Harpo Does Something Funny
Named for an allegedly frequent note in Marx Brothers
scripts, this trope refers to space deliberately left in otherwise scripted media to allow for the wacky whims of an actor best known for his improvisations
. The crew knows that a particular actor will be funnier if left to his own devices than anything the scriptwriter could possibly come up with. As such, this is possibly the highest compliment that can ever be paid to a comedian, when the writers know that no matter what he or she does, it will have everyone who sees/hears it in stitches.
Done on a large scale to allow a mostly improv performance, the practice is technically known as retroscripting.
Of course, as with anything else it's possible to do it badly
: an overly-long or plot-irrelevant comedy skit can seem jarring if it doesn't match the pace or tone of the rest of the script, to the extreme of being a Big Lipped Alligator Moment
. Editing can alleviate this, which as a bonus gives you plenty of hilarious Deleted Scenes
to add to the DVD Bonus Material
Compare The Cast Show Off
, Throw It In
, Audience Participation
, Official Fan-Submitted Content
Can lead to Corpsing
if fellow cast members are expected to keep a straight face.
open/close all folders
- For the comic crossover DC One Million, writer Grant Morrison sent other writers fairly detailed notes on what the world and plotting of the series was like, often pretty much doing the whole issue for them. For Hitman, Morrison's sole direction to writer Garth Ennis was "Garth - Do a pisstake."
- Harpo Marx, of course, with Groucho Marx coming in a close second. (The actual notes in the scripts are more likely to say, "Business.")
- Laurel and Hardy were masters of improvisation, often to the point that their scripts would contain a few pages of notes outlining the general story with the expectation that most of the gags would be improvised on the set. For instance, a script might say, "Stan puts on his shoes," only for the comedy duo to turn it into a hilarious three-minute routine. Because of this, their films were largely shot in-sequence in order to maintain continuity since they usually had no idea exactly what was going to transpire from one scene to the next. This ensured that if Ollie got an unscripted bucket of water on the head in one scene that he would show up sopping wet in the following scene.
- The four and a half page script for Our Wife included a line that simply read, "Go for some ad-libbed business about getting Babe [Oliver Hardy] and the girl into the car." This ended up being the longest scene in the entire film.
- Laurel and Hardy: The Magic Behind the Movies by Randy Skretvedt relates the following told by actor Henry Brandon: "I said, 'Aren't we going to rehearse?' And Stannie [Stan Laurel] turned to me and said, 'Do you want to spoil it?' The only things they rehearsed were physical stunts. They never rehearsed dialogue. They would sort of say what they were going to do, but they wouldn't get up and do it physically until the camera was rolling; they wanted to capture the magic for the first time."
- Robin Williams comedies also offer this leeway, such as in Good Morning Vietnam and Aladdin. The latter produced over ten hours of Genie dialogue.
- There were parts of the Aladdin script that said "ROBIN SAYS SOMETHING LIKE THIS:". There are rumors that hidden somewhere in Disney Studios are hours and hours (much more than the length of the finished movie) of Williams riffing as Genie. Hopefully, some of that will see the light of day someday.
- Similarly, after the first few episodes, most scripts for Mork and Mindy would end up studded with "Robin goes off here".
- And when Jonathan Winters joined the cast it was often adjusted to "Robin and Jonathan go off here"
- Williams recorded all his voice work for Aladdin in the studio across the street from where they were filming Schindlers List, which is, of course, one of the most depressing movies of all time. At the end of every day, he would cross the street and cheer up the List cast and crew with his material, much of which made it into the film. Aladdin, that is. Not Schindler's List.
- It was pretty much an impossibility for Williams NOT to do something funny. Just ask anyone who filmed a scene where he had to walk through a door. Getting the shot could take hours simply because he couldn't resist the urge to walk through with his clothes on backwards or say something to make the whole cast burst into laughter. In the last years of his life, they actually took precaution in writing stage directions if they knew he'd be cast.
- In Mrs. Doubtfire, the entire opening sequence consists of Robin showing off his rather impressive singing chops.
- You think he'd stop for his Inside The Actors Studio interview (here) ? Think again.
- Nathan Lane, very much so. In fact, when he starred with Robin Williams in The Birdcage, they were instructed by their director (Mike Nichols, no stranger to improvisation himself) to do one take by the script, then were allowed to improvise.
- Jim Carrey, in an interview during the making of Me, Myself, and Irene said, "It's amazing how blank a script will be. It just says 'Jim does something funny.'"
- Stanley Kubrick almost never allowed this; one exception he made was for Peter Sellers in Dr. Strangelove. Largely because you never tried to pin down Peter Sellers.
- Jack Nicholson throwing a tennis ball around in The Shining. The script said "Jack is not working."
- He also made an exception for R. Lee Ermey in Full Metal Jacket, since there's no point scripting lines for a Drill Sergeant Nasty character when you have the real deal on hand who is perfectly capable of improvising for fifteen straight minutes while being pelted with tennis balls and rotten oranges and without moving, changing expression, or repeating himself once. *
- It also doubles as an EXTREME case of Throw It In. Ermey was originally hired just as a consultant, who sat down with Kubrick for a session of "what it would be like to be yelled at by a Vietnam-era drill instructor" since Ermey was, well, that. He was so creative in his vitriolic profanity that after an extremely long session of note-taking and back-and-forth that left both men hoarse, Kubrick knew right away that nobody could do those lines justice and upgraded Ermey from "pitch consultant" to virtual co-star.
- Ermey even managed to surprise Kubrick during the filming of one of his scenes where one of the improved lines he said included the phrase "reach-around". Kubrick stopped filming briefly and honestly asked what the phrase meant, and Ermey politely told him. Kubrick then asked him to keep the phrase in each take of the scene.
- A fair amount of the Bob Hope/Bing Crosby Road to ... pictures consisted of this, despite the fact that a script theoretically existed. Dorothy Lamour later described her contribution to the films as "like I was watching a game of tennis".
- For his role as Johnny in Airplane! Stephen Stucker was given the straight lines of the characters around him and was allowed to write his own responses - this was talked about in the DVD commentary.
- By the time The Three Stooges' "schtick" was well-established, script writers found it easier to just write in generic stage instructions such as "Moe punishes Curly" and let the boys work it out on their own. (A lot easier than writing out "Moe punches Curly in the stomach, bops him in the forehead, twists his ears," etc.) Curly's reactions and half-hearted or backfiring attempts at revenge were also often ad-libbed.
- This sometimes varied by director. Jules White tended to stick more to the script (although he did allow the Stooges considerable leeway), whereas Edward Bernds was more flexible and encouraging of ad-libbing. Bernds applied this to great effect in his shorts with Shemp, who was an excellent ad-libber. As a result, many of the best Shemp shorts (Brideless Groom, Who Done It?) were often directed by Bernds.
- Christopher Guest's mockumentary scripts have been said to contain little more than a description of the setting of the scenes. Guest considers the actors' improvising to be essentially writing the film. He and the creators of This Is Spinal Tap unsuccessfully argued to the Writer's Guild that his actors should receive screenwriting credits. Improvising is Serious Business for Christopher Guest.
- American Pie writer Adam Herz has said that he likes to simply sketch out what he wants Eugene Levy to say rather than writing actual dialogue and such.
- Much of the movie Caddyshack was ad-libbed. Most famously was Bill Murray's "Cinderella story" scene, which was only in the script as: "Carl hits flowers with a grass whip." Director Harold Ramis told him to just pretend he was a kid, acting out his sports fantasy.
- Even more impressively, Murray's scenes had no script written for them at all. He was on set for a total of six days and whenever he got started up, they just let the camera roll on him and see where it went.
- Drinking Buddies didn't have a script. Instead, the actors were told what needed to happen in the scene and just let them choose the words entirely.
- The scene in the Czech film Císařův pekař where the alchemist explains to the emperor his procedure for making "gold out of plums" (i.e. plum brandy) has been ad-libbed; the actor's script only read "speaks in a foreign language".
- Apparently a good deal of the dialog in Iron Man was like this; not just Tony Stark's. It's reported that most of the script was a brief summary of what the actors needed to say, and from there they were allowed to pretty much improvise the finer details, which is why the dialogue feels a lot more naturalistic. This is how everyone discovered Robert Downey, Jr. is a witty bastard, hence Iron Man's new characterization as a Deadpan Snarker.
- Jeff Bridges described the experience as a $200 million college film. He found it surreal. It worked.
- Robert Altman's film version of M*A*S*H: The actors read the script once or twice, at the start of filming, and improvised almost all the dialogue; as with Iron Man, this leads to a very naturalistic, documentary feel to the film. Amusingly, the film won an Oscar for Best Screenplay.
- Altman himself said on the director's commentary that the tone of the screenplay contributed heavily to the tone of the movie, and praised the screenplay for the quality it brought to the movie.
- In one scene of UHF, Michael Richards' character Stanley, before his big morale speech on TV, was given a few general lines of nonsense in the script while he amuses the kids, and Michael ended up ad-libbing most of it in the shoot.
- A few scenes later, he appears again on TV with a completely ad-libbed scene, which begins with him eating a watermelon and soon dissolves into a silly bit of him playing with the "toy man" from his box of Corn Flakes. While not all of this is shown (as it is intercut with a scene of Weird Al's character and his friend), the deleted scenes portion of the DVD shows the whole thing, and "Weird Al" Yankovic (the star and co-writer of the movie) comments that "The great thing about Michael is you can turn on the camera and tell him to just go nuts for two minutes. Well here he is, doing just that."
- The famous "You Talkin' to Me?" scene in Taxi Driver was written in the script as "Travis talks in the mirror" and the rest was improvised by Robert De Niro. Martin Scorsese was stooped just below the camera silently encouraging De Niro to keep going. What De Niro was saying is a common exercise used by actors to practice different interpretations of a similar phrase.
- The rest of the movie has this as well. The parts of Tom (Betsy's co-worker), Sport, Betsy and The Wizard were supposedly fairly underwritten in the script. The casting of Albert Brooks and Harvey Keitel led to lots of improvisation and expansion, with Keitel's role in particular expanding from a mere five lines to a larger scene of dialog that made him one of the most memorable aspects of the movie.
- In the DVD extras for the The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the screenwriters Fran Walsh and Phillipa Boyens described how, for every fight scene, they would simply write something to the effect of "They fight like men", then hand the script over to Peter Jackson to fully block out the scene.
- In addition, the entire sequence in the Mines of Moria, fleeing to the bridge of Khazad Dum is written in the script thusly: "The Fellowship run to the Bridge of Khazad Dum."
- Jackie Chan hardly ever scripts his fight scenes, preferring to turn up to the location and see what he can use.
- Of course this has lead to so many of his injuries. Improv action scenes mean no safety measures beyond "Try not to kill him" can be taken. In one scene he landed in front of a running saw blade that was real. A few inches and he would have been castrated
- District 9 was almost entirely improvised. Director Neill Blomkamp had specific ideas for each scene, and directed the actors with timing cues for when and where certain actions were to take place, but the actual dialogue and performance for the scene was entirely improvised. They would do several takes, usually without the cameras rolling and often with several different variations on the scene, until Neill and the rest of the cast decided that they had a good approach to how the scene should specifically play out; they would then film it with that direction in mind. Neill and the rest of the actors commented in the DVD extras that Sharlto Copely (Wikus) was the undisputed master of this trope.
- In a Behind the Scenes video of Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian, it was mentioned that pretty much all of the dialogue in the final battle was improvised, with Ben Stiller and Hank Azaria randomly yelling stuff at each other.
- In the book Gracie: A Love Story, George Burns notes that scripts for movies where he and Gracie Allen played bit parts frequently featured scenes that simply said "Burns And Allen do four minutes here".
- When John Carpenter was filming Vampires, he asked James Woods to do a take of each scene as it was scripted, and allowed him to improvise after that. According to the DVD commentary, a lot of the improvised material (like his speech to Padre about the strengths and weaknesses of vampires) made it into the final cut.
- Later when Woods was cast as Hades in Hercules the writers basically threw the script into the air and said "Screw it."
- The entire scene in Spaceballs where Lord Helmet was playing with the dolls was made up entirely on the spot by Rick Moranis.
- Stunt coordinator for the Star Wars prequels Nick Gillard says that the screenplays will often say "and an epic swordfight ensues" for the lightsaber battles which he choreographs.
- Averted in PCU. Jeremy Piven ad libbed in his audition and assumed he would do the same for the film, but was immediately shut down by the director.
- In From Dusk Till Dawn, The first scene where the vampires reveal themselves and a massive battle ensues was simply marked in the script as "All Hell breaks loose". Also, Salma Hayek's dance as Satanico Pandemonium had no choreographer. Robert Rodriguez just brought her in and let the music move her as it would.
- The same goes for Jessica Alba in Sin City. Alba requested a choreographer, but Rodriguez told her to just make it up as she went. Strangely enough, a different song was later dubbed over the scene.
- Kevin Smith claimed, jokingly, that he sometimes does this when he's writing. He claims to put 'Jay and Silent Bob say something remotely witty' in the scripts.
- He stated with some asperity that Ben Affleck and Matt Damon did a lot of ad-libbing on the set of Dogma because they were flush with their skills at dialogue, having just won the Best Screenplay Oscar for Good Will Hunting.
- In Hitch, Kevin James made up all of his silly dance moves ("Q-tip! Q-tip! Throw it away! Throw it away!") himself.
- Peter Lorre had a background in improvisational theater and comedy (though he seldom got to play comic roles in Hollywood), and a scene in the 1963 film The Raven seems to be "Vincent Price and Peter Lorre Do Something Funny with a Box of Hats."
- Frank Welker would often make up noises and dialogue for the creatures he voiced in live action films such as Gremlins and Mars Attacks! where no specific dialogue was written in the scripts.
- Serenity features an entire conversation between Mal and Inara over video communication that was left unscripted. Joss Whedon couldn't come up with lines he was satisfied with, so he just put in the gist of the conversation and wrote 'Something Mal/Inara would say' for the two actors to improvise.
- Mal's, "Faster would be better!" during the chase scene was also from Joss telling Fillion to, "Say something Mal would say."
- The infamous "How am I funny?" confrontation from Goodfellas was mostly ad-libbed by Joe Pesci, to marvelous effect.
- Tommy Lee Jones reportedly hated the original script of Men In Black and largely made up most of his dialogue on the fly. Will Smith did not know any of the lines beforehand, and was often caught off guard by what Jones was saying. The fact that Smith, as agent J, couldn't keep up with Jones as agent K worked well in helping to create the character dynamic between the green newbie MIB agent and the seasoned, hardened veteran agent.
- According to Gail Patrick when she appeared on the Kraft Music Hall much of the production of My Man Godfrey was done this way.
- An extreme example: Rebel Wilson's character in Pitch Perfect wasn't even in the script. She showed up, auditioned, and the crew said that there was no role that she could fit but they really, really wanted her in the movie. So just about every single line and action she does is made up by her.
Live Action TV
- The Dukes of Hazzard: Much of the physical comedy involving Boss Hogg and Sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane were improvised and/or ad-libbed between Sorrell Booke and James Best. The producers had realized the duo's comedic chemistry and Best – as he once recalled in various interviews – said that many of their own ideas were often better than what was originally written in the script.
- In Cheers, most of Cliff's "little known facts" were improvised by John Ratzenberger, with the scripts simply cueing him in to his lines. Cliff is also notable because Ratzenberger didn't just improvise his lines, he improvised the part: after unsuccessfully auditioning for the part of Norm, Ratzenberger asked the producers if they had a "know-it-all" character, and made up Cliff on the spot.
- Mork and Mindy, as noted above.
- In Scrubs, the Janitor's dialogue is sometimes left blank (or the script says something along the lines of "Whatever Neil Says") so that Neil Flynn can just improvise. Most of the outtake reel shows the other actors Corpsing at Neil Flynn throwing out wildly different dialogue every take.
- Parodied on The Muppet Show:
Kermit: Fozzie, what are you doing with this typewriter on my table?
Fozzie: Kermit, I am writing the script for this week's show!
Kermit: What makes you think the show needs a script?
Fozzie: Oh, come on Kermit! Every show has a script! Yeah, that way you leave nothing to chance! (Rowlf and Lew Zealand enter, about to go on stage for the Musical Moment) Hey guys! Guys! This is the Musical Moment for this week.
Rowlf: (reading) "Curtains open. Rowlf and Lew Zealand do something funny. Curtains close." (Rowlf and Lew Zealand exit for the stage)
Fozzie: (shouting offstage) Go get 'em!
Kermit: You leave nothing to chance, huh?
Fozzie: Trust me.
- The scripts of Monty Python's Flying Circus usually didn't specify the content of Terry Gilliam's linking animations. They'd simply say stuff like "Terry takes over here".
- When interviewed about the process of writing Yes (Prime) Minister, Jonathan Lynn reports putting "Paul doesn't have to say this line if he doesn't want to" in the margin of scripts, in recognition of Paul Eddington (who played the title character)'s ability to "act a line with his face". See this video from about 1:18 for a celebrated example.
- On The Odd Couple some scripts were like this, allowing Tony Randall and Jack Klugman to improvise. For example, a script might say "Oscar teaches Felix how to play football."
- This is how Curb Your Enthusiasm is made. The scripts are outlines; they direct the flow of the conversation in fairly specific detail, but the actual lines are left up to the actors, to make them sound more like real conversations, and they're not supposed to think of things to say ahead of time. (Apparently Richard Lewis was doing this, and Larry David could tell, and now he's not even allowed to work from a script.)
- In British comedy Green Wing, Stephen Mangan and Michelle Gomez were never given scripts for their scenes together as both were professional improv actors. If a plot point needed to occur that was all the "script" said and so the scenes were Guy wakes into Sue's office and nothing plot-relevant happens there was no script at all, such as when Guy tries to talk about love or complains about Jelly.
- On The Carol Burnett Show, each week's show was taped twice, once as a dress rehearsal and then again as a "final" performance, both times before a studio audience. Very often the dress rehearsal take of a sketch, which frequently involved adlibbing from cast members such as Tim Conway, was edited in for the actual broadcast. (Here's one good example.)
- Original airings of Saturday Night Live are always live, but sometimes they'll use rehearsal takes for rebroadcasts. However, Lorne Michaels severely discourages improvisation in most cases because the timing on the show is so tight, to the extent of banning guests from the show for doing so.
- Jimmy Smits supposedly left NYPD Blue because David Milch insisted on the actors often improvising scenes without a script at all.
- Dwight Schultz has said one of the scariest things during the filming of The A-Team is how blank the scripts would often be. This is because Dwight usually came up with the crazy Murdock stuff on his own since the writers sucked at portraying him right until the later seasons.
- Chevy Chase, Joel McHale and Donald Glover are generally given free rein to improvise on Community.
- Art Carney did a lot of Ed Norton-style improvisation in The Star Wars Holiday Special. Lampshaded by RiffTrax.
- Reno 911! is all done improvisationally. Scripts set up scenes and indicate plot points; the actors come up with their own dialogue.
- Doctor Who:
- Some of the Fourth Doctor's stuff was written like this in two particular periods. (Tom Baker was even nicknamed 'Harpo', though this was more for his hairstyle than for this trope.) The first period was during the later Fourth Doctor/Sarah Jane years, where the actors were encouraged to go off script as they were witty and creative people who got on like a house on fire playing themselves to some extent. Virtually all of their dialogue in "The Android Invasion" was written by Baker and Sladen, and they also both rewrote her ending scene in "The Hand of Fear" together because Sladen hated the scripted departure so much she'd actually defaced her copy of it (which she eventually gave to Russell T Davis as a gift). During the apex of Wag the Director period, Tom would also get free reign to mess about, which was noted in the afterword to the 2012 novelisation of "Shada" - the shooting script it was worked from was Tom's copy, blank spots in which he'd pencilled in descriptions of the physical comedy bits he wanted to do. This meant that several gags 'written' by Tom made their way to the book adaptation, like the sequence where the Doctor bursts into a room, doesn't see what he expects, leaves and, after a short hesitation, enters again in the exact same way he entered the first time.
- For Donna Noble's reintroduction episode "Partners in Crime", with the scene where the Doctor and Donna are reunited on either side of soundproof glass and thus have to mime their conversation, the script gave the lines they wanted Donna to mime and then the director let Catherine Tate and David Tennant go to town. The result is one of the most gut-bustingly funny scenes ever to hit television.
- The script for the episode "The Big Bang" had no description for the Doctor's dancing at Amy's wedding beyond Amy's spoken comments that it's "terrible" and "embarrassing". All that hand waving and head bopping (terrible, embarrassing, and wonderful) is pure Matt Smith.
- Remember the Twelfth Doctor's first moments in "The Time of the Doctor"? Those were all improvised. So yes, the whole ordeal with miscolored kidneys was pure Peter Capaldi.
- The Monkees: The group was not only allowed, but encouraged to improvise, and gaps were often left in the script to facilitate this, especially where Micky Dolenz was concerned.
- Glee's Heather Morris is said to do this during table readings, often playing on the previous dialog of characters. Brittany's one liners are sometimes penciled in after the initial readings.
- The Muppet and kid segments in Sesame Street are usually handled this way. The Muppeters just have their character enter into a dialogue with a child about a certain topic, and the production team keeps what they can use.
- Each scene in The Thick of It was filmed twice, once as scripted followed by an improvised version. The finished programme used material from both takes.
- On Rory Bremner's programmes, John Bird & John Fortune's sections would often just be scripted as 'John and John talk about subject '
- The German TV show Schillerstraße is basically a whole TV show made of this. Various German comedians are bound to a loose story, and the whole script is a Throw It In by the director too, because the actors got earplugs to listen to his directions (and even only the one/s who should do something will hear it, to much confusion of the rest of the cast).
- British sitcom Outnumbered has taken this premise to its limits. Focusing on the lives of the Brockmans, the kids are only given a basic outline, almost all their dialogue is improvised, and the adults' role is to keep everything following the basic direction of the story. Whilst the adults are heavily scripted they do a significant amount of reacting to all of the amazing things the kids say. The result is the kids' dialogue is probably the most authentic on TV (ignoring anything that's non fiction) and far more imaginative than anything the writers could come up with.
- J. Michael Straczynski did this at least once with a director in Babylon 5. With some directors, JMS blocked his scripts relatively tightly. With others, including Mike Vejar, he tended to write more loosely, knowing they worked better that way. In "The Face of the Enemy", he wrote for one specific scene: "They pull down Sheridan like a pack of wolves bringing down a lion." Vejar took that scene and made it something special, as JMS had hoped. It was the scene where Garibaldi betrayed Sheridan, if you hadn't guessed. In another case, his instructions allegedly consisted of: "Break our hearts."
- Many of the scenes with with Gage and DeSoto working on a victim on Emergency! clearly involved the director and writers setting up the situation and having Mantooth and Tighe, the two actors who had trained as paramedics, just do what paramedics would really do in that situation.
- German comedian Piet Klocke's trademark style are his somewhat confused rants which are more often than not improvised. Whenever he was a guest at "7 Tage, 7 Köpfe", a weekly comedy format running from 1996-2005 where 7 comedians comment the last 7 days, discussion occasionally was brought to a halt and Piet was asked his thoughts about a topic two or three times an episode, and given the opportunity to rant for several minutes.
- Star Trek:
- Star Trek: The Original Series, just like The A-Team example above, was surprisingly blank in most parts of the script due to time constraints, forcing the actors to fill in the blanks on their own. The now-famous Vulcan salute was actually Leonard Nimoy's idea since he had to come up with the salute on his own, so he used an actual Jewish hand gesture. William Shatner had the hardest time improvising, which was the source of Captain Kirk's signature pause in between words.
- In Star Trek: The Next Generation, the scriptwriters often wouldn't bother scripting out Geordi LaForge's technobabble, instead just jotting the shorthand "[tech]", which was LeVar Burton's cue to make up something that sounded good.
- You Bet Your Life was a Quiz Show that depended on this with Groucho Marx, although he was also fed lines prepared by the show's gag writers in case he needed something pre-prepared from the guests' preliminary interviews.
- Many promos are done this way, with the wrestler given a basic outline of what to emphasize in his/her promo and then filling in the rest. Wrestlers who are particularly adept at this are given even more freedom and are usually more popular with the fans, often getting pushes based on their skills at cutting promos. WWE and rival TNA have been moving away from this in recent years, scripting promos word for word and insisting wrestlers stick to that, since the formatting for the television shows has gotten so tight. Results have been mixed, as improvising a promo and "making" a scripted one are very different sets of skills.
- The only thing that kept Scott Steiner in WWE near the end of his run was his mic ability. The guy combines a freakish steroid physique with a Hair-Trigger Temper and a Cloudcuckoolander persona to create some truly entertaining, though often nonsensical, promos.
- This is largely true of matches themselves. While the match endings are predetermined (who wins, how s/he wins, and about how long the match lasts), and (depending on how important the match is) there may be a few other predetermined important moments (known in the business as "spots"), most of the action is made up by the wrestlers themselves as they go along.
- Individual wrestlers are frequently given pretty much free rein over their matches. In the old ECW, Paul Heyman gave Lance Storm enough leeway that Lance was occasionally allowed to change the ending to the match, and some other wrestlers, such as Chris Benoit and Shane Douglas, were known for not needing much in the way of guidelines. Conversely, giving wrestlers no leeway is sometimes used to make sure a decent match happens - see Hulk Hogan vs. the Ultimate Warrior at WrestleMania VI, and a Trish Stratus vs. Stephanie McMahon match on Raw. Like promos, TV and PPV wrestling matches have become more and more scripted, with agents such as Arn Anderson or D'Lo Brown laying the entire match out beforehand with the wrestlers.
- Jim Cornette wrote an opinion column once about how this is the proper way to have a wrestler (or his manager) cut a promo: Give him a few points that he needs to hit during the promo and have him ad-lib the rest of it.
- Mick Foley was given carte blanche to do this in vignettes with Vince McMahon.
- The famous "News from Lake Wobegon" monologues from A Prairie Home Companion are totally improvised by host Garrison Keillor.
- At one point on the original cast recording of House of Flowers, Pearl Bailey says, "Suppose I have an ad-lib here filled in here for the record date, but we've been so terribly busy over in the theatre we haven't had time."
- The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (abridged) mixes this with Audience Participation. Which means the correct response to Get Thee to a Nunnery is "FUCK YAS ALL!"
- In particular, the entire second act is a re-do of Hamlet in about a quarter of the time. When they get to this point, they bring in an audience member (usually the one the "Adam" role vomits on) to play the part, encouraging the other audience members to recite a mantra for part of Ophelia's psyche.
- A better example of this might even be the fact that that same night had an audience member named Hercules...cuing off-the-cuff jokes about Olympus. Eventually, the proper reproduction of the play ended with the "Daniel" part picking up a local mountain to squash Claudius (the "Adam" role), with a joke about how much strength that would need.
- The published version of the script includes several footnotes along the lines of "At this point Adam very often rambles for a minute or more about current events, weaving a conspiratorial tale of nuclear fallout, corrupt politicians, debauched evangelists and/or whatever bug he has up his butt at the time", or noting a punchline as the default joke if the performers can't pull anything better from recent headlines.
- The most direct example of this trope, however, is just before the intermission, when one cast member has fled the theatre and another has chased off after him, leaving the third alone to entertain the audience for a few minutes. The stage directions simply read "Daniel stalls"; this can cover anything from playing the accordian to fire-eating.
- The Miser: When Jacques lists the countless meals he intends to serve at the dinner held by Harpagon, the actor is supposed to come up with his own list of exotic, expensive dishes. (If your edition of the play doesn't include the relevant footnote, then it looks as if Harpagon is freaking out over the very possibility of giving food to other people.)
- This is actually Older Than Steam: Commedia dell'Arte basically ran on this trope. Only the general outline of the plot and few lines were scripted; most of the jokes were supposed to be improvised by the actors.
- In Seussical, much of the Cat in the Hat's dialogue has "ad lib." written all over it.
- This was pretty much the premise to Home Movies. The actors were given outlines of what would happen in the episodes and the dialogue was mostly made up. An infamous scene in the first season about McGuirk and his tattoos was completely improvised by H. Jon Benjamin and Brendan Small. As well, the basis for Lynch's appearance was based on a description that McGuirk ad-libbed.
- Katie Crown improvises most of her dialogue for Izzy in Total Drama, as this interview reveals.
- The Simpsons writers mention on the DVDs that with recurring guest star Albert Brooks (Hank Scorpio, Russ Cargill of The Simpsons Movie amongst others), that he likes to improv, so they tend to write his parts of the script this way, only including the important parts for the story, and letting him go off in the recording booth. This is most obvious in "You Move Only Twice" is a scene where Scorpio rattles off all the places in town that sell hammocks, punctuated only by Homer going "Huh uh. Yes... Huh uh..." because Dan Castellaneta has no real reply ready and he is just following along.
- Though Castellaneta did pick up on it enough to add "Oh, in the hammock district" at just the right time.
- Homer's "D'oh!" was scripted as "(annoyed grunt)", and still is to this day, even when it renders episode titles (like "E-I-E-I-(ANNOYED GRUNT)") nonsensical.
- Professor Frink's dialogue is often punctuated with "(Frink noise)", where voice actor Hank Azaria will occasionally insert "glavin" or "m'hey"
- Rick and Morty: In Rixty Minutes, nearly all of the interdimensional TV shows and commercials were made up on the spot by the voice actors, with the episode fitting around them.
- In the Heckle and Jeckle cartoon "Blind Date," Heckle, Horace (a rich dimbulb searching for his long lost girlfriend) and Jeckle (dressed as said girlfriend) tiptoe in and out of a pair of swinging doors. Horace suddenly peers out of a door and makes a face at the audience.