The eponymous Super Mario Bros.: Mushrooms and pasta. This was especially true in the cartoons. Each episode had Mario mentioning pasta at least once, while pizza was the only thing the live-action segments ever showed Mario and Luigi eating. Lotsa spaghetti!
Mario's soul assessment by the Star Gate in Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time reveals that Mario's diet is filled with much alfredo sauce, and that he needs to cut down on carbonara. However, it also recommends puttanesca, for that stuff is great.
If you don't move Mario in Super Mario 64 for five minutes or so, he will sleep in the floor and dream of spaghetti and ravioli.
Similiarly, Yoshis like all sorts of food, but honeydew melons are their absolute favorite in Yoshi's Story. For the best score, you have to find 30 of them in every level. Each Yoshi also had a particular favorite among the regular fruits, which were twice as many points worth as the rest.
Wario: Garlic cloves, which is apparently the 'evil' counterpart to Mario's mushrooms.
To go with his purple theme, Waluigi has eggplant instead of garlic.
Peach often rewards Mario with cake for rescuing her.
Rosalina and the Lumas from Super Mario Galaxy love Star Bits, which are said to taste like honey (and are modeled after the Konpeito candy from Japan).
Bowser really seems to love cake. Hell, in some games it comes across like the only reason he kidnaps Peach over and over again is so he can eventually force her to bake cakes for him. Unfortunately, he gave up cake for drumsticks which heal him immensely.
Sie Kensou of The King of Fighters: Meat buns. He eats one in his taunt and used to eat them in his oder intros. There's even a variation in his usual intro (which appears if you use him as your first character) where he chokes on his meat bun, turns blue and then finally gets it down: some of the games have it as a life-restoring move as well, but the choking variation can cause him to lose life instead. And atleast two of his post-match victory portraits show him either eating or holding pork buns.
The profiles for every KOF character lists their favorite foods. I.e., Athena loves ichigo daifuku (a Japanese cake made with mochi and strawberry), Kula Diamond loves lollipops and ice cream and Kyo Kusanagi loves grilled fish.
Kyo lampshades the trope in KOF XIII via telling K' (who likes eating beef jerky) that he should switch to fish so he won't be so gloomy; simultaneously, Kula's love of icre-cream is amped Up to Eleven and used as a Running Gag in her pre-fight talks, with Yuri Sakazaki openly wondering if she'll double-cross her partners just to get some of it.
Taokaka from BlazBlue also loves her Meat Buns. She and Kensou would probably get along if she wasn't so damn crazy.
Carl Clover from the same game as Taokaka has a love for cookies according to his official profile.
And Hazama just loves hard boiled eggs. To the point that he shallows them whole, to compliment his snake theme
Yunsung of SoulCalibur got distracted from Soul Edge by meat buns in the Good Ending of Soul Calibur 3.
Also from Soul Calibur, Xiba loves steam buns. Many of his lines nod to this, such as "Now bring me some steam buns. Lots of them!"
In Fatal Fury, characters have their favorite foods listed on their profiles. Some examples are:
Jubei Yamada's favorite food is Hot Spring-boiled eggs, but he also seems to love senbei rice crackers. He is often pictured with one and also uses them as a weapon.
Geese Howard's favorite is rare steak.
One of Mai Shiranui's favorite dishes is ozouni, a rice cake soup served on new year's day. This follows some theme of sorts, as Mai's birthday is on new year's day, and a lot of the things she is stated to like are related to it.
In Tales of Symphonia, every playable character has an ingredient that s/he likes, and an ingredient that s/he dislikes (e.g., Colette likes all fruits, but dislikes bell peppers, or Raine likes lemons but hates mushrooms). Every time Lloyd cooks with one of those ingredients while that character is in the party, his/her affection increases or decreases respectively by one point. Having a character cook something using an ingredient that they like will also increase that character's overlimit gauge by ten percent (five percent if someone else cooks using the favored ingredient).
Every character in Star Ocean and Star Ocean: The Second Story has a favorite food which you can cook, which restores all their HP and MP. They generally make sense and/or poke fun at the character. Brooding Joshua likes the high-class escargot, perky Millie and Precis are partial to sugar-filled fruit parfait and chocolate crepes, and cat-people Perisie and Noel like tuna. Manly Cius and Iria, and boozer Opera, like various alcoholic drinks. Main character Claude likes good old steak.
Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater seems to declare that Naked Snake's trademark food is Snakes and Frogs (the former allowing for his Mission Control to call him a cannibal) - to the point where the latter is referenced in the theme tune. In the same game, EVA is very fond of instant noodles. Meanwhile, Solid Snake in the other games is a fan of blueberries. Sunny is into fried eggs, but that may be because that's the only thing she knows how to cook.
Several characters from the series love Ultimate and Finest Curry, which also happens to be one of the hardest items to cook in the games they appear in. Both curries are treated as an Impossibly Delicious Food.
Klaus from A New Beginning loves macaroni. His favorite food is pasta salad, but he also has an infamous cutscene where he goes off on how macaroni isn't just good, it's the ultimate foodstuff because it's a reflection on the human condition. Clement is disturbed.
Mist from the first Rune Factory loves turnips. A lot. It's her favorite gift, thus making her the easiest person to become close to. Later games in the series have a new variety called Pink Turnips, and it's implied she bred them into existence.
Unique among the Loads and Loads of Characters in the series is the Harvest Goddess, who has the same favorite food (strawberries) in every game she's appeared in.
Also unique is Pia from Rune Factory 3, whose favorite food (squid) stems not from love of the food but from hatred of it.
In Story of Seasons, each of the villagers (including the twelve potential Love Interests) have one of these. Presenting the favorite food is the fastest way to raise that character's friendship level.
A general example in Fable II. Everyone in the game has things they like, most of them have an object/gift they like, and about half of those are food. (Doing things people like will make them like you more, and thus give you better discounts at stores)
Max, one of the protagonists of Dark Chronicle, loves potato pies, a treat his mother used to make for them. They appear in-game as consumable items that increase his maximum HP.
Ike of Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance and Radiant Dawn has a fondness for meat - this does come up a few times in the games, but the way Japanese fan artists depict him constantly eating caveman-style slabs of it would make you think it was the meaning of his existence.
Olivia also loves sweets, as seen in both her supports with Gaius (who makes her the beta tester for his pies) and Kellam (where she uses the honey he gives her to make rock candy)
According to his and Cordelia's supports, Lon'qu's favorite food is cabbage stew.
The Avatar's supports with Tharja imply that s/he likes liver and eel pie. She gets the Avatar to try some as they get ever closer to being wed. The Avatar also seems very fond of bear meat.
According to Female Morgan's C support with her sibling, her favorite food is bear meat. Her least favorite food? Veggies, though she doesn't seem to mind them now.
Maribelle's favorite thing to drink is tea.
Kirby loves Maxim Tomatoes in the games. In the anime, he's obsessed with watermelons, to the point that it was his first word. If Squeak Squad is anything to go by, he also loves cake, and if you steal his cake, he will do whatever it takes to get it back!
The title character is fond of chili dogs in the western cartoons, to such an extent that it's found its way into recent games. Similarly, the Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog interpretation of Robotnik / Eggman was known for having a diet that contained nothing but eggs. It was noted by Grounder in one episode that "He's had eggs everyday for the last ten years." In that same episode he brutally assaults Scratch and Grounder for not giving him his daily serving of eggs and made hotcakes instead.
Supplementary materials note that Tails likes Mint candies in the original games. More obvious in one of his limelight games, Tails Sky Patrol where mint candies serve as health power ups.
The older game manuals also mentioned Knuckles being partial to fruit. Grapes being his favorite.
In Sonic Unleashed, there was Professor Pickle, who had a thing for cucumber sandwiches.
The Fairy Companion from Sonic Unleashed, Chip, had a thing for chocolate. In fact, it's what inspired his name.
The British continuity (Sonic the Comic etc) retains the thing with Robotnik and eggs, but has Sonic, Tails and all their friends have an obsession with all fast food that is hilariously (possibly deliberately) dissonant with the theme of them coming from a green natural zone as opposed to Robotnik's industrialism.
According to the manual, Lemeza from La-Mulana claims "curry" as one of his favorite things in the world, period. The pause animation for the game has Lemeza's sprite gorge himself on curry, then take a nap. This is actually an in-joke/reference to the fact that when they needed a last name for the character, they settled on "Kosugi" when they saw a commercial for premixed curry where that is the name of the mascot. Scanning the wall of the hot springs on the Surface reveals that one of its side effects is "curry addiction".
Pop from Luminous Arc 2 and her crabs and anything made with crabs. Yes, even crab gelato.
Luna loves her water.
Jack in MadWorld is often soon chowing down on onions, they even restore him to full health in-game.
Fandom has taken Roxas from Kingdom Hearts II's fondness for Sea-Salt ice cream and run with it. Canonically, though, Ansem the Wise's favorite food is, in fact, Sea-Salt Ice Cream. To the point where it is the password that unlocks the alternate Twilight Town. Seasalt ice cream has shown up in many places throughout the series, and stated to be liked by many, though Roxas is definitely the most notable example; it's apparently become something of a Running Gag. Sea-salt ice cream's presence in the series started as Nomura's own Trademark Favorite Food after he tried some at Tokyo Disneyland and loved it.
The World Ends with You uses this as a gameplay mechanic, how much a character likes a certain meal effects the Sync Boosts you get. Of the four beginning ramen types, Neku likes Shoyu Ramen, Shiki likes Miso Ramen, Beat like Tonkotsu Ramen, and Joshua prefers Shio. Shiki and Beat both like fast food. Joshua is disgusted by it. Neku likes ramen, Mexican food and coffee.
The Demon King Mike of Arcana Heart can be bribed by Yoriko with doughnuts. Where he puts them away since he's trapped in the form of a Simple Staff is anyone's guess.
In the Japanese version of Rockman.EXE, Netto is a Big Eater, and his favorite food is mentioned to be curry, specifically tonkatsu curry rice. The anime in particular shows him eating curry very often, and he completely pigs out on it in one episode, going as far as curry-flavored ice cream. Fan works tend to take his love of curry and crank it up to 11.
In the Wii version, Doc Louis loves eating chocolate bars, and apparently has tickets to a chocolate bar convention. He also gives strange sayings and metaphors about chocolate. Probably explains why he seems to have gained weight. In Doc Louis's Punch-Out!!, he will sometimes take out a chocolate bar and eat it to recover stamina, and punching it out of his hand causes him to tear off his jacket, revealing a leopard-print shirt underneath and making him a lot harder to beat.
Soda Popinski loves soda, as is obvious from his name: punching it out of his hand has similar but less severe repercussions, although considering how often he drinks it, you basically have to do it and one of the in-game challenges involves beating him without interrupting him when he's taking a drink.
You get to input your favorite food in Contact. Yes, as in your personal favorite food, since you the player are a character in the game. You'll see it referenced many times by other characters; in particular, the "soda" item will always be "#FOOD flavored." If you favorite food is apples? OK. If your favorite food is fish 'n' chips? Um, ewww.
Anti-Guy from the original Paper Mario just loves lemon candy. A piece of lemon candy is enough to bribe him to give you his treasure chest. What happens if you don't have any lemon candy on hand? A very, very difficult Boss Battle will ensue.This dosen't work on the later Anti Guys. though.
The genie in King's Quest VI: mints. Doubles as I Can't Believe It's Not Heroin, as eating a lot causes him to act drunk and giddy. The Kings Quest Companion explains the genie's addiction as saying that the creatures always have a weakness for something. The one in the manual had cravings for mistletoe berries. It also mentions Graham's got a sweet tooth.
These were filled breads in the Japanese version, explaining that big pile of them he has at the end.
In Simon the Sorcerer, dwarves like beer a lot. They like it so much that "beer" is the password to their mine.
Every character in Touch Detective has a trademark favorite food. Though most of them are only listed on the website. Penelope's love for bananas on the other hand is made very apparent. She loves bananas so much that she hangs a stuffed pair of them from the ceiling of her room and also owns a banana stand for keeping them fresh.
Jasper Gein of Silent Hill 4 acts as a Broken Bridge, mumbling about how thirsty he is and how he could use some chocolate milk, refusing to move until you give him some.
Etna from the Disgaea series has a fondness for a special pudding that comes from the Sea of Gehenna. She gets into fights when Laharlnote he's done so twice, in Disgaea 2 and Disgaea Infinite, or anyone else, tries to steal it.
Valvatorez of Disgaea 4: A Promise Unforgotten loves sardines, a food he developed a fondness for in place of blood after deciding to stop drinking the stuff due a certain incident. He's quite prone talking about how great they are, especially in the On the Next segments, and "Sardine power!" is one of his catch phrases.
The inhabitants of Toto Bunny from Disgaea 5: Alliance of Vengeance love carrots. Usalia, too... until Majorita cursed her. The nature of the curse, which gradually turns her into a berserk beast, can only be staved off by her least favorite food (curry), while her favorite at the time (carrots) accelerates it, hence she gives an air of hating carrots to keep the curse in check. Over time, she came to love curry to the point it became her favorite food, or at least she made herself love it at first after her parents were killed.
For Persona 3's Akihiko Sanada, it's beef bowl. This is used to obliquely announce his official arrival on the scene late in Persona ~trinity soul~ when Shin, delivering take-out to the police station, wonders who the beef bowl ramen is for and a couple of women instantly volunteer to deliver it for him.
According to Shinjiro, he only eats "That protein shit"; supplemented with ramen. This is supported by his segment of a series of fetch quests that require the Main Character to talk to each of their party members; they must get protein powder from Akihiko, whom goes into great detail about it. He also orders a food with protein powder while overseas in Persona 4 Arena and was disappointed that 'protein powder' wasn't in the menu.
Nanako likes meals made from eggs; omelets in particular; Ken Amada also likes omelets, usually supplemented with fried rice.
Bumbling detective Adachi is often seen at the local department store buying cabbages. Subverted in that he actually doesn't like them that much, but he's on a budget and they don't require any cooking.
And in Persona 2, Maya Amano loves canned crab to the point that it's the only thing in her fridge. Katsuya Suo also enjoys sweets, as he originally wanted to be a patisserie.
Rorona from Atelier Rorona loves eating and baking pies. Her Trickster Mentor, Astrid, has barred her from using the alchemy workshop for baking, but when she hands the workshop over, Rorona is able to make as many pies as she wants (without her master's permission, of course). One of the endings has Rorona becoming the "Pie Master".
From the Edutainment Game series Eagle Eye Mysteries: Most of the local kids in the first game love pizza, and in particular Mark Moriarty and Dave Grant are noted for having eaten a Pig Lovers' Pizza which is made with ham, sausage, and Canadian bacon.
From the same game, Melinda Joost likes ice cream.
Nigel Eagle in the sequel enjoys fish and chips.
The Commodore in Guilty Party is an obsessive lover of pudding. He spends most of his vast fortune on it. This is actually a plot point, as the golden artifacts left by his archnemesis Mr. Valentine end up being pudding-related...
As the lead-up comics to The Sacrifice DLC point out, Zoey from Left 4 Dead loves peanut butter. So cue squeeing when she finds out that the army base the group is being held in contains huge jars of the stuff.
P.B Winterbottom of The Misadventures of P.B. Winterbottom really likes pie. He broke time and space to get pie. He created clones to get pie. He destroyed buildings. He eats nothing but pies.
In Devil World, Tamagon likes to eat ice cream cones, though they do nothing in the game but give points.
Papa Caesar and Chinese food from House of the Dead: OVERKILL, to the point that his in-game theme music is titled "Dim Sum For Papa".
The entire world of Magicka seems to run on sausage and cheese, if the concept art and a good bit of the NPC dialogue are anything to go by.
In The Sims 2, sims who botch using the ReNuYu Aspiration Changer end up with the "Grilled Cheese" aspiration. All their wants, fears, and dreams revolve around cooking, eating, and serving grilled cheese sandwiches.
Vincent of Catherine has a trademark favourite drink: the Cuba Libre, otherwise known as rum and cola. Vincent's drinking buddies also seem to have their own drinks of choice, and Katherine also seems to like pastry.
Mr. Stewart (or perhaps Michael) apparently can't get enough of the A&G Diner's turkey, strawberry jam, and cereal sandwich, which York dubs the Sinner's Sandwich (because he thinks only someone atoning for some kind of crime would voluntarily eat one).
Professor Diggins from Fossil Fighters loves all kinds of sweets, but his especial favorite are dino cakes, a kind of dinosaur-shaped snack cake. At one point, you have to make a snack run for him in order to advance the plot.
The Blob from A Boy and His Blob loves jellybeans! They're not just tasty to him—they help him transform into lots of things. In the 2009 game, his planet, Blobolonia, is even shown to be bean-shaped, and all of his fellow blob-people love to be given jellybeans as well.
Mondo from Killer is Dead loves soft-boiled eggs. The main reason he keeps his assistant Mika around is because she can prepare them exactly the way he likes them.
In Opoona, rice with grilled eel is Copoona's favorite food. Especially because it makes him feel grown-up when he eats in.
Cookie Masterson, the most popular host of You Don't Know Jack, seems to really like fortune cookies, so much so that in the 2011 version, they made a special kind of question based on cliché cookie fortunes, which would always begin with Cookie eating said cookie first.
100% Orange Juice!: QP really loves pudding. So much so, that her subtitle (Seeker of Pudding) reflects this, and her story mode has her chasing after Marie Poppo, who has stolen her pudding.
Tomodachi Life: Every single Mii you add in the game will have an All-Time Favorite food (which causes them to breakdance) and a Super All-Time Favorite Food (That causes them to turn into a rocket and shoot into space in bliss) when eaten, it will give them a huge happiness boost. The twist is that you don't know which foods each Mii likes until they try them, so they can go crazy for stuff like apple pie or roast chicken as well as for white bread, chewing gum or tap water. They can even have their favorite foods be spoiled milk or moldy bread, if the RNG feels like having a laugh.
Each character in Senran Kagura has a favourite food, at least for those who have full profile. However, Yomi's liking for beansprouts is something you definitely notice: Almost everything she cooks has beansprouts on it, she cannot stop talking about them and she is ready to kill some one for not liking beansprouts (or become friends with those who like them).
Saints Row: The Saints, especially The Boss, Johnny Gat and Pierce Washington love Freckle Bitch's Hamburgers.
Alistair in Dragon Age: Origins admits to "an unholy love of fine cheeses." He never actually has the opportunity to eat any cheese during the game, but the fandom nevertheless has fun with this.
New Dynamic English has Max Wilson who seem to talk about steak as his favorite food so much that he's given the nickname "Mr. Steak" by Elizabeth.
Cap'n Cuttlefish likes crab cakes so much that he gets kidnapped due to the distraction.
In the North American localization at least, Marie really likes hot dogs, identifying them as "the perfect food" in the "Marshmallow vs. Hot Dog" splatfest. Her taste for them is also repeatedly referenced in the stage intros.
Both the Japanese and European versions have Callie and Marie mentioning fries/chips multiple times. They do seem to mainly like sweets though.
Papyrus from Undertale really likes to make spaghetti, despite the fact that he is nearly incapable of making it actually edible. During the route to the best ending, you learn that Undyne, who is an even worse cook, is teaching him how to do it in the hopes that he'll find something safer to do with his life than joining the Royal Guard.
In Xenoblade Chronicles X, the alien Ma-non race have a strong liking for pizza. Some missions in the game have the Ma-non help you out simply in return for some pizza, hot or frozen. The Ma-non can always be seen hanging around NLA's pizzeria.
Bayonetta can craft a number of healing items, all of which are lollipops.
Zombies, Run! has the radio operator Sam Yao obsessed with Curly Wurlys and Marmite.
In the Yo-Kai Watch series, all of the Yokai have at least one. Their preferences can be, for each one, (deep breath) Rice Balls, Chocobo, Fish and/or Sushi, Ramen, Chinese Food, Milk, Juice, Meat, Vegetables, Candy, Sweet Things, Hamburgers, Bread, Oden Stew, Soba Noodles, Snacks, Ice Cream, or Curry.
Logical Journey of the Zoombinis has the Pizza Trolls who, you guessed it, love pizza (and sundaes, in the later difficulty settings). Thing is, they are very picky about what they like, which makes pleasing them so that you can pass quite challenging.
All the townsfolk in Stardew Valley have at least two foods they love that will earn the maximum boost to relationship points if you give them some.