Augustus in the book is disgustingly obese. In this film, he's not nearly as fat and his chubbiness is actually kind of cute.
Wonka in the book is an older man with a black goatee, and illustrators often portray him as hardly taller than the kids. In this film he's of normal height, clean-shaven, red-headed, and in his late thirties to early forties. (Also counts as Adaptation Dye-Job.)
Adapted Out: Charlie's father is stated to have died sometime before the story begins; the director explains in the making-of book Pure Imagination that the character was effectively superfluous.
Adaptation Expansion: The entire Slugworth subplot and the misadventure with the Fizzy Lifting Drinks. In the book, Charlie gets the factory as soon as the other kids were out of the running and didn't have to pass a final test.
Oompas: Who do you blame when your kid is a... BRAT? Pampered and spoiled like a Siamese Cat? Blaming the kids is a lie and a shame. You know exactly who's to blame: The Mother and the Father!
Charlie's is temptation, Veruca's is greed, Augustus' is gluttony, Mike's is obsession, and Violet's is pride. All are tied by the common theme of self-indulgence. You know what else is a form of self indulgence? Chocolate.
A.I. Is a Crapshoot: Inverted; in this case, the computer is the sane, rational one, while the humans are the ones going crazy. In a brief scene during the "world-wide obsession" segment, a scientist programs a computer to figure out where the last three golden tickets are. The computer refuses on the grounds that it would be cheating. The scientist tries to bribe the computer with the grand prize, but the computer rebuffs him, asking, "What would a a computer do with a lifetime supply of chocolate?"
Wonka: But Charlie, don't forget what happened to the man who suddenly got everything he always wanted. Charlie: What happened? Wonka: He lived happily ever after.
Big Door: In the Chocolate Room — it's small on one side and big on the other.
Big Eater: Augustus Gloop and his family, to the point that his father eats a reporter's microphone in passing!
Bilingual Bonus: Wonka periodically addresses the tour group in other languages:
Madames et Monsieurs, maintenant nous allons faire grand petit voyage par bateau. Voulez-vous entrer le Wonkatania? (Ladies and gentlemen, now we are going for a great little boat trip. Would you like to enter the Wonkatania?)
Goodbye Mrs Gloop. Adieu. Auf Wiedersehen. Gesundheit. Farewell.
When Wonka is looking through his mail near the end, he says, "I really must answer that note from the Queen." Earlier, as the world sought out the Golden Tickets, the Queen of England shows up to an auction of the last case of Wonka bars in the UK. She was likely not amused when she did not find a ticket...
Violet tells Veruca, "Can it, you nit!", and then says to her, "Stop squawking, you twit!". Finally Grandpa Joe says she won't listen to Wonka "Because she's a nitwit."
During the opening song, "The Candy Man", the store owner sings Wonka's skills are so good, "You can even eat the dishes!" After Wonka sings "Pure Imagination" he eats his tea cup.
In reference to the "Vermicious Knid" line above:
Grandpa Joe: Well, Mr. Salt finally got what he wanted. Charlie: What's that? Grandpa Joe: Veruca went first.
Burping Contest: A serious example — Charlie and Grandpa Joe effectively have one to bring themselves down from certain doom after ingesting Wonka's Fizzy Lifting Drinks.
Children Are Innocent: Averted. All the children have their faults. (See An Aesop above.) But Charlie's refusal to give in and take the Gobstopper to sell shows him to be still good at heart.
Comically Missing the Point: When Mrs. Gloop is horrified that Augustus, having been sucked up a pipeline, is probably turned into marshmallows as they speak, Wonka tells her that's absurd.
Wonka: Because that pipe doesn't go to the marshmallow room, it goes to the fudge room!
Crowd Song: All four Oompa-Loompa numbers. "I've Got a Golden Ticket" was conceived as this, with the whole town celebrating along with Charlie and Grandpa Joe, but director Mel Stuart nixed it as too unrealistic.
Deadly Rotary Fan: Charlie and Grandpa Joe narrowly escape one during the Fizzy Lifting Drinks scene.
Some of the Oompa-Loompas' songs qualify, especially the one for Augustus.
Disproportionate Retribution: Pretty much. After ignoring Wonka's warnings, a glutton gets carried away for drinking too much chocolate, a gum-obsessed girl gets deformed by gum, a boy who can't stop watching TV gets shrunken by a TV, and a bratty girl and her ultra-indulgent father fall to their presumed doom while she's insisting on being given everything in sight. Of course, Wonka assures Charlie that they didn't die.
Funny Background Event: Rather a foreground event. During the scene where the candy shop owner is singing, he lifts the counter top to allow the kids behind the counter. A girl gets hit on the chin by the counter.
"I am now telling the computer exactly what it can do with a lifetime supply of chocolate!"
"Candy is dandy, but liquor is quicker." Which is a quote from Dorothy Parker about how to get a woman into bed.
Violet, while describing the three-course meal gum: "It's thick and creamy and I can feel it running down my throat!" (She's talking about tomato soup.)
Mr. Salt and Wonka on the same gum: "Bull!" "No, roast beef, but I haven't got it quite right."
Wonka's Lickable Wallpaper: "The snozzberries taste like snozzberries!" Cracked discusses the place below the waist snozzberry is slang for.
Hand Wave: Any time a character (aside from Charlie) asks Mr. Wonka how or why something is, he brushes it off in the most fantastically snarky way possible:
Mr. Salt: Snozzwankers? Vermicious Knids? What kind of rubbish is that? Willy Wonka: I'm sorry, but all questions must be submitted in writing.
Hollywood Law: Wonka makes the children sign a contract before the factory tour. A minor cannot legally enter into a contract. In real life, their parents — or, in Charlie's case, Grandpa Joe — would have had to sign for them (which is how it works in the corresponding scene in the 2013 musical).
Homage: Many seemingly profound things that Wonka says in the movie are actually paraphrased from the works of classic writers. For instance, when he says "Is it my soul that calls upon my name?" he is referencing the line from Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene 2, where Romeo quotes, "It is my soul that calls upon my name." His statement, "The suspense is terrible. I hope it'll last," after Augustus falls in the river is almost a direct quote from Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. His statement "Across the desert lies the promised land" paraphrases The Bible itself most likely (probably Exodus). A full analysis of his quotes can be found here.
Violet:(while picking her nose) Spitting's a dirty habit.
Wonka: I know a worse one.
Humans Are Bastards: More humorous than usual, with the adults acting even more greedy and sociopathic than the kids during the "Wonkamania" over finding the Golden Tickets, including one woman who considers letting her husband die rather than giving up her case of Wonka bars as ransom.
Mrs. Gloop panics after her son goes in the river and up the pipe to the fudge room. It doesn't help he gets stuck along the way.
Mrs. Teavee swoons and faints theatrically (and hilariously) after her son gets shrunk.
Mrs. Curtis, whose husband is held for ransom and she's stuck trying to decide whether or not to give up her case of Wonka Bars to save his life.
"I Am" Song: Played with: "The Candy Man" celebrates a title character who hasn't been seen in years and who turns out to be more eccentric and tricky than the song implies. Wonka himself sings "Pure Imagination", which not only fits better, but has some of the best I Am Choreography one could want.
Mrs. Teavee, who is a schoolteacher. She hears Wonka play a tune and immediately says "Rachmaninoff" - but the tune is actually from Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro, which sounds nothing like Rachmaninoff.
Her son counts too, at least when it comes to television broadcasting.
Lying Finger Cross: When Wonka gives the kids Everlasting Gobstoppers and makes them promise not to tell another living soul about them, all the kids but Charlie cross their fingers behind their back.
Merchandise-Driven: The only reason this film was made was because Quaker Oats wanted to develop a new candy line, and agreed to put up the US$3 million the movie cost, in effect as an advertisement for the new candies mentioned in the film. If you see the film, you will note that the copyright owners are the Wolper Corporation and The Quaker Oats Company. (The candy flopped because of a botched recipe that left the bars literally melting on the shelves, meaning they had to be pulled. The Wonka brand was later revived by Nestle and still exists in a case of Defictionalization).
Missing Mom: In contrast to all of the other children, Violet Beauregarde's mother is never shown, only her father. Her voice is heard offscreen; apparently, showing her face wasn't considered a high priority.
Mood Whiplash: Happy, cheery Wonka singing about "Pure Imagination" and then Augustus starts drowning in the river.
The Musical: An all-out example compared to the structure of the book and the 2005 film lampshades this.
Nightmare Fetishist: During the horrific boat ride, Mike Teavee is the only person besides Wonka who seems to be having a good time.
Noodle Incident: "Snozzwangers? Vermicious Knids? What kind of rubbish is that?"
Not Even Bothering with the Accent: Done quite deliberately. All of the cast not explicitly identified as being from a certain area just use their own accents. This is particularly obvious in the scenes set in Charlie's hometown, as not being able to pin down an overarching accent increases the feeling of Where The Hell Is Springfield?. For everyone else, it just emphasises the global nature of the ticket hunt (though the main accents are German, British and American).
Parental Bonus: It almost seems like the two halves of the film are meant for different audiences. Kids will love the colorful, creative chocolate factory of the second half, while adults will prefer the social satire of the first half.
Please, I Will Do Anything!: Early on, there's a woman whose husband has been kidnapped. She says she'll do anything to get him back... and then the kidnappers demand her case of Wonka bars. All of a sudden, she needs time to think it over.
The film adaptation addresses the problem that at the moment Charlie begins the factory tour, he becomes a completely passive non-entity who does nothing to earn the prize at the end outside of staying out of trouble.
Charlie still keeps his sense of wonder.
Dahl left the production because his original script made everyone unlikeable.
The switch from squirrels/nuts to geese/eggs probably resulted at least in part from recognizing that even if they sprang for the special effects required it would have almost certainly ended up looking pretty bad done with the technology of the time.
Read The Fine Print: Part of the "You lose!" rant points out a clause concerning Fizzy Lifting Drinks. A very small clause. Also part of his Secret Test.
Serious Business: The whole world goes a little mad searching for the golden tickets:
News Anchor: (After last golden ticket is found) "We must remember there are many more important things, many more important things . . . off hand, I can't think of what they are, but I'm sure there must be something."
Seven Deadly Sins: At least four: Augustus is Gluttony, Violet is Pride, Veruca is Greed, and Mike is Sloth, creating some convenient Aesops.
Truth in Television: Most of Wonka's factory is pure fantasy, but his statement that he's making the geese work even though Easter is over to stock up for next year is, in fact, standard procedure for any product that is only sold during a holiday season. (A company has to manufacture it all year and store it, because the demand for it during the month or so when it's sold is overwhelming.)
What Does This Button Do?: Played by Wonka at the end in the Great Glass Wonkavator. Wonka lets Charlie know that he has pushed every button in the compartment besides one with a red ring around it, which he encourages Charlie to do, claiming he doesn't know what'll happen. Wonka eventually reveals he actually knew it would lead them up and out of the factory.
World Gone Mad: Wonka's factory, particularly his office, in which there is only half of everything.
Worrying for the Wrong Reason: The film has Augustus Gloop get stuck in a pipe. His panicky mother shrieks that he'll be "melted into marshmallows," to which Wonka responds that the very idea is patently absurd.
Because that pipe doesn't go to the marshmallow room; it goes to the fudge room!
Worst News Judgment Ever: Played for comedy. Due to the craze over Wonka's golden tickets, it's the top news story pretty much everywhere.
You Monster!: Mrs. Gloop's reaction to Wonka telling her the pipe her son got stuck in leads to fudge room: "You terrible man!"
Grandpa Joe calls Wonka an "inhuman monster" after his "You lose!" rant because Charlie was at first denied the grand prize.