is an Australian
cryptid bearing many similarities to the Bigfoot, Sasquatch and Yeti
, on the other hand, also known as "Boy's Love
", is a subgenre of romance focusing on male homosexuality
, for a predominantly female audience
. In a typical plot, two boys fall in love and the story shows their progress as a couple. Sometimes it's just part of the scenery, although most series directly foster what the audience expects and likes
Yaoi series are mostly made by women
, for women
, though it's not uncommon for them to draw a straight and gay male audience
, and some
male writers exist, especially in fanfiction, and some gay or bisexual men prefer The Twink
aesthetic and/or Porn with Plot
, both of which are in short supply in Bara Genre
and in much Western mainstream gay erotica—and one of the controversies has been the presence of these writers
. Because of this, the older and more stereotypical Boys' Love works have idealized male characters who are sensitive and nurturing. They are usually drawn in a romantic style and exist in a world where homosexuality is considered no more unusual or transgressive than heterosexuality. These stories mark the first and more well-known grounding base for what we know today as Yaoi, a direct passing-over from shoujo where the characters were mostly pre-pubescent or barely pubescent teenage boys, "bishounen" (11 to 13 years-old mainly), having tender romantic relationships.
There is, however, the other side of older Yaoi works, which is generally not known to the Western world, having been hand-fed shoujo-style material through the translation market. These are the stories targeted to an older and mature female audience—taking much from Jossei artwork and Seinen atmosphere—where men are sexually, physically, and emotionally dominated, often with soft bondage themes and with incredibly explicit attention to anal penetration, often focusing on rape and communication through sex. These stories helped to lay the groundwork for the darker side of Yaoi, and were often either doujinshi featuring canon characters or had minimal publishing in native Japan with no export to the Western world. These circulated in Japan locally in magazines and through those who were in the know.
With both of these extremes laying the basis for the Yaoi we know today, it is no wonder that the genre grew so fast and so dynamically in Japan, taking from both its light romantic and dark violent sides to sprout into many different kinds of stories and mix-and-match art styles, all revolving around the idea of two (or more) men or boys in a relationship (Western fans were slow on the uptake on this, until scanlation groups started up on the internet and the flood gates opened). With the change in Yaoi
over time, there are now many subgenres with many different art styles, everything from fluffy light shoujo-esque romance, to realistic "Slice Of Life" stories, to high drama, to extreme violence and gore borrowing more from Seinen fare, and even explicit hardcore S&M (where heeding the "Mature" rating is a good idea). The genre includes all ranges of explicitness, one of the reasons stories aimed at a more mature audience don't make it to television often.
It's sometimes conjectured that gay romance appeals to women because non-female characters aren't as "threatening
" to the audience, nor are the social boundaries the same. However, to be utterly blunt, most common theories today are that women like to see men vulnerable (and exploited)—emotionally and sexually—and to see explicit gay sex, mainly penetration, as an observer, allowing them to substitute mentally for both the dominating figure penetrating the submissive, or for the vulnerable submissive being dominated (hence why Seme
archetypes are so popular). This is why penetration is such a major theme in Yaoi sex, while in Real Life
gay sex it is less an issue (although most gay film sex scenes do feature penetrative sex fairly frequently). However, this theory is then belied by the fact that Shonen-Ai stories without sex and Yaoi stories that aren't explicit are valued just as highly as those which are basically PWP, with the emotional interaction between male characters being focused on and celebrated.
Without having to cater to the social standards of heterosexual courtship, a lot of female authors use the male x male relationship dynamic to ignore the social niceties they are usually constrained to and add in the violence and roughness that gender issues prohibit (remembering the rather stricter and more polite codes of behavior that are inherent in Japanese culture). Of course, it could also simply mean that if one hot guy is good, two or more are even better. It's interesting
how some viewers, especially male ones
, don't get that.
The stories are stereotyped and well-known as having a high degree of melodrama
especially within the younger teenager reading audience, although in reality Yaoi tends to sport less melodrama than the equivalent target shoujo storylines (this is a result of nearly all Yaoi/Shonen-Ai being far more rough, realistic and sexually-determinant, cutting out the expanded courtship and attention to female vulnerability that is maintained in Shoujo status quo). These shoujo-like stories have been exploited by the manga translation market for years, aiming for a similar demographic, and this is how Yaoi came to be known to mainstream manga and anime fans. The rest of the Yaoi
genre, particularly the more mature violent material, was side-lined significantly. However, with the greater expansion of the manga market into the Western world and principally the translation of manga online, Yaoi is now known to its audience as an umbrella term encompassing a mass of sub-genres, covering everything from shoujo-like Shonen-Ai with no sex at all, to violent and heavily explicit Seinen-like stories with a huge variety of art styles, even crossing into borderline Bara territory at times with fans from both sides gaining new reading material, and a large amount of transgender stories being thrown into the mix. With published manga-ka releasing yaoi-based doujinshi as well, Yaoi is an extremely fast-growing super-genre, swinging between the melodrama of high romance to gritty realism, angst-filled dramas, silly fluff stories, and PWP that makes no bones about exhibiting two hot guys screwing.
A common and much played-with staple of Yaoi is the dynamic of an aggressive partner
and a submissive one
, which are so often used in the genre that they have become well-known archetypes, used, abused, inverted and deconstructed over the decades since the conception of the genre (remember, Tropes Are Flexible
!). Some younger Slash Fic
writers who are fans of the shoujo-based Yaoi highlighted by the mainstream market go so far as to feminize
the shorter guy
to fit this dynamic, mimicking in Yaoi what heterosexual fanfic writers do with Chickification
. Many series that deal with close friendship
usually develop a non-canonical
Boys Love fandom. In fact, some series deliberately enhance the homoerotic subtext of these relationships in order to cater to and attract those interested in Shonen-Ai or Yaoi.
With all of its variety, Yaoi is still one of the most misunderstood genres to come out of Japan. It is still thought of as sappy melodrama in a Shoujo-style, just between boys instead of a heterosexual pairingnote
. Funnily enough, the people who complain the most about it and those who make it into a frequent joke know very little if anything about the genre. Most opinions about Yaoi are based on Western stereotypes.also note
See Boys Love Notes
for a list of standard character types and Boys Love Tropes
for tropes associated with the genre.
For the corresponding genre aimed specifically at a gay male readership, see Bara Genre
. For the Distaff Counterpart
to this genre, see Yuri Genre
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Anime & Manga
- Acid Town
- Animal X
- Awkward Silence
- Banana Fish is very, very light on the yaoi—the two men hardly ever touch, and romance is only ever implied. But it's there, all right, if you know where to look.
- Blue Sheep Reverie
- Breakfast Club
- The Carp on the Chopping Block Jumps Twice
- Chintsubu is a manga about boys with talking penises.
- The Cornered Mouse Dreams of Cheese
- Crimson Spell is a hybrid of Heroic Fantasy and Boys' Love.
- A Cruel God Reigns
- Dekichatta Danshi features Childhood Friends as the main couple and they raise an infant together.
- The Demian Syndrome
- Eerie Queerie
- Endless World has drugs, sex, and suicide.
- FAKE takes the Ho Yay inherent in the Buddy Cop Show dynamic to its inevitable conclusion. It's also one of the first widely popular yaoi to softpedal the seme/uke dynamic - while it still exists with defined seme and uke, they are very close to equals.
- The Finder Series: Angsty, rapey melodrama, mostly about a photographer who takes some unwelcome candids of a hot yakuza boss and is punished for it...
- Fish in the Trap
- Fujisaki Kou is a BL author with roughly a third of her works occuring in the same verse. These currently include:
- Happy Yarou Wedding which follows university student Yuuhi and Professor Todou Akira (the elder son of the Todou boss) and Akira's 5 year old son, Shouta.
- ...Virgin Love, ...Junai No Seinen and Men's Love follow the smutty romance of Todou Group employee Kirishima Kaoru and Mercury executive Daigo Mikihisa.
- Future Lovers, a two-volume manga series that's relatively realistic and down-to-earth compared to many other BL manga.
- Gorgeous Carat
- Gravitation: Despite its music-themed plot, the main focus is on the relationship between Keet singer Shuichi Shindou and angsty novelist Eiri Yuki. It (and especially the Porn Without Plot doujinshi connected to it) also features some of the most strict, stereotypical seme/uke characterization, with the uke Shuichi eventually undergoing Wimpification to the degree of Chickification and, in the doujinshi, Flanderization to the point of appearing childlike.
- Hana No Mizo Shiru
- Haru wo Daiteita (Embracing Love) is a 14-volume manga series (and 2-episode OVA) concerning two "adult video" actors who are trying to break into mainstream acting.
- The Heart Of Thomas: one of the very first Boys' Love mangas. Written by Moto Hagio, a contemporary of Keiko Takemiya.
- Honto Yajuu
- Hybrid Child, a collection of oneshots from Junjou Romantica's creator Nakamura Shungiku revolving around the eponymous "hybrid child", dolls that can gain emotions and grow when given affections from their owners.
- Hyouta Fujiyama has created a number of loosely related stories around the setting of Kinsei High, an all-boys school where "rumor has it" that 90% of the student body really is bi, if not gay. Oddly, the main stories always seem to focus on the boys who think they're in the 10%...
- Ikoku Irokoi Romantan AKA A Foreign Love Affair: a romance between an Italian sailor and a man of the Japanese yakuza.
- I Shall Never Return: A relatively early example from the mid-90s; it's notable for averting or subverting many of the more common BL tropes, possibly because of the Uke x Uke relationship type.
- Junjou Romantica: A comedic romance which gives us three couples for the price of one, all three very different but all touching on the theme of Second Love.
- Keiko Takemiya is the Grand Dame of the genre. Her works include:
- In the Sunroom (1970), the first known Boys' Love manga story,
- Kaze to Ki no Uta (The Song/Poem of the Wind and Trees) (1976-1984), one of the most influential of the early Boys' Love manga,
- The Door into Summer (1975), one of the first Boys' Love stories to be made into anime (in 1981).
- Kawaii Akuma (and its sequels).
- Kirepapa is an OVA with a romance between a man and his son's high-school aged best friend. The second OVA focuses on his son and an older man.
- Kizuna is widely regarded as the series that popularized the Boys' Love genre.
- Koisuru Boukun, a.k.a. The Tyrant Falls in Love, a spin-off from Challengers.
- Komatta Toki ni wa Hoshi ni Kike
- Koutetsu Sangokushi
- Kusatta Kyoushi No Houteishiki
- La Esperança is an example of religion-induced melodrama, but it's pulled off quite well
- Legend of the Blue Wolves is an example of crossover with Bara Genre, and qualifies as both Yaoi and plot-heavy Bara.
- Liberty Liberty!
- Little Butterfly
- Love Mode: a long-running series about the owner of a men-only "dating club" (read: brothel) and his clients, employees and friends.
- Love Pistols revolves around highschool kid Norio, whose life has been turned upside down ever since he discovers that primates apparently aren't humanity's only origin. About 30% of humanity are actually descended from other animals such as dogs, cats, snakes, bears and even mermaids. Includes male pregnancy.
- Love Stage!! is a collaboration between an Eiki Eiki and Zaou Taishi about an otaku and an idol.
- Maiden Rose (aka Hyakujitsu no Bara) has added the appeal of hot military men in spades.
- Marginal: Sci-fi and dystopian series by Moto Hagio set in a world where there is apparently only one woman and the rest are men.
- Nekoka Danshi No Shitsukekata: Ayane Ukyo's first entry into the BL genre, followed by her more explicit Spin Offs (all of which ran concurrently in a more explicit sister magazine and under the pseudonym Aya Sakyo):
- Off*beat: One of the few OEL Manga examples.
- Okane Ga Nai: One of the more explicit and violent ones that includes heavy seme/uke dynamic and repeated use of the Rape And Sexual Harassment Tropes, around the themes If I Can't Have You and the Stockholm Syndrome. Stands out for being one the few Boys Love Genre manga written by a man.
- Oyajina: A Gender Bender manga about a bunch of female teens that are suddenly turned into middle age men.
- Patalliro! An early and long-running satirical manga (1979 ? ongoing) and a rare example of a shounen-ai series by a male mangaka. Also one of the first BL-flavored anime to be produced for television (in 1983-84).
- Prince Charming
- Rules Universe: A series of manga and doujinshi focusing on Hikaru, his friends, and their love lives.
- Saezuru Tori Wa Habatakanai
- Saint Beast based off a series of audio dramas (generally considered shounen-ai although the audio dramas are more explicit than the very tame anime series).
- Sakende Yaruze!
- Sakura Gari: Yuu Watase's dip into Boys' Love.
- The Secret Agreement
- Seikimatsu Darling
- Seitokaichou Ni Chuukoku: Campus Romance
- Sekai-ichi Hatsukoi: A spin-off of Junjou Romantica set in the same universe but with new characters at its core story. It features cameos of characters from the previous series.
- Senobi No Housoku: A one volume shounen ai story.
- Sensitive Pornograph:
- Manga: A collection of one-chapter short stories, both rather plotless porn ones as well as more story-driven ones.
- Anime: An oxymoronic title for one of the most explicit one-shots of the genre that focuses mainly on Fanservice and uncensored sex scenes.
- Seven Days
- Shinkuu Yuusetsu
- Sorenari Ni Shinken Nandesu: Notable for exploring the theme of a child raised by two men.
- The song Stab Me In The Back by X Japan is a fairly graphic description of Intercourse with You between two men in its original version (the 1987 and live version, not the Jealousy version), and qualifies as both this and Bara Genre due to the appearance of the band when they performed it, though, with some of the band members likely having been/being bisexual, it's probably closer to bara.
- The Visual Kei duet Adams centers around the idea of the duet being male lovers, and they are consciously a mix of yaoi and bara aesthetic.
- Some Visual Kei Performance Video and promotional video tends in this direction due to fanservice or symbolism - see the Visual Kei entry below.
- There are various song parodies of the "Yaranaika" meme (you may not name or link to the work it originated from, as that work is definitely a violation of site rules). The most well known are "Yaranaika (Balalaika)," "World Is Abe," "Crash Man," and "GONG." These vary in whether they are classified as bara (as the story the meme originated from was) or yaoi. They also vary in explicitness - the Balalaika remix is usually "safe" if no one around understands Japanese (which is how someone in one of the more famous videos got away with performing it in a mall in Muslim-majority Indonesia), and "GONG" the most visually so and only allowable on Youtube because of its heavy use of parody censor items (roses, lightsabers, golden wings)
Works commonly mistaken for BL:
Anime & Manga
- 07-Ghost frequently dances right on the edge of this trope without coming right out and saying it. Teito and Mikage's relationship teases at it, and Kuroyuri and Haruse darn near imply it. Not to mention Hakuren's outright statement that he does "not like women", with a couple of exceptions.
- Axis Powers Hetalia. Despite being a major Cast Full of Pretty Boys and having two not entirely confirmed canon male-on-male pairings (Germany×Italy and one-sided Sweden×Finland if you ask, not to mention all the other male-on-male Ship Tease), this fanservice is almost entirely Played for Laughs, the story doesn't revolve around those relationships, and it's marketed as seinen.
- CLAMP loves Yaoi Guys and Ho Yay (they have their own Ho Yay page), but so far they have not published any official Boys' Love. CLAMP works that are particularly yaoi-esque include:
- The formerly suspended Legal Drug series, which has since returned and been renamed "Drug & Drop", is for all intents and purposes a very slow-moving Boys' Love story.
- Subaru and Seishirou of Tokyo Babylon are more or less in a romantic relationship, although it might not be the kind you imagined at first.
- Unsurprisingly, CLAMP has their beginnings in shounen-ai doujinshi, one of the most well-known of which is of Jotaro and Kakyoin from JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, of all things.
- D.N.Angel ship teases Satoshi and Daisuke like crazy.
- Game X Rush: At times it seems to run on Ho Yay, without ever crossing the line to actual Boys' Love.
- Gankutsuou: Albert's relationships with the Count and Franz are dripping with subtext, though it's more text on Franz's part.
- Get Backers: Let’s just say there is a reason why this series provides the default image on the Ho Yay page’s Anime section. Not only does it have copious amounts of Ho Yay between its many beautiful male characters, but the artist of the manga is also a self-admitted Yaoi Fanboy, and the anime contains several suggestive artworks. In fact, one of the most commonly asked questions about Get Backers is whether or not it’s a Yaoi series. The truth? It’s actually a gritty Shounen manga with tons of Fanservice (for the guys).
- Golden Days has shounen ai elements but it was published in Hana to Yume.
- The lead of Hana-Kimi is only dressed like a boy, but Boys' Love romances abound among the supporting cast.
- Hands Off! due to the absurd amounts of subtext between two of the male characters, which gets mentioned a lot - but is completely about ESPers.
- Karakuridouji Ultimo, while heavily in the Shōnen robot genre, and not to mention being authored by the creators of Shaman King and Spider-Man, is becoming more and more known for its Boys' Love subtext. The main character Yamato's best friend Rune becomes evil due to his jealousy of Yamato liking somebody else. This... leads to some surprising and horrifying situations. Whether this was intentional or not is unknown; don't think anybody would have the guts to ask Hiroyuki Takei or Stan FREAKING Lee about this.
- The subtext becomes so strong that when Part Three comes around, Viz Media pulls Ultimo from Shonen Jump.
- Black Butler is officially Shōnen despite the rampant Ship Tease and Does This Remind You of Anything? and the little fact that both times Sebestian had sex, it was with women...
- Kyo Kara Maoh is a series about a boy who becomes king of the demon realm; in the process of doing so, he accidentally proposes marriage to another man. It's officially shoujo.
- Loveless was originally published in Monthly Comic Zero Sum, a magazine that was looking for crossover shonen/shoujo readership (although it has since turned into a shoujo mag), so it's not officially considered BL. It has the added bonuses of Nekomimi, Shotacon, and a pair of Schoolgirl Lesbians. Not to mention all the horror and Mind Screw.
- Monochrome Factor is ridden with pretty boys and Ho Yay in the anime and is sometimes labelled as a shounen-ai even though it's officially a seinen.
- Manga sites often mistakenly tag Nabari No Ou as BL. You can't really blame◊ them though. Not surprisingly, it's serialized in the same magazine as Black Butler.
- Rare shonen example of a male-male romance: No Bra, a manga where a guy falls in love with a Wholesome Crossdresser.
- No6 does this with Nezumi and Shion. Things essentially get more Ho Yay fueled with every episode/chapter, including a "good-night kiss" and a "good-bye kiss". It has fans that always ask whether it's a shounen-ai or not. It's really a shoujo/shounen series. The novel was written by Asano Atsuko, an infamous writer of BL-ish novels she claims are 'children's books'.
- Pandora Hearts has multiple instances with Ho Yay and the main character's friend having a huge infatuation with him and often fights with the main love interest for his affection as a result. Regardless, you can interpret it as Ho Yay, overprotectiveness or something else entirely.
- Peacemaker Kurogane has an incredible amount of Ho Yay subtext/text (?), a Bishōnen main cast and the one female love interest is very boring so it's not surprising some would consider it Boys' Love.
- Princess Princess does this with having the very feminine guys dress up as girls to be adored by the male population of their school. Not to mention all the Ho Yay between Tooru and Yuujirou. It's officially shoujo even though it's sometimes tagged as shounen-ai.
- Saiyuki is a shounen manga about four pretty guys traveling together on an epic journey, spending most of their time in close proximity. There would be too much Ho Yay to list even if the mangaka wasn't a former yaoi doujinshi artist who deliberately adds to it.
- Tactics. The characters are so gay that the authors themselves have made yaoi doujinshi of them. (Specifically, "Lovesick".) Kantarou and Haruka in particular are the most notable example, and its more apparent in the manga than in the anime but still there. It's not shounen-ai though.
- Uragiri wa Boku no Namae wo Shitteiru mostly have males in the cast, very occupied in confess their mutual admiration for each other and even have a pet dragon called "Sodom". Several sites tag this series as shounen ai but officially is shoujo.
- The four Bishōnen protagonists of Weiß Kreuz and their opposite numbers are all canonically heterosexual, but their status as terminal Doom Magnets combined with copious amounts of subtext has gained it a reputation as a Boys Love series.
- Descendants of Darkness (aka Yami no Matsuei) has a rather complicated Love Dodecahedron involving most (male) main characters, but focuses mainly on the love/hate triangle between the psychopath Doctor Muraki, Tsuzuki Asato, and Kurosaki Hisoka. It's officially shoujo.
- Visual Kei provides a complicated, multilayered case. Early on, the scene was a safe haven to some degree for actual bisexuals and gay men, owing to its descent in part from Kabuki and other theatre, its androgynous aesthetic, that (while no one from them actually came out in a traditional manner until much later) some of the members of the founding bands of the scene were either gay or bisexual or allies of gay or bisexual friends, and that at the beginning displays of man on man sexuality were seen as a way to shock Japanese society at large and flip off the "to grow up you must marry a woman and have kids" and "we will pretend real gay and bisexual people don't exist in Japan" societal standards of The Eighties and early 1990s Japan. As the scene developed in The Nineties and the fujoshi / Yaoi Fangirl was recognized as a demographic to whom the Ho Yay and fanservice appealed, straight artists began to engage in it solely for the sake of making money and attracting fangirls, which led to a backlash of people considering it insulting or denying the presence of the actual gay or bi men in the scene, in a sort of gender inversion of how Les Yay is often considered. It's kind of reached an odd equilibrium at this point, with plenty of straight men pretending to be Yaoi Guys for the fangirls, but a fair amount of actual bisexuals and gay men as well (especially with the older bands, which are more likely to have these as opposed to 100 percent straights faking it)
Use of BL manga/anime itself as a trope (for uses of BL tropes outside BL, see Yaoi Guys):
Anime & Manga