A long lasting Country Music group, although they weren't originally one. The band began in the 1940s as a gospel quartet composed of Wally Fowler, Lon Freeman, Curly Kinsey and Johnny New. The group split from Fowler in 1949, and several membership changes later, Smitty Gatlin headed a new lineup in 1957. He also pushed the band to a more country-folk sound and eventually recruited baritone vocalist William Lee Golden in 1964. After Gatlin retired, Duane Allen joined as lead vocalist, and Noel Fox and Willie Wynn took over on bass and tenor.
In the 1960s and into the early 1970s, the band achieved some notability in the gospel field, and even won a Grammy. By 1973, Joe Bonsall had taken over on tenor vocals and Richard Sterban on bass vocals, thus forming the most popular and well-known lineup of Allen (lead), Bonsall (tenor), Golden (baritone), and Sterban (bass). After a few false starts, including a guest appearance on a low-charting Johnny Cash single and a few dud releases on Columbia Records, the Oaks broke through in 1977 with the Top Ten hit "Y'all Come Back Saloon". From then until the late 1980s, they would remain a constant fixture on the country charts. "Elvira" and "Bobbie Sue" netted the group a couple crossover pop hits. Golden was fired in 1987, with Steve Sanders taking his place; Golden returned in December 1995, ironically after Sanders was ousted.
Although the hits dried up in the early 1990s, the Oaks are still recording to this day and remain a popular touring group, even to generations that were born well after their last hits.
- Basso Profundo: Richard Sterban has an impressively deep voice. The famous "oom papa mow mow"s on "Elvira" go as low as C2, but he has gone even lower: he hits an F1 at the end of "Trying to Love Two Women", and he is confirmed as having gone as low as E♭1.
- Dead Sparks: "Lucky Moon" has the narrator realizing through an eavesdropped phone conversation that his wife is unsatisfied, and as a result, he pleads for one more chance.
- Early Installment Weirdness: To anyone who knows only the most famous lineup and mainstream country-gospel sound, their fully gospel albums from the early incarnations can be quite the weird listen. Also, in a visual example, William Lee Golden didn't start growing his beard out until after Bobbie Sue.
- Genre Shift: Gospel to country.
- I Will Wait for You: "I'll Be True to You".
- Inherently Funny Words: The name "Monongahela" in "Gonna Take a Lot of River" must've struck them as this, as they even named the album Monongahela.
- It Will Never Catch On: Duane Allen said in an interview with American Country Countdown that he didn't think that "I'll Be True to You" would be successful due to the song having a Downer Ending. It wound up being their first #1 hit.
- Long-Runner Line-up: The Golden/Sterban/Bonsall/Allen lineup, twice (1973-1987, 1995-present).
- Long Title: "I Wish You Could Have Turned My Head (And Left My Heart Alone)" and "Gonna Take a Lot of River (Mississippi, Monongahela, Ohio)".
- Repurposed Pop Song: "American Made" was re-written as "Miller's Made the American Way" for Miller Beer commercials.
- Revolving Door Band Until the Golden/Sterban/Bonsall/Allen lineup was in place.
- Solo Side Project: Two examples:
- Joe Bonsall sang guest vocals on Sawyer Brown's 1986 single "Out Goin' Cattin'."
- William Lee Golden recorded solo material in the late 80s when executives forced him out of the band.
- Something Completely Different: Some of the tracks on Step On Out have an unusually synth-driven sound, most notably "Come On In (You Did the Bset You Could Do)"note and "Little Things".
- Soprano and Gravel: There's quite a lot of distance between Joe's tenor and Richard's bass.
- Subdued Section: The penultimate chorus of "Come On In (You Did the Best You Could Do)" is A Cappella.
- Talky Bookends: Present in the video for "Gonna Take a Lot of River".
- Truck Driver's Gear Change: "Elvira" repeats the chorus several times, each repetition going a semitone higher. Sterban's vocal, however, drops down an octave on the first key change.
- Vocal Tag Team: Although Allen is the de facto lead singer, the band hasn't shied from releasing cuts on which the other members sing lead. Among some of their bigger hits:
- All four of them trade the lead vocal on the verses to "American Made" and "You're the One".
- In one of the most notable examples, Joe sings most of "Elvira", with Sterban contributing the iconic "oom papa mow mow" part.
- William sang "Trying to Love Two Women" and "Thank God for Kids".
- Richard sang "Dream On".
- Steve Sanders sang lead several times during his tenure, most notably on "Gonna Take a Lot of River", "No Matter How High", and "Lucky Moon".
- Their cover of "Elvira" with A Cappella group Home Free has Bonsall, Allen, and Sterban sharing the lead with three of the latter's five members. Home Free bass vocalist Tim Foust also alternates with Sterban on the "oom papa mow mow"s.
- Wizard Beard: William Lee Golden became a mountain man and eventually grew a long, flowing beard that rivals those guys in ZZ Top. As mentioned above, this led to him being fired from the band to help them pursue a more "youthful" image.