Sateré-Mawé people of the Amazon Basin have a Rite of Passage for boys involving wearing gloves with dozens of bullet ants woven into them. Bullet ants have the most painful sting of any insect on Earth, the pain from which can last over 24 hours. The boys are required to wear the gloves for at least 10 minutes and perform a dance while doing so; only after this is done can they call themselves "men". The Sateré-Mawé claim that this is meant to teach that "a life lived without pain or suffering is no life at all".