All Psychology Is Freudian
Zo, tell me about your mozzer. This is also known as "Somewhere A Psychologist Is Crying" and is a subtrope of Hollywood Psych and Small Reference Pools. Whenever psychology comes up in media, it will always use archaic/obsolete models like the Freudian one. The cause of this trope is obvious: while it may be more factually accurate to determine that The Sociopath has no empathy because of a dodgy prefrontal cortex, it makes a much more interesting story to say it is due to him being beaten by his father, misunderstood by everyone around him, and rejected from art school. A schizophrenic being treated with anti-psychotic drugs is unremarkable; one being cured by finally confronting the neighbour who raped her is triumphant. For that matter, biological treatment (e.g., drugs) is practical but boring, while mental asylums suck; Character Development-based treatment (e.g., psychoanalysis and humanistic therapies) might take time but brings contemplation, epiphany and triumphant catharsis with it. Keep in mind that this is not always inaccurate per se, just limited. Mostly justified in works set or made between about 1905 and 1975, before the invention of many of the modern psychiatric medications and when Freud's ideas were much more in the academic mainstream. Often goes in hand-in-hand with discussion of Psychological Projection. Also see Freudian Couch. Freud Was Right sounds as if it might refer to this trope, but actually refers to a still more Flanderized understanding of Freud—the idea that our subconscious id is nothing more or less than our inner pervert, providing a constant litany of crude sexual thoughts. For another perspective, check out Freud's one-time apprentice/main competition, Carl Jung.
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Anime and Manga
- Neon Genesis Evangelion: Freudian themes aside, the final episodes are straight out of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Maybe.
- In Welcome to the N.H.K., Misaki makes this mistake, and tries to help Satou by interpreting his dreams based on a book about Freud. Satou decides to fool around, describing a rather interesting dream.
- Played with in Haruhi Suzumiya: Kyon wakes up from a dream that ended with a kiss and cries, "What the hell?! Freud would have a field day with this!"
- In Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's, one of the duelists, Professor Frank, is a psychologist and a hypnotist, whose cards (most notably Id the Superdemonic Lord, aka Ido the Supreme Magical Force) are a Shout-Out to Freudian Psychology (specifically, Psychonanalysis) — especially easy seeing as he's dueling a little girl, and his calm demeanor quickly leaves him talking like a lunatic when they both enter the Spirit World, and on top of that his star monster (the aforementioned Id) is in itself an extra Shout-Out to the monster of the same name from Forbidden Planet.
- In The DCU's Kid Eternity, the titular character, who can summon the spirits of the dead, brings in Freud and Jung to analyze him when he thinks he might be crazy. They spend so much time arguing with each other, each insult reflecting modern opinion of their theories, that Kid eventually figures himself out completely independent of them.
- Lucky Luke: One story has a proto-Freudian doctor visit the US to test his theories (that all criminals trace their behavior back to a turning point in their childhoods). He demonstrates this by getting the criminals to talk about their childhoods, which leads them to start crying, return the loot they'd stolen and promise to live better lives from then on. He later goes bad (after realizing the Daltons are proud of their criminal childhoods) and ends up robbing a bank by getting the manager to realize he'd spent his entire life hating yet craving money, and rids himself of this burden into the charitable hands of the Daltons. In the end, the only Dalton he'd manage to cure was Averell. The man himself makes a cameo at the very end, as a terrified nanny tells Mrs. Freud what baby Siggy tried to get her to do.
- Played completely straight in The Snake Pit, where a psychiatrist cures a patient with a serious case of schizophrenia by using the classic Freudian "talking cure". No medication was required.
- Truth in Television at the time, part of a movement in psychiatry. Yesterday's "schizophrenia", however, was often today's "depression" or "anxiety disorder". The definition has changed radically.
- Used in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure. By Freud himself, no less. It helps that it's actually Ted's stepmother that's giving him the complex - his father's second wife who happens to be only a few years older than him.
- Subverted in Forbidden Planet. When the captain asks Morbius what the ship's doctor meant by "monsters from the id," Morbius tells him that "id" is an obsolete term for a person's selfish and destructive urges.
- In terms of Freudianism, the Ingmar Bergman film Persona makes little to no sense. However, when compared to a glossary of common terms in Jungian psychology, it practically goes down the list one by one, including an ultra-rare example of countertransference (basically, the patient drives the examiner crazy.)
- Inception doesn't even give Freud the dignity of a dismissal; the "projections" encountered within dreams are nothing but unexpressed fragments of the dreamer's personality.
- In the comedy What About Bob? the psychologist idolizes Freud to the point that he named his son Sigmund.
- Averted in Batman Begins with Jonathan Crane. The only psychology we see him engage in is total bullshit designed to get Rachel off his back, and even that actually namechecks Jungian theories instead of Freud. Although one could technically argue his status as a behavioural or biological psychologist, considering the ways he was using the fear gas.
- Subverted in Hellraiser: Inferno. As Detective Joseph Thorne gets more obsessed with the case, his captain orders him to see the precinct's psychiatrist. Joseph notes to his partner that he'll be off to talk about his childhood, but the psychiatrist's sessions are in fact very informal and he spends more time informing Joseph about the Cenobites.
- One of the main characters of The Longing of Shiina Ryo is firmly convinced of this.
- Acts of the Apostles by John F. X. Sundman involves a bunch of Bill Gatesesque billionaires running around attempting to become self-actualized, may not count as they all are bat shit crazy from a modern psychological perspective.
- In Cell the main characters theorize that the zombies running around killing people all had their ego and superego wiped out by a Pulse of electromagnetism coming from their cell phones, leaving only the id, which was Freud's fancy way of saying "the part of your brain that just wants to kill and screw".
- Played straight and averted in Chaim Potok's The Chosen. Danny's entire pre-university education in psychology involved reading Freud (in the original German) and assumes that Freud is the be-all-and-end all of psychology. Only when he enters university (1960-1970s) does he realize that Freudianism has been completely jettisoned by academia and replaced with Hard Behaviorism. The culture shock, needless to say, is considerable.
- In Crysis: Legion Alcatraz snarks about this when asked about his saving of a mother and child.
- In Harry Turtledove's Worldwar series, human psychologists are stumped when trying to analyze the Race, whose species has a mating season, raise their children by the whole community, and don't even think about mating otherwise.
- Parodied in Unseen Academicals. When Mr. Nutt has to psychoanalyze himself (long story, but It Makes Sense in Context) he uses a Freudian Couch and a "slight Uberwaldian accent."
Live Action TV
- The Sopranos: In the series premiere, Tony, as part of a larger rant on how he has to keep his therapeutic sessions with Dr. Melfi a secret, says: "I had a semester and a half of college, so I understand Freud. I understand therapy, as a concept. But in my world it does not go down!" The rest of the show is very good about it, but it figures that Tony, more given to malapropisms and pop-culture misunderstandings of complex topics, would immediately jump to Freud when thinking of psychology and psychiatry.
- Some of Tony's sessions discussed concepts linked with Freud in the collective consciousness, such as hinting at a sexual attraction towards his mother.
- Frasier is a Freudian psychiatrist, his brother is a Jungian psychiatrist. In an episode where Niles guest hosted Frasier's radio show, he said "While my brother is a Freudian, I am a Jungian! So there will be no blaming mother today!"
Niles: Here's something. [reads] "Dreams as an expression of wish fulfillment."
- Niles' Jungian method sets up an epic joke when he pays for a magazine advertisement that ends up with one teeny typo:
Dr. Niles Crane, Hung specialist. Servicing individuals, couples, groups: satisfaction guaranteed. "Tell me where it hurts."
- Lilith on the other hand is a firm behaviorist, often mocking Niles' and Frasier's psychoanalytical beliefs.
Congratulations, Frasier, you've done it again. You've led another unsuspecting innocent down one of your dark dead end Freudian hallways.
- In fact, nearly every other doctor on Cheers and Frasier is a behavioralist, and Frasier's diehard Freudianism is something of a Running Gag (behaviorism itself has fallen out of favor in psychology).
- Crowning Moment of Funny in "Don Juan in Hell", when Frasier starts hallucinating all his former lovers:
Lilith: It's that search for perfection that ultimately defeats you, because there is no perfect woman.Hester Crane: Speak for yourself.Frasier: Mother! What are you doing here?Lilith: You have to ask? You're a Freudian.
- There is an episode where Fraiser has a homoerotic dream and the next day he turns to his brother for help in interpreting it as something less... threatening to his ego. Niles is a Jungian analyst, but because 'all dream intepretation is Freudian' his suggestions are all very basic (and misapplied) Freudian precepts.
- In fact, Niles often spouts neo-Freudian jargon rather than Jungian. Fans point out that if Niles were a true Jungian, he would believe that the collective unconscious accounted for Daphne's psychic ability.
- Niles' Jungian method sets up an epic joke when he pays for a magazine advertisement that ends up with one teeny typo:
- Two and a Half Men: Mother issues are responsible for all of Charlie's womanizing and Alan's lack of women. Episodes have anvilized this to the point where Charlie has sex with a woman with the exact personality of his mother and Alan and Charlie have a sibling rivalry over an older woman Charlie's psychiatrist is convinced is a mother figure.
Charlie: You were conditioned as a child to seek Mom's approval. You're still seeking Mom's approval, and you make every woman in the world a substitute Mom.
Alan: But what about you? We had the same mother.
Charlie: Well, I handle my conditioning in a different way. I have casual and often degrading sex with my substitute Moms...but we're talking about you and not me so forget I said that.
D.I. Peter Carlisle: Ah, Freud would say that your jokes reveal a truth buried in your subconscious.
- In Bones, Dr. Lance Sweets is the FBI psychologist assigned to evaluate Dr. Brennan and Agent Booth's working relationship. In addition to fulfilling every other annoying Hollywood Psych stereotype, he also relies heavily on Freudian language in his practice, referring to Oedipal attachments and various other discredited theories. It's no wonder Brennan constantly reminds us that she hates psychology, if this is the only type of psychology that she sees.
- On the other hand, in the same series, Dr. Gordon Wyatt, a psychiatrist, considers psychology to be a superstitious practice and uses an eclectic approach that does not even consider medication necessarily applicable to all situations (which it isn't).
- He also lampshades this trope when talking about retiring to become a chef:
- Episode "Just Harried"
Phoebe Halliwell: So I just studied this in psych 101. Freud. You're the ID. Prue's inner desires. Which means that she is the ego. The control factor.
- Episode "Sand Francisco Dreamin'"
Tracer Demon: [after seeing that Phoebe has stabbed her nightmare creature, and thereby also hurt herself] Would Freud have a field day with this or what?
- Episode "Just Harried"
- Episode "4x4"
Greg Sanders: No matter how hard you work to get big, there's always someone bigger.
Sara Sidle: It could be what keeps them going. Like Freud said, "Anatomy is destiny".
Greg Sanders: What do you think Freud would have to say about one of these being the murder weapon?
- Episode "Fur And Loathing"
Grissom: Well, Freud said that the only unusual sexual behavior was to have none at all.
- Yet another instance in which Freud was wrong! Being asexual may not be common, but it's not pathological...
- Well he would have been if he actually said that...
- Episode "Lab Rats" (although in this case Hodges is supposed to be coming across as pretentious).
Hodges: Freud's theory on the uncanny raises the point that as children we want the doll to come to life. But as adults, we are terrified by the idea. The doll could represent the uncanny that is feared. The Sandman."
- Episode "4x4"
- Desperate Housewives episode "Pretty Little Picture"
Bree: I took psychology in college. We learned all about Freud. A miserable human being.
- The episode actually averts this trope, as Bree's psychologist tells her that many of Freud's theories have been disproven (which pleases her).
- This is actually a meta-reference. After she left Melrose Place, Marcia Cross earned a masters degree in psychology. She was thinking of starting a career in psychotherapy when she was cast as Bree.
- Entourage episode "Strange Days"
Johnny Chase: Freud says there are no accidents.
- There are a lot more examples at IMDb Search Quotes for "Freud".
- The fourth season of Buffy the Vampire Slayer featured a psychology teacher who in one episode explicitly referenced Freud and the id. However, given that this was a first-year course, it could be she's simply going through the history of the field; since it occurs in Buffy's dream, it might also be a way of showing that Buffy's not doing too well in the class.
- To be fair, in the dream the teacher also made her kiss Riley on the desk as a demonstration, but Buffy probably doesn't think that's a regular part of a psychology class. The Freud reference could have simply been more dream randomness—or even a link to the fast-approaching sexytimes.
- The recurring character of Dr. Sidney Freedman on Mash was very much a Freudian psychoanalyst; in one episode ("Dear Sigmund"), he even writes a letter to Freud himself... despite the fact that Freud died in 1939, which B.J. promptly lampshades.
- In The Big Bang Theory, Leslie Winkle suggests Penny is escaping into the MMORPG Age of Conan as a result of sexual frustration. When Leonard disagrees, saying it is only to raise her self esteem and has nothing to do with sex, Leslie replies, "Everything has to do with sex."
- Not to mention Leonard's mother, who is supposedly a world-renowned psychologist but extrapolates from Howard's dependency on his mother and Raj's inability to talk to women that they're subconsciously homosexual. This is despite acknowledging that many of his theories are outdated.
- Or perhaps that incident subtly hints that Beverly is either A: not as bright as she thinks she is, or B: a ruthless manipulative bitch.
- In Star Trek: The Next Generation, Data visits a holodeck version of Freud when he starts having nightmares and tries to make sense of their meaning. Holodeck Freud immediately jumps to father issues, but Data notes that he never met his father. Nor does he have a mother. Part of his nightmares was an image of him cutting into the shoulder of a Troi-shaped cake (causing him to assault her in the real world unintentionally, attacking a parasite he was 'subconsciously' aware of). At the end of the episode, Troi reverses this and presents Data with a Data-shaped cake. Data starts to slice into it, then pauses, and wonders at the symbolism before Troi adds, "Sometimes, Data, a cake is just a cake."
- The Freudian episode actually subverts this; when Data informs Troi of his session with the good doctor, she's very distraught as psychological theory and research has advanced hundreds of years since his era (it would be the equivalent of asking a Holodeck version of Isaac Newton for help on a paper on the physics of starships). When he leaves, she says "Next time, please come to me before you see Sigmund."
- In "Frame of Mind," Troi actually quotes Jung. Her style is usually fairly Rogerian, however.
- Decidedly averted in Criminal Minds. While a lot of their cases revolve around sex and aggression that would have fascinated Freud, their methods are mainly cognitive/behavioral. In one scene Reid even states "Freud has been discredited but Jung still has his merits." in regards to the concept of accessing repressed memories through hypnosis.
- However, many of the UnSubs' stories were crafted with Freudian psychology in mind-a good many of them were abused or warped as children, which eventually caused them to be warped in the present. The show is careful, though, to make sure that those backstories aren't the sole cause of the UnSubs' actions, as well as showing that people can have less than stellar childhoods and still be model citizens (best example: the BAU is filled with tortured souls, none more prevalent than Reid's).
- Las Vegas averts this trope handily when a psychologist is evaluating the Montecito's employees. When he gets to Genius Ditz Belinda, she asks him what method of analysis he's going to use, then name-drops several methods before revealing she used to be a psych major.
- Cleverly parodied/subverted on Not Going Out: at Kate's insistence, Lee reluctantly agrees to see a Californian therapist for one session. After answering her questions with his typical hurricane of witty quips and innuendos, she says she'd like to talk about his mother, leading to this exchange:
Lee: Oh, here we go.
Lee: This is all the mum-fancying stuff.
Therapist: I never suggested you fancied your mother.
Lee: What, you saying she's ugly?
- Avoided by Tony's Series 2 episode of Skins, which is very much a study in Jung rather than Freud (it's all about Tony's quest to rediscover his anima, or something).
- Averted in Raines. Raines brings up Freud at his first therapy session, but Kohl says that she's a Jungian.
- In the drama Awake, Britten's therapists overwhelmingly spend their time applying dream analysis, which while fitting for the show is not widely used in real life. To be fair while Dr. Lee tries to tell Britten why his mind "invented" each scenario, Dr. Evans focuses more on what his dreams say about his current emotions.
- Lampshaded in Patito Feo. When Carmen goes to see a Psychologist, it was an expy of Freud himself: bald hair, smoking pipe, beard, etc. She was taken to a Freudian Couch, even when a common chair was just fine. He reminds her all the time that she must not see him. And then...
Carmen: So, doctor, my problem is that I love...Psychologist: No no no no. Tell me about your childhood!
- Parodied in Canadian TV series StudentBodies, as the protagonist, cartoonist Cody Miller, is called out for his frequent usage of Freud in his cartoons because "it's the only (psychologist) he can draw."
- Parodied in A Bit of Fry and Laurie, where two gentlemen claiming to be psychiatrists try to analyse one another under the pretense that the other is a deluded patient. Naturally, it quickly devolves into this trope:
"So lets imagine a line, shall we? Fear at one end, breasts at the other. Now where would you place your father on that line?"
- Dr. Huang on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit is probably a more well-rounded television psychologist than most but he still will lean Freudian if it makes for good storytelling. Recognizing the trope, many episodes have someone else on the cast bring up the Freudian bit so Huang can correct them about advances in psychological theory. Basically if Freud is proffered by Huang it's treated as valid, if he's brought up by someone else it's outdated nonsense.
- Eugene O Neill's play Mourning Becomes Electra—itself a modernized (circa The American Civil War) adaptation of Aeschylus' The Oresteia—is swarming with Freudianism. Lavinia (the modern equivalent of Electra), just for starters, won't shut up about how much she loves her father, and won't hear anything against him.
- In the 1933 Broadway musical Pardon My English, the main character is examined by a sextet of sex-obsessed psychoanalysts named Adler, Jung and Freud.
- A subversion of this is Xenogears, which is pretty famous for using Jungian psychology. Though it does use a good amount of Freudian psychology as well.
- The Persona series also uses Jungian psychology heavily.
- The name of the series and its core gameplay mechanic come from Jung.
- Philemon, one of the most important entity in that universe (particularly the first two games) is derived from Jungian psychology.
- Jungian shadows play important roles in the games, particularly in Persona 4, in which each party member (other than the protagonist) confronts theirs in the collective unconscious, another Jungian idea in order to obtain their Persona. Shadows also show up as every enemy in Persona 3 and Persona 4, save for a few bosses.
- Lampshaded in Persona 3, as you can find books about psychology and psychoanalysis in your dorm.
- The concept of Arcanas bear striking similarities to Jungian Archetypes.
- The final boss of Persona 2: Innocent Sin consists of Nyarlathotep deciding to have some fun by taking the form of a tentacle monster made up out of all five of the characters' fathers. (Naturally, all five have some kind of father issue. Lisa for example has a strict Japanophile father, Eikichi is subtly rebelling from his dad, Tatsuya's was fired from his job and just accepted it, Maya feels like her dad abandoned her and her mother for his job, and Jun's father was considered insane by everyone, leading to him making up a perfect dad, which Nyarlathotep became to manipulate Jun.)
- Persona 2 does have some Freudian elements, most notably the fire at the shrine causing Repressed Memories and the characters overcoming some of their problems while fighting their Shadows.
- Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines contains some Conversational Troping of this, when we visit the mansion of Dr. Alestair Grout, a Malkavian (read: "batshit insane") vampire, whose old audio diaries the player gets to hear, where Dr. Grout criticizes Freud and Freud's ideas. Not only was Grout a contemporary of Freud's during his living existence, but he apparently supported even older and more outdated ideas. (He at one points speaks with melancholy about the loss of the classical sanitarium.) Of course, Grout is insane and his primary motivation has always been curing his own condition.
- Psychonauts uses the "collective unconscious" as a sort of world hub of sorts when travelling across the mindscape-it's mostly used to access minds you've already visited when you can't personally harass the person it belongs to and hit 'em with a psycho-portal again. Since I'm not all that familiar with psychology, though, I'm not sure how closely Double Fine's interpretation matches up with what Jung was talking about...
- Not very. The Collective Unconscious is a (theoretical) similar arrangement of individual experiences, shared by all the members of a single species. Considering the ways he used it to analyze dreams, folklore, and literature...you're soaking in it.
- In Umlaut House 2, a giant aggregate id gains sentience (ego?), and has to be imparted with a superego to cease to be a threat.
- In Homestuck, Rose is interested in psychology and brings up Freud now and then, though she admits early on that Freud is totally discredited, and it mostly only comes up because Dave has a very intriguing tendency to say extremely Freudian things without realizing it. The fact that he and Rose turn out to be siblings (thus making suspect all the jokes Dave used to make about Rose's mom to freak her out) and that later they actually meet a young, attractive alternate version of their mother probably doesn't help.
- The Looney Tunes cartoon "Dr. Devil and Mr. Hare" in which Bugs Bunny played psychiatrist to the Tasmanian Devil: "Zhust relaxing und telling me about your id ven you vas a kid, ja?"
- A Pinky and the Brain Christmas: Pinky notes that the elf costume Brain's wearing makes him look like Sigmund Freud. Brain's reply is that he's Jungian. They meet the actual Freud, who is portrayed as a leader in hypnosis therapy. It still hits on a little of what Freud would apparently develop, but at least at the time it's state of the art techniques.
- The Venture Bros.: Done mostly straight when Doctor Orpheus goes inside Dr. Venture's mind. He encounters the Eros and Thanatos drives, which take the forms of Master Billy Quizboy and Pete White, and the id, ego, and superego, who all look like various incarnations of Dr. Venture (Id resembles Venture when he was a young boy, Ego looks a lot like Rusty as himself, and the Superego bears a similarity to Rusty's dad).
- Animaniacs: Done with Dr. Scratchansniff, the Warners' "p-sychiatrist."
- American Dad!: During the episode "A Pinata Named Desire" Roger and Stan have been relentlessly competing, Hayley tells them to just f*** and get it over with because of their repressed sexual urges (which just screams Freudian). Steve asks her how her Psychology 101 class is going and she replies that it's only day three and she already understands how the whole world works.
- In The Beatles episode "Hold Me Tight," The Statue of Liberty leaves Ringo misty-eyed because "the old girl looks just like me mum waiting for dad to come home with his paycheque."
- Psycomedia: This podcast does its best to invert this, presenting real psychology and using Freud as a swear-word.
- Many haredi (fanatically ultra-Orthodox) Jews to this day avoid psychotherapists and psychotherapies because they associate the entire field with Freud, an avowed atheist. Instead, they will consult a rabbi for counseling. Less commonly, for cases most of us would recognize as psychosis, haredim will call a rabbi who specializes in kabbalistic exorcism.
- A "kabbalistic exorcism" is described, sympathetically, in Robert Anton Wilson's The Historical Illuminatus: The Earth will Shake. Even the Jewish scholar who delivers the exorcism is inclined to see it pragmatically as a sort of psychodrama that effectively "shocks" the sufferer back into normality, while acknowledging the religious content does no harm either. However, the subject lapses back into psychosis later in the book and commits suicide.
- Many Christian denominations feel the same way so they have developed Christian Psychologists who are licensed but place their knowledge in a Biblical context, rather than a secular one.
- Most of the field of psychology in Argentina is Freudian in nature. It is also the case in France too. More precisely, Jacques Lacan had a big influence in psychology there. Basically, he brought back Freud's work and modernized it (things are more complicated, through), so most of these psychologists would call themselves 'Freudian-Lacanian' instead of simply 'Freudian', so it's sort of a subversion. But while he is quite well-known there, chances are you never heard of him if you are from elsewhere.
- It is also deconstructed with regards to autism, for example, as many psychoanalysts refuse to recognize recent discoveries concerning it, and meet opposition from parents because of the catastrophic management of autistic's health, and because these parents think they're needlessly made to feel guilty about it. However, there are some psychologists who do attempt to reconstruct it (sorta) by taking these discoveries and other scientific approaches into account, and discarding older theories, though.
- Freud is important to the history of psychology so he often shows up in Psych 101 even if the teacher doesn't like him. (Especially in the history of psychology). Try to get through a unit in a psychology book without his name coming up.
- In academia, his importance in the basic 101 of psychology (that people who don't go into psychology any further will only know), means that Freud is taken more seriously in the humanities and literature department than in the psychology department (inversely, a lot of writers and novelists intentionally introduces Freudian themes into their writings, which leads to further Freudian criticism on the part of the academics). The psychology applied in sociology, gender studies and other tangentially related fields can be biased towards basic Freud, whose denial of a genetic/uninfluenced impact on behavior fits the society is to blame approach most sociology teachers take perfectly.
- For the same reason, the reasoning of the Internet Cold Reader and Armchair Psychologist is almost always Freudian.
- The criticism toward Freud will, paradoxically, create a die-hard core of believers in those few universities where Freud is still taken seriously. While almost every psychology education in Sweden will focus on giving a patient practical advice on how to cope with negative tendencies, the two colleges where Freudianism is still being taught foster an atmosphere of being under siege.
- Harold Bloom (whose "Anxiety of Influence" theory of poetry owes a great debt to Freud) argues in The Western Canon that Freud is best read as a literary essayist and critic, particularly of William Shakespeare.
- Some psychologists today are neo-Freudians, taking a very liberal approach to his ideas and combining them with those of Lacan, D.W. Winnicott, Melanie Klein and even hard-scientific (cognitive and behavioural) influences.
- This article explains "Why Freud Still Matters Even Though He Was Wrong About Almost Everything." Essentially, although Freud's major ideas such as the Oedipus Complex and the ego/superego/id have been long since discredited by academic researchers, the underlying concepts, such as the fact that we're driven to some extent by our unconscious minds, are still the scientific basis for all psychology and even neuroscience.