Kagemusha (影武者) is a 1980 film by Akira Kurosawa. The title (literally "Shadow Warrior" in Japanese) is a term used for an impersonator. It is set in the Sengoku period of Japanese history and tells the story of a lower-class criminal who is taught to impersonate a dying warlord in order to dissuade opposing lords from attacking the newly vulnerable clan. The warlord whom the kagemusha impersonates is based on daimyo Takeda Shingen, and the film ends with the climactic 1575 Battle of Nagashino.
Akira Kurosawa returns to the samurai film and to a primary theme of his careerthe play between illusion and reality. Sumptuously reconstructing the splendor of feudal Japan and the pageantry of war, Kurosawa creates a historical epic that is also a meditation on the nature of power.
Portraying both Takeda Shingen and the kagemusha is Tatsuya Nakadai, prized theater actor who has been working with Kurosawa as early as Yojimbo. Tsutomu Yamazaki, another well-known character actor, portrays Takeda Nobukado, Shingen's brother and a former kagemusha of Shingen himself. Daisuke Ryu plays the younger and more ambitious Oda Nobunaga.
Ishiro Honda directed the 2nd unit and coordinated the production. The production was also internationally aided by George Lucas and Francis Ford Coppola, admirers of the Japanese master. The film was described by Kurosawa as a dress rehearsal for Ran, which was released five years later. (Nakadai and Ryu would later reunite as father-and-son Lord Hidetora and Saburo, respectively, in Ran.)
Kagemusha provides examples of:
- Always Someone Better: Nobukado mentioned to Kagemusha how, when he was serving as Shingen's kagemusha himself, how he wanted to be his own man, but knows he can never dare subvert or surpass his elder brother:
- Ambition Is Evil: Shingen comments he would be capable of doing anything to become the ruler of Japan, and he describes himself as evil.
- Antagonist in Mourning:
- When the death of Takeda Shingen is finally revealed, his rival Oda Nobunaga sings a song of mourning.
- The Criterion Collection's restored DVD edition reinserts a scene cut out from the original release, showing another daimyo/warlord in Buddhist outfit visibly distraught and praying for his soul, most likely Uesugi Kenshin. (Shingen and Kenshin's amicable rivalry is well-documented in Japanese history.)
- Armor-Piercing Question:" I only stole a few coins. A petty thief. But you've killed hundreds and robbed whole domains. Who is wicked, you or I?"
- Badass Grandpa: Shingen at age 51 is an undoubted badass, but special mention goes to Masakage Yamagata who is older than Shingen, yet still has the stones to try and talk sense into Shingen, his feudal master.
- Big Bad: Oda Nobunaga is the primary enemy commander shown.
- Body Double: The thief is offered the role of warlord Takeda Shingen, in exchange for sparing his life. Emergency Impersonation variety.
- Boxed Crook: The thief's life is spared in order to act as a top-secret double for an identical-looking feudal warlord. Oddly, when it initially appears he won't be able to succeed the Takeda set him free rather than disposing of him, but he returns to them to make another attempt of his own volition.
- Character Tics: Among many of Shingen's mannerisms, his handling of a resting table and fondling his mustache was most iconic, so much that kagemusha takes much time in perfecting these to convince Shingen's household.
- Curb-Stomp Battle: The Battle of Nagashino.
- Downer Ending: The kagemusha and the Takeda generals that personally led the attack at Nagashino in the final battle are all killed, and the Takeda army is clearly utterly crushed. It seems the generals who were back at the command post fled, and it's quite likely the Takeda clan will be no more as Shingen predicted.
- El Cid Ploy: The death of Takeda Shingen brings all sorts of Decapitated Army related misfortunes for his clan, so the impersonation scheme is set in motion. Double Subverted as after the initial evaluation the thief is deemed unfit for the task and the clan leaders are about to reveal the truth, but this changes again when the thief fully commits to his role.
- Foregone Conclusion: Anyone familiar with the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 knows most of the movie's ending already...
- General Failure: Played with, in tandem with Glory Hound; initially defied as Katsuyori's audacity pays off when his risky attack forces the other Takeda leaders with a more experienced judgment to support him against their will and the clan succeeds in taking a fortress that Shingen himself never was able to take. In the end Takeda Katsuyori disregarding the defensive strategy set by his father and the other generals leads to catastrophic results.
- Gory Discretion Shot: Subverted. As the Takeda companies charge in the Battle of Nagashino, them being devastated is only implied by the horrified expressions of their commanders looking on. After they all attack, then the next few minutes displays the shattered blood-stained remnants of the companies writhing and struggling among a field of corpses.
- Gray Rain of Depression: Kagemusha's last scene in the clan compound, when he is refused a goodbye with his "grandson" and expelled.
- The Hero Dies: Kagemusha is shot by Oda gunners while observing the ruination of the Takeda clan. He dies as he attempts to grab the Fūrinkazan standard floating down a stream, and floats with it.
- Historical-Domain Character: Takeda Shingen, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu among others.
- Identical Stranger: The reason they figure the soon-to-be kagemusha could pull off the task, of course.
- Jidai Geki: Japan, late XVI century.
- Job Title: Roughly translates to "impostor."
- Kill Them All: The Takeda clan perishes under Katsuyori's poor leadership in the final battle. Kagemusha dies too. It's implied some of the leaders fled in time however. Serving as Truth in Television as well, as the Battle of Nagashino was the pivotal battle heralding the downward spiral of the Takeda clan. The Takeda would be finished off seven years later at the Battle of Tenmokuzan.
- Leave the Camera Running: One of Kurosawa's trademarks; long, silent shots of soldiers riding horses, generals lost in contemplative thought, and battlefields strewn with dead bodies.
- Loss of Identity: Implied to be the tragedy of the kagemusha (as discussed by Nobukado above in Always Someone Better): in performing the role of Shingen so well and internalizing what he represents to the Takeda, his dismissal after his status as a fake was discovered left him without anything to cling on to. Watching the Takeda get slaughtered at Nagashino pretty much made him snap, pick up a spear and futilely charge at the Oda camp's gunners, where he was riddled with bullets. His last scene of trying to save the now-tattered banner of Shingen from floating to the river (before succumbing and floating downstream himself) is truly Tear Jerker stuff.
- This is probably why Kagemusha tried to ride Shingen's horse which would end up ruining the impersonation. He was so sure of being Shingen that it didn't occur to him that the horse, established as refusing to be ridden anyone but Shingen himself, would have disagreed.
- No Name Given: The thief/kagemusha.
- Not So Different/Insult Backfire: The thief resents being called scum by Shingen and remarks that a bloody warlord has no right to claim the higher moral ground. Shingen concedes the point.
- Offing the Offspring: Shingen mentions he killed his son, and also exiled his father.
- One-Word Title: In the original Japanese, anyway. The English title is directly translated but three words: The Shadow Warrior.
- Pet the Dog: Kagemusha's tender relation with his fake grandson. He is a better and warmer grandfather than the dreadful Shingen ever was.
- Replacement Scrappy: How Shingen's warlords viewed Katsuyori in his overblown belief that he is a better leader than Shingen himself. All of these turned out well-founded in the disastrous Battle of Nagashino.
- Reality Subtext: Subverted, in a sense, on what happened on set. Originally, the role of Shingen and the kagemusha was to be played by Shintaro Katsu, a boiseterous comedic actor who has already portrayed badass, gruff and tragic characters (like the assassin Okada Izo in Tenchu! and Zatoichi). However, Katsu managed to anger Kurosawa at first day of shooting and thus left the production. Tatsuya Nakadai was thus taken in to replace him. Critics would later on say Nakadai's interpretation of the role (both of the kagemusha and the late Shingen) lent it a somber, grave mien that worked better than if Kurosawa continued with Katsu.
- Sarcastic Confession: How Kagemusha deals with his concubines when they become suspicious. It works. For a while.
- Spotting the Thread: Shingen's mistresses realize Kagemusha's an impersonator after they check his back after he falls off of Shingen's horse and realize he has no scar where Shingen would have had a sword wound.
- The Stoic: Nobukado, who is the only one of the Takeda leaders observing the Battle of Nagashino to maintain his cool while everyone else - including Katsuyori - are visibly panicking over the slaughter. A close-up shows, however, that he is utterly heartbroken at having to see so many brave and faithful Takeda retainers lose their lives for nothing. (His face being stricken◊ with Undeathly Pallor doesn't help too.note )
- Strong Family Resemblance: Shingen's brother Nobukado also bears a very strong resemblance to the warlord, and has impersonated him in the past.
- Truth in Television: The presence of Catholic Christians in Nobunaga's domains. Nobunaga, being a patron of Western culture and food, was very lenient in giving them living space and setting up churches, in contrast to his reputation as a ruthless warlord. Considering the xenophobic tendencies of Japanese at the time, though, it may have actually contributed to that reputation.
- Well-Intentioned Extremist: At the beginning of the film, Shingen defends his historical villainous acts as the means to a good goal: The country needs a powerful ruler and the unification of Japan would stop the bloodshed.
- The Wrongful Heir to the Throne: The final part of the movie.
- Zerg Rush: This is Katusyori's strategy for the Battle of Nagashino at the end of the movie. It gets Deconstructed badly with him sending waves of Takeda infantry and cavalry at Oda Nobunaga's army of matchlock troops hidden behind a long wooden barricade, where Katsuyori's troops end up getting massacred by sustained Oda volley fire in the space of ten minutes' screentime.