A (subtle) 1943 British World War II propaganda film whose protagonist does not die during the film, is not a colonel, and is not surnamed "Blimp". Despite this triple deception, it is very good.
In the midst of the war, a group of British Army soldiers think they are very clever when they set out to capture the commanders of the local Home Guard units so that they can easily defeat their leaderless forces in a wargame that starts later that day. They capture the Home Guard commander, Major General Clive Wynne-Candy (Roger Livesey), while he's in a Turkish bath - mocking his outrage at their invalidation of the exercise, his fatness, and his moustache. An enraged Candy begins beating the stuffing out the British Army commander, the young Lieutenant Wilson, and segues into the story of his life. Flashing back 41 years to 1902, we see a young Clive Candy, newly returned from the Boer War and wearing his new Victoria Cross. A visit to Germany at the behest of Miss Edith Hunter (Deborah Kerr), ostensibly to 'refute anti-British propaganda', and a duel with Prussian officer Theodore Kretschmar-Schuldorff (Anton Walbrook) ensues. Over the next forty years Clive and Theodore meet several more times, including in World War I, and Clive will always be on the lookout for other women like his idol, Edith.
The film was commissioned by the Ministry of Information to influence British public opinion, and was part of their general efforts to persuade the British public that the RAF's 'Strategic Bombing' campaign was effective and morally justified. The film's underlying message is that the British military's use of deeply immoral methods is both morally justified by the nature of the enemy and necessary to actually win. Unfortunately, after the war it transpired that the campaign's slight reduction in the increase of German industrial output in the final months of the war had at best been a poor return on Britain's massive investments of aircraft production and lives.
Interestingly, when they got wind of the script the Ministry of War and even Winston Churchill himself tried to prevent the film from being made. This was initially because they feared that it would mock the leadership of the British Army, as Colonel Blimp was a well-known satirical newspaper-cartoon character who expressed reactionary, jingoistic, ignorant, and frankly moronic views:
Upon examining the script, they continued to obstruct its production out of fears that it would might instill doubts about whether all Germans were inherently thuggish and brutal, as in all the propaganda produced during the war so far and in World War I. This was done because it was not felt that ordinary British people were capable of understanding nuance. Together they successfully prevented Powell & Pressburger from hiring Laurence Olivier for the role of Blimp and legally using military equipment and vehicles (which had to be stolen). At the time of its release critics also attacked it for mocking the British Army and/or being "pro-German".
It has subsequently been considered one of the finest British films, and to have taken anti-Nazi wartime propaganda to much subtler and more ethical level, which was arguably more effective for those very reasons. It was the fourth collaboration between writer-directors Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger in their production company, The Archers. The duo would go on to make several more films, including The Red Shoes and Black Narcissus. Also notable for being the breakout part for British actress Deborah Kerr, who was only 21 when the film was made.
Contains examples of:
- All Germans Are Nazis: Averted! One of the main reasons Churchill disliked the film was the character of Theo, a sympathetic German (though explicitly anti-Nazi). He remained in the story thanks to Powell and Pressburger's artistic commitment. Anton Walbrook, the actor who plays Theo had Immigrant Patriotism for England noting the fact that their refusal to indulge in stereotypes was why they were better than Nazi Germany.
- Be Careful What You Wish For: When they're first married, Barbara begs Clive to "never change." Unfortunately, he takes this literally.
- Big Fun : Clive Wynne Candy, as played by Roger Livesey is perhaps the embodiment of this trope at its finest.
- Bittersweet Ending: A lovely one: Clive has lost the war game in a very humiliating way, and his own approach has been shown up as outdated, but on the other hand he's finally accepted that he himself can't change and that officers like Spud are what the war effort needs, so as Spud and his men march past, he salutes them, grinning.
- Cool Old Guy : The film manages to make Clive Wynne Candy, a caricature of the Colonel Blimp cartoons, into this. Or as Johnny Cannon says, "He's such an old darling."
- Deadpan Snarker: Theo, Spud and Johnny, but even Clive gets in a couple:Barbara: We must go, darling, we're having the Bishop for lunch.Clive: I hope he's tender.
- Deconstruction: The original Colonel Blimp character, created by left-wing cartoonist David Low, was meant as a satire of conservative Army officers, but Powell and Pressburger deconstructed it by examining how the character would have got that way in the first place—of course, giving him a rich and interesting early life made him much more sympathetic. Indeed, it is a Reconstruction by showing that even if Blimp is an outdated, old caricature, he still embodies some of England's greatest virtues of friendship, fair play and common decency.
- Defeat Means Friendship: Sort of. Clive and Theo become lifelong friends after their duel, but the film never tells us who won (or whether either of them did). Later, Clive takes this attitude toward Germany after the 1918 Armistice.
- Doppelgänger Replacement Love Interest: Undoubtedly a Trope Codifier.
- Dramatically Missing the Point: Given that, unbeknownst to him, Van Zijl has used the threat of torture to get information from the captured Germans, Clive draws an entirely erroneous moral from the Armistice:Clive: Murdoch, the war is over. The Germans have accepted the terms of the armistice; hostilities cease at 10 o'clock. It's nearly that now. Murdoch, do you know what this means?Murdoch: I do, sir. Peace. We can go home. Everybody can go home.Clive: For me, Murdoch, it means more than that; it means that right is might after all. The Germans have shelled hospitals, bombed open towns, sunk neutral ships, used poison gas, and we won—clean fighting, honest soldiering have won.
- End of an Age: The film covers forty years and is essentially the story about the end of the British Empire and its regimented class system and the breakdown of society that happened during the Second World War, essentially its about the Old Victorian and Edwardian England becoming 20th Century England.
- Fatal Flaw: Clive's is a non-standard one, No Self-Awareness. He never realises what he wants until it's too late for him to have it.
- A Father to His Men: Candy. It is implied that he hires his Great War batman, Murdock, as his Butler to ensure him steady work.
- Flanderization: The film is in part a Deconstruction of the process of Flanderization, showing how with each bad decision he makes (such as not telling Edith that he loves her, or failing to realise that warfare is becoming progressively crueler and more brutal), Clive Flanderizes himself, turning from a romantic and impetuous young man with zero self-awareness into a lovable but self-important old fool. Fortunately, he acquires enough self-awareness that, by the end, he realises that it's happened and that the best thing he can do is give his support to those who can fight the war better than he can.
- Good Is Old-Fashioned: Candy thinks that attacking innocents and torturing POW is deeply immoral and unjustifiable, but he lives into the age of Total War wherein both become common practices.
- Historical-Domain Character: Clive is apparently friendly with Arthur Conan Doyle, who's said in the film to be collecting material to counter the Germans' anti-British propaganda.
- Honor Before Reason: Candy would rather lose the war than win by stooping to "dirty" methods. Theo states his views that the British are so close to losing that, if they do use these ill-defined "dirty" methods, then the Nazis will win. The fact that the government doesn't share Candy's views leads to him being forcibly retired again. When the film was made the Ministry of Information was not just trying to convince the British public that the Strategic Bombing campaign was effective, but that it was so effective that the Soviet Union would lose the war without it. As they say, go hard or go home.
- I Was Quite a Looker: Clive doesn't exactly say this about himself in the speech at the top of the page, not being the boastful type, but although the old Clive make-up is very convincing, young Clive was quite the heartthrob. (Roger Livesey was only 36-37 when the film was made.)
- Killed Off for Real: Barbara, Murdoch and Edith.
- Long Speech Tea Time
- Non-Indicative Name: The central character is not called Blimp, he never achieves the rank of colonel, and he doesnt die.
- Physical Scars, Psychological Scars: The reason for Clive's stereotypical mustache? To hide a dueling scar.
- Propaganda Piece: what the Ministry of Information wanted and paid for. They got one, but (as with so many other Powell & Pressburger films) one with subversive implications regarding German culture and the use of immoral methods by the British military.
- Real Life Writes the Plot : Emeric Pressburger the screenwriter, a Hungarian Jew who lived in Berlin, modeled Theo's speech at the immigration bureau on his own experience entering Britain. The unfortunately-named Austian emigre Adolph Anton Wilhelm Wahlbruecke (stage name Anton Walbrook), who played Theo, likewise exiled himself from Austria when it became a right-wing dictatorship in the '20s. Both had Immigrant Patriotism for England.
- Red Oni, Blue Oni : Despite being a Stiff Upper Lip, Candy is a solid Red (all red cheeks and nose) to Theo's Blue, to everyone's blue basically.
- Replacement Goldfish : Candy's wife Barbara and his ATS chauffeur Angela (aka Johnny) are these for Edith, though in Johnny's case Candy is too much of a darling to make it more than platonic. What makes them this trope is that they're all played by the same actress. Theo lampshades it.
- Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Cynicism: Candy is idealistic, Theo and most other people are cynical. Although it's inverted in that all of Candy's friends, including Theo love him for truly embodying his beliefs of fair play, friendship and Stiff Upper Lip. The film itself is very much on the idealist side.
- Spiteful Spit
- Stiff Upper Lip : Roger Livesey's Colonel Blimp embodies his country's national stereotype in the way that Theo with his angsty and serious demeanour embodies Germans have No Sense of Humor. Though it's highly subverted.
- Token Enemy Minority: Theo.
- Tomboyish Name: Angela "Johnny" Cannon.
- When I Was Your Age... : Candy invokes this at the end of the film, in his dealing with Spud.
- While You Were in Diapers : Candy takes this even further."I was a soldier...when you were nothing more than a toss between a boy and a girl's name."
- "World of Cardboard" Speech : The film's moving final lines..."Here is the lake...and I still haven't changed."