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Horse Archer
Wil: "So, the archers of Sacae, they're all mounted, aren't they? I'd have trouble just staying on... If I had to shoot, too, I'd be in trouble!"
Rath: "...The beasts of Sacae are swift... If we could not shoot from the saddle, we would starve..."

"The bow wins us cattle and fierce in battle
Brings grief to the foe armed thus we go
To conquer all lands with the bow in our hands
Like a lover sings, shields us from death's wings"

Someone who shoots a bow while on horseback.

Truth in Television for countless civilizations, of course, with many historical armies being made up entirely or primarily of horse archers. Prior to the invention of the stirrup, lance warfare was impossible as it would knock the rider off the horse. The Huns and Mongols are the best-known of these, and have spawned any number of clones in fantasy literature, but almost every civilization that had horses has used these at some point, often to devastating effectiveness, and the Samurai used the dai-kyu (a type of recurved longbow) from horseback up until the Meiji Restoration.

Often specialize in Hit-and-Run Tactics, especially with archers who can spur their horse, turn around and shoot backwards as their enemies pursue.note  Naturally, since it requires expert horsemanship, a specialty of any Born in the Saddle culture. An honorable mention goes to earlier civilizations (Persians, Egyptians, etc.) that used chariots as a shooting platform, but in those cases it was a team of both horses and men.

Even after firearms were introduced, they were almost impossible to use effectively from horseback, as a muzzle-loaded weapon requires stability, dexterity, and two hands to reload. This meant that bow-wielding horsemen held on to an advantage, up until the invention of the revolver and breech-loaded long arms.

The MythBusters also proved that charging towards your target on a horse while firing can impart your arrows with ~70% more kinetic energy, and increase their penetration power a bit.

Mounted archery is Difficult but Awesome, since it requires you to simultaneously control your horse without the reins, and take aim while compensating for the horse's movements. note 

In Tabletop Games and Video Games, these are often Game Breaker units, but not always. For balance reasons, they are often less powerful than archers who go on foot, and if Annoying Arrows are in place already, this can lead to them being unable to effectively damage the enemy. Given that they often trade armor for speed, they can also easily be portrayed as Fragile Speedsters. If they can attack with swords as well, it's a case of Bow and Sword, in Accord.

Likely to be used by Hordes from the East. Especially if they are Born in the Saddle.


Examples:

Film
  • Badass Princess Merida from Brave is an ace with a bow and arrow, and she can hit a perfect bullseye while on horseback. While jumping over a log on horseback, no less!

Literature
  • The Dothraki and the Dornishmen from A Song of Ice and Fire.
  • The Mongols in all books, naturally enough.
  • The various steppe tribes in Harry Turtledove's Videssos books. The Videssians themselves may also qualify, though they prefer more armor than the average horse archer.
  • In Lord of the Rings the Rohirrim field a number of these. However most of their army seems to be lancers.
  • The Haldane Household Archers function this way in battle, as seen in The King's Justice. In that same book, Kelson himself is one when he executes Sicard by shooting an arrow through his eye.
  • In Belisarius Series, the Persians prefer steppe style bows that have a great rate of fire. The Roman Cataphracts prefer giant bows that can penetrate armor, at the expense of rate of fire. Rajputs are also notable Horse Archers, but not as good as Persians.
  • In Harald, The Westkin tribes are the lightly armored sort, and the Vales have cataphracts who wear heavier armor.
  • In the Heralds of Valdemar series, the Skybolt mercenary company is primarily composed of horse archers trained in skirmish tactics. The rest of the company are dirty tricks specialists.
  • Implied to exist in the Zlobenian army in Monstrous Regiment, since the Borogravians get hold of a powerful crossbow called a "horse-bow".
  • In 1635: The Eastern Front, one Polish general is a noted horse archer. When asked why he persists in this in an age of gunpowder, the general points out that what it really does is keep him thinking quickly and observing the terrain.
  • Last of the Breed by Louis L'Amour is a fictional story of Native American United States Air Force pilot Major Joseph Makatozi (Joe Mack), shot down by the Soviets over the ocean between Russia and Alaska and then captured.
  • Yeoman in the shared-universe series Wild Cards — unfortunately depicted as using a compound bow, despite the difficulties in transporting and assembling such in an urban environment.
  • Rackhir the Red in Michael Moorcock's Multiverse
  • Aillas and Yane from Jack Vance's high fantasy epic the Lyonesse Trilogy (Suldrun's Garden, The Green Pearl and Madouc).

Live-Action TV
  • In the Power Rangers Samurai TV movie "Clash of the Red Rangers", Blue Ranger Kevin uses his Hydro Bow while on horseback.

Pinball
  • In Seawitch, one of the witches fires a bow while riding on the back of a giant winged monster fish.

Tabletop Games

Video Games
  • Mount & Blade has the Khergit faction, almost every single one of their faction troops is one of these (with the exception of heavier lancers in the Warband expansion). It's also possible to make your player character one.
    • If you choose to start in the Khergit Khanate and you don't put any points into riding or horse archery and only use infantry in your battles... Well even the small packs of roaming steppe bandits that provide low level characters exp will stomp all over you. In fact the steppes is probably the hardest starting region because of the prevalence of horse archers.
    • However, horse archers don't behave the way you'd expect them to in the game. Without a fan-made patch to correct it, they tend to rush at infantry as if they were regular cavalry units.
  • Age of Empires has them, along with several varieties such as Chariot Archers and Elephant Archers. II has Horse Archers, and two civilisations have them as unique units, namely the Mongol's Mangudai and the Spanish Conquistador (which might not count since it uses a gun, not a bow). III has Dragoons which are basically the same as the Conquistadors from the previous game, some civilisations who have actual horse archers instead of the more usual Dragoon, and the Indians even have gunners firing from camelback. The spin-off, Age of Mythology has the Turma which throws javelins from horseback, the Centaurnote , and the Chariot Archer from the original game makes a return.
  • Shining Force I and II have Lyle and May, centaur archers who are one of the best ranged characters in their respective games.
  • The Total War series has them as a staple unit for most cavalry centered factions particularly in...
    • Shogun Total War I and II, the former of which is the very first game in the series. An alternate-history campaign centered around a successful Mongol invasion of Japan ups the ante.
    • Medieval Total War I and II finds them among most of the non-Catholic factions.
    • Rome Total War I and II also have them as the core unit of several eastern/steppe factions and Rome itself in the Barbarian Invasion expansion.
    • Hyrule: Total War has archers or spellcasters mounted on fictional creatures like Loftwings and Bigoctos.
  • Fire Emblem has had a couple of units across the series that fill this role; additionally, this trope is regularly discussed by units of said trope in games which have support conversations. Most use the combo of Bow and Sword, in Accord. They follow as:
    • The Horseman in Fire Emblem Akaneia. A seperate, Bow-only class in the original game, Dark Dragon, it became the promotion of the Hunter class in Mystery of the Emblem. In the DS remakes, Shadow Dragon and Heroes of Light and Shadow, they gained the use of swords.
    • The Arch Knight and Bow Knight in Fire Emblem Jugdral. Similar to the Horseman from the original Akaneia games in only using Bows, albeit being able to promote. Also, there is the Master Knight, a horseback unit that could use almost every weapon in the game, also could use bows.
    • The Nomad in Fire Emblem Elibe, with its promotion the Nomadic Trooper also able to use swords. They're all implied to be Sacaens, a Fantasy Counterpart Culture of various Eurasian steppe tribes, making them quite distinct from the knightly and European-esque Cavaliers.
    • The Ranger in Fire Emblem: The Sacred Stones. A promotion from Mercenaries and Archers, they used both bows and swords.
    • The Bow Knight and Paladin in Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance. Notably, upon promotion from Bow Knight, the Paladin could choose from sword, lances or axes to wield.
      • Changed in the sequel, Radiant Dawn. The Bow Knight and Bow Paladin could only use bows until the teritary class, Silver Knight, where they gained the use of lances.
    • The Bow Knight in Fire Emblem Awakening. Despite sharing the same name as the Tellius unit, they function the same as Rangers from Sacred Stones, in being a promotion from Mercenaries and Archers and using bows and swords.
    • The Horseman and Mamluke in Tear Ring Saga. The Mamluke could use swords upon promotion. Also, there is the Arrow Knight class, the promotion from the already Bow + Sword-using Lady Knight, that gains a horse upon promotion and the King's Knight class that uses swords, lances, axes and bows. Plus the enemy-only Bow Rider/Ranger class. A Bow Solider on a horse.
  • The Night Elves in Warcraft III can promote their normal archers to Hippogryph riders, making them both mounted and flying.
    • The Hero Unit Priestess of the Moon is this with a tiger as the mount.
  • Wander in Shadow of the Colossus can do this while riding Agro.
  • Link can do this while riding Epona in some games in the The Legend of Zelda series.
    • Also apparently a specialty skill of the Gerudo.
  • A basic mounted unit in Civilization IV. Appears as unique Mongol unit in Civilization V, while the Indians get Elephant Archers.
    • The Huns in Civilization V's first expansion get a unique unit simply called "Horse Archer".
  • A patch in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim allowed the player to become this, although it is a bit hard since you have to aim without a reticle.
  • Knights of Honor has these, though only available in provinces who have horses as a resource, so they are medium rare.
  • The centaurs in Heroes of Might and Magic I, II and V were archers (the centaurs in III were spearmen, while the ones in IV were spearthrowers).

Web Original

Real Life
  • Staple of steppe nomads:
    • The Mongols used this tactic to take over most of Asia.
    • Even before the Mongols, horse nomads were a constant threat. The later Jin dynasty was formed by a takeover by semi-nomadic horse archers. The earlier Xiongnu were able to extract tribute from the Chinese emperors and force the construction fortifications, including the great wall.
    • Parthian horse archers were devastating against the Romans at Carrhae (53 BCE)— particularly impressive in that they did so without stirrups. (Incidentally, it's often claimed that the phrase "parting shot" is a corruption of "Parthian shot". In truth it's a coincidence and the two were coined separately.) They in turn learned it from the Scythians, who successfully prevented the armies of both Darius and Alexander the Great from expanding their empires into the Northern Ukraine and Russia through evasion and harassing.
    • Medieval Hungarians. Hungarians originated as steppe nomads before they settled in the Pannonian Plain.
    • The Byzantine Romans, who fought both nomads and Parthians, based their cavalry on a careful balance of lancers and archers, however it consisted of soldiers recruited from settled rather then steppe territory and who had not grown up with their bows. Instead of the classic steppe Hit-and-Run Tactics, they often used mounted bows as a replacement for Pila, firing volleys into the enemy before charging down on them.
  • Yabusame (流鏑馬) is the Japanese traditional sport of mounted archery.
    • And before the sport, archery on horseback was originally THE signature practice of warfare for the samurai. It started to fade from the battlefield in the second half of the Sengoku period, as spear- and firearm-wielding infantry became more important to Japanese warfare than missile cavalry. The practice didn't fade away completely, becoming something more of a ceremonial skill. And thus to this day we still have yabusame.
  • The Comanches in North America managed to stall the expansion of the United States. Ironically, it was European explorers who re-introduced horses to the Americas.
  • Medieval Swedish and German mounted crossbowmen. Their fire rate was slower than that of the mounted archers, but they used far more powerful bows. Unconfirmed, but some evidence has been found that Spain also used them at some point.
  • English had a fondness for what might be called "dragoon archers". They were mounted longbowmen who dismounted to use their longbows while the knights except for a small reserve dismounted beside them to form a backup. In a way it was an extension of classic Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian tactics with an addition of the longbow as a major feature as opposed to the oddball weapon it was to the Norse and Saxons.
  • Chariots were the predecessor of Horse Archers, in many countries(though among the Celts they were just an Awesome Personnel Carrier). They used similar tactics to horse archers and of course had both horses and archers though they didn't have archers mounted on horses for a long time. In a famous passage from a Sanscrit epic, Aryan charioteers actually make a love song to their bows.
  • For comparative reasons, we can mention the pistolier cavalry from European battlefields of 16th and 17th Centuries. They employed tactics somewhere in-between horse archers and on-foot musketeers and were arguably adaptation of a mounted force to gunpowder warfare.

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