Leopard of Sora O Kakeru Shoujo, being big enough to contain a city structure within him, takes pride in his city by, for example, naming all the animal species within him after himself. Crocodilius leopardus, anyone?
Also deserving of mention is Planet Vegeta, which was renamed after the royal line of the Saiyans' king (every male member in this family who ascends the throne seems to bear this name) after they defeated the Tuffles.
Before it became the more infamous Principality, Mobile Suit Gundam's Side 3 colony cluster was known as the Republic of Zeon once it broke away from the Earth Federation. In other words, Zeon Zum Daikun literally renamed Side 3 after himself when he reformed it into an independent state; the Zabis just kept his name to "honor" himnote ie, throw off suspicions over Degwin and/or his sons' probable involvement in Daikun's death.
Inverted in Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann; Kamina City was named by everybody else, having been inspired so much by Kamina that they named their first metropolis in his honor, because it wouldn't be there without his vision of a better place.
In the Marvel Universe, Doctor Doom renamed Latveria's capital Doomstadt, also renaming several of the nation's other cities (to Doomburg, Doomwood, Doomton, etc.). Latveria's greatest holiday is Doom's Day, which is celebrated whenever Doom feels like celebrating.
This doesn't have to be a dictator in the French adaptation of the Disney comics: Duckburg is called Donaldville for no apparent reason, and Mouseton is called Mickeyville. The English names have the excuse that "Duck" and "Mouse" seem to be common names, but...
Mocked in PS238 when Tyler mentions that he has problems with geography due to all the rogue island nations named after their supervillain rulers.
In some fairly old Superman comics, Lex Luthor gets marooned on some far-off planet and the people there somehow elect him ruler. That's because he actually saved them, and they rename the planet to "Lexor" in gratitude. He hangs there quite a bit for a while, mostly because it orbits a red sun. As it turns out, he likes being the good guy (this is the Silver Age mad scientist version), and even gets married. Then it got destroyed in a fight with Superman. He didn't take it well.
In the modern era, given the Corrupt Corporate Executive version of Lex's rather egocentric fondness for naming things relating to his business after himself and his position as the central person behind Metropolis' rejuvenation in many versions of the story, one gets the impression that the only reason he didn't outright force Metropolis to rename itself 'Lexopolis' is that Superman would have something to say about it.
An old issue of Hsu and Chan has the brothers create an MMORPG similar to Second Life in which the player lives out lower-middle class life in Tanakapolis. In the game, taxes, the monthly fees to play the game, and other fees are paid by leaving large sacks of money at the foot of two solid gold statues of the brothers and begging that the brothers would not smite you for their own amusement.
Hsu Statue: Louder!
Variant in Judge Dredd: out in the Cursed Earth, there's a town named Fargoville after the first Chief Judge, Eustace Fargo, and whose inhabitants worship him as a deity.
The Evronians, who live on planet Evron and are ruled by Emperor Evron the Eleventh to the Fifth. Justified in an extra, where apparently the first Evron generated the entire race.
Magna Clades has the Chalcopyrite Queendom, which is said to have been named for its very first ruler.
Films — Animation
In Megamind, Hal Stewart (the cameraman wooing for news reporter Roxanne Ritchie) is the "unfortunate" recipient of Metro Man's super powers, and calls himself "Tighten"(a misspelling of "Titan"). However, he decides to become a supervillain instead. He goes over the edge when he finds out Megamind is in love with Roxanne, and causes chaos in the city. One of the things "Tighten" proceeds to do is burn "Tightenville" into the cityscape of Metro City.
The Emperor's New Groove: In a weird inversion/subtle meta example, Kuzco is named after the historical capital of the Inca Empire, but the city's name is never mentioned in the show (though it would be in character). He does plan on building "Kuzcotopia," though. Still a subversion because Kuzcotopia isn't a literal new city, but an awesome summer home.
The Sponge Bob Square Pants Movie: After enslaving everyone in Bikini Bottom with his mind controlling Chum Bucket helmets, Plankton converts Bikini Bottom into Planktopolis, complete with several giant stone statues of himself.
Films — Live-Action
In the first Superman movie, Lex Luthor has already planned to rename at least a dozen cities with some form of "Lex" or "Luthor" following completion of his plot. Luthorville, Marina del Lex, etc. Humorously, he gets angry when his henchman tries to name a town "Otisburg", so much so he makes him erase it from his makeshift map.
In It's a Wonderful Life, Bedford Falls is renamed Pottersville in the Alternate Universe where the town is ruled by George Bailey's rival, Mr. Potter. Though ironically, there's no similar implication of egocentrism in the fact that the housing park built by George's father is named "Bailey Park".
In the Street Fighter movie, M. Bison announces his plan to build "Bisonopolis" once he takes over the world. In a possible sign that the producers realized Raul Julia was the best thing they had, he gets to spend nearly two and a half minutes strolling around the room and ranting about it. They are in the running for the best two and a half minutes of the whole movie.
Also, Bison Dollars. They'll be worth five British Pounds to a dollar once Bison kidnaps their Queen. Of course, trying to pass them off as currency before that happens wasn't particularly advisable....
Todd Spengo does this to an entire planet in the backstory of Mom and Dad Save the World. Whatever it was is lost to the sands of history, but he is proud to be the Emperor of Planet Spengo.
TRON: Legacy has TRON City as the setting of the main action. It's a subversion, though, since it was Kevin Flynn's idea, and Tron never was a dictator, more like a protector of the system.
Book 1 of The Fabled Lands takes place not long after a civil war in Sokara. The capital, Old Sokar, has been renamed Marlock City after the conquering General Grieve Marlock.
Referenced in Broken Angels: Tak and his companions refer jokingly to General Kemp's HQ Indigo City as Kempopolis.
A variant is found in, of all places, Northern Lights (or The Golden Compass), the first book of the His Dark Materials trilogy: it is mentioned that Iofur Raknison, being completely enchanted with Magnificent Bitch in residence Marisa Coulter, will soon create a capital city for the armored bears, and name it after her.
In Graham McNeill's Warhammer 40,000Ultramarines novel The Killing Ground, Barbaran renamed the capital of the conquered planet after himself. After he dies for the massacre he staged, Uriel thinks it quite certain that the capital will be renamed.
In the Tunnels series, Adventure Archaeologist Dr. Burrows, while heroic, has a somewhat alarming tendency to attempt to rename anything he discoveries after himself.
Dr. Burrows: "The Garden of the Second Sun"... I shall call it "Roger Burrows Land"!
In the Warcraft novel The War of the Ancients, the night elf capital is renamed Zin-Azshari, or "Glory of Azshara", after their queen Azshara. This was apparently not enough for her, who wanted to rename it "Azshara". Ruins of the city can be found in World of Warcraft in the region of Azshara (hmm...).
In Atlas Shrugged, when Cuffy Meigs and his "Friends of the People" take over Project X, they rename its site "Meigsville", the intended capital of their feudal domain. It doesn't last long. On the heroic (well, for a given value of...) side, Hank Reardon admits that he loves nothing so much as to plaster his name over everything he touches, and of course John Galt lives in... Galt's Gulch.
"...Well now! In 1868, on this 21st day of March, I myself, Captain Nemo, have reached the South Pole at 90°, and I hereby claim this entire part of the globe, equal to one–sixth of the known continents." "In the name of which sovereign, Captain?" "In my own name, sir!" So saying, Captain Nemo unfurled a black flag bearing a gold "N" on its quartered bunting. Then, turning toward the orb of day, whose last rays were licking at the sea's horizon: "Farewell, O sun!" he called. "Disappear, O radiant orb! Retire beneath this open sea, and let six months of night spread their shadows over my new domains!"
One Alternate History book, derived from notes taken during World War II, suggested that had it been taken and held, St. Petersburg — at that point called Leningrad — and Stalingrad would have been renamed Hitlerhafen, to symbolize the Nazi's ultimate victory over Communism and its two Soviet icons.
Ironically, in Real Life Stalingrad ended up being renamed Volgograd, during Khrushchev's purges.
Sisterhood Series by Fern Michaels: Game Over introduces Henry "Hank" Jellicoe, who has a mansion in a location with his name on it. His company Jellicoe Global Securities naturally has his name on it. Cross Roads reveals that he has an airline with his name on it. As it turns out, all this is Foreshadowing to The Reveal.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, the noble house Arryn rules the Vale of Arryn. It is implied that the first Andal king named the place after himself when he conquered it.
Lannisport, fiefdom of the great house Lannister and home of its cadet branch, was also named after its founder, Lann the Clever.
In Book of Swords, the Silver Queen rules the kingdom of Yambu. Her name is also Yambu. This may be a case, however, of the Real Life trope (see below) of calling a monarch after her kingdom, but even after she is deposed, no other name is ever given for her or her former kingdom. Also, her parents' names are never mentioned, so it is not clear if this was a custom or what have you.
A possiblenote We don't know who actually named the city and somewhat Narmful example from the Mobile Suit Gundam Wing novel Frozen Teardrop, where the capital of Mars is Relena City. It's also used to establish a Face-Heel Turn, as normally the character in question would be the last person to found an Egopolis.
In the Vorkosigan Saga, the planet Barrayar is ruled by the Royally Screwed Up Vorbarra family. As Vor- is a prefix denoting aristocracy, the family name at the time of the original settlement was "Barra".
Word of God says the author is not sure whether the family is named after the planet or vice-versa. So whatever.
Fiona Patton's Tales of the Branion Realm are set on Braniana's Island, named after its conqueror and first monarch, but everything else with the word "Bran" in it — the palace, the capital, half its monuments — is named for her brother, who is said to have built them.
Inverted at the end of ColSec Rebellion: After Samella saves the day, Cord suggests naming the newly-discovered planet that the central cast will be surveying for her. The rest of the kids approve, but Samella protests.
Zil Sperry from GONE wanted to rename Perdido Beach Sperry beach after he burns it down, kills half the super-powered freaks and then enslaved the other half. His plan doesn't even get off the ground.
In The Psalms of Isaak, the Wizard King Ahm Y'Zir founded The Empire of Y'Zir, whose capital city is Ahm's Glory (featuring a massive statue of Ahm himself as a central landmark). Not a humble man, though the fact that his followers regarded him as a living god probably didn't help matters any.
In the Ciaphas Cain book Death or Glory, Cain destroys an Ork-occupied city at the start of his "March of the Liberator" (his first men were prisoners he broke out from the city). He later learned that the city had been rebuilt as Cainstead by the planet's inhabitants.
"I now proclaim myself Supreme Leader of The United States of Myselfia. Commence with the killing of the redheads."
In Captain French, or the Quest for Paradise, the planet Murphy is named for Simon Murphy, the first leader of the colony. Surprisingly, this is the only example despite the mentions of numerous dictatorships.
In The Big Bang Theory episode "The Pants Alternative", Sheldon has an imaginary SimCity, Sheldonopolis, with Sheldon Square, Sheldon Towers, Sheldon Stadium the home of The Fighting Sheldons and Shel-Mart.
Las Vegas: Neither of them gets the chance to go through with it, but before her death billionaire Monica Mancuso planned to rename the Montecito Resort and Casino The Monica when she was the property's owner, while Sam Marquez toys with renaming it the "Samecito" when she later inherits the ownership from Casey Manning.
New Zoo Revue features an episode where some of the regulars are tempted about founding a new city, especially in naming it, Emily claims the "Emiliopolis Museum", Charlie Owl prefers "Charlinati", and Henrietta Hippo holds out for "Henriettaville". In the end, cooler heads prevail.
In the Ravenloft setting, the domain of Markovia is named for its darklord, Frantisek Markov. Strahd von Zarovich came close to this trope, re-naming the highlands he'd reclaimed from invaders "Barovia" after his father, King Barov.
Champions: When Malachite conquered a set of islands and established them as his personal fiefdom, he named his new kingdom the Malachite Isles.
In Peer Gynt, Peer dreams about creating a city called Gyntiana.
In BIONICLE, Makuta renames the Matoran universe "The Makutaverse" after he takes over it.
In several of the 3D Sonic the Hedgehog games, Eggman's stated ambition is to conquer the country/world and rename it "The Eggman Empire" or "Eggmanland." Its capital will be Station Square, which he will rename "Robotnikland".
One of the simplest examples comes from the Sonic Sat AM cartoons and comics: Dr. Robotnik takes over Mobotropolis and renames it Robotropolis.
In Rocket: Robot on Wheels, Jojo the Raccoon, tired of being second banana to Whoopie World, kidnaps the walrus and rewires the whole park. Towards the end of the game, you discover that Jojo built his own amusement park called JojoWorld. After thwarting Jojo's schemes, Whoopie World is renamed RocketLand after the protagonist.
The Tropico Series of video games. The Main/Playable Character, El Presidente, has the option of building monuments to himself, not only to please his or her own ego, but also to appease the Loyalist Faction In-Game.
You wouldn't know just from playing Final Fantasy II, but the empire's capital of Palamecia is actually the last name of its leader, Mateus Palamecia. Not unrealistic, as lots of ruling houses either lent their name to the land they owned or vice versa. Too bad Everyone Calls Him The Emperor, and you only learn his real name in the (Japan-only) novelization, also that none of them seem to go into detail about which was "Palamecia" first, the country or the imperial line.
A familial example could be found in The Republic of Dave in Fallout 3, a small ranch owned by a guy named Dave, who took it over from his father Tom, back when it was the Kingdom of Tom. Nonetheless it is actually run on a democracy, with an election that can be rigged so that his son or wife can win, which if they do he'll go off to make a new Republic of Dave.
Chrono Trigger: With the old Queen Zeal and the pesky gurus gone, Dalton was quickly to rename the Kingdom of Zeal to the Kingdom of Dalton. He also captured and modified the Epoch to transforms it into the Aero Dalton Imperial, a flying throne fitting for the new King.
A prime example is the team the Slaycity Slayers from Mutant League Football, where both team and city got their name changed as part of the contract with star player K.T. Slayer.
In Dragon Quest III, this happens to a modest little frontier town that the heroes help get established. Over time, the village's leader starts seriously abusing their power, until, at the height of their reign, they're practically living like a king. The twist? Said egomaniac is the Merchant you convinced to settle down there in the first place and help it grow.
Played for Laughs in Dragon Quest VII: after you help Sim build up his new town to a certain point, he decides it's time to give it a name and has three suggestions for it. All three follow this naming convention, but are variants on your hero's name. Reject all three, and he gives you the chance to name it whatever you wish.
The King (Mickey Mouse) in Kingdom Hearts. Though he's on your side, you have to wonder about a king who stamps his silhouette on damn near everything in his realm....
Maybe it's not is silhouette, but the Queen's (Minnie Mouse), as Dream Drop Distance reveals she was the one of Royal Blood, combined with KHII showing Micky started as a boat driver...
Depending on how you play, you can name your alliance in Star Control 2 after yourself.
One of the worlds that your journey brings you to in LittleBigPlanet 2 is Avalonia, an Eternal Engine city created by Avalon Centrifuge. A rare example of a good guy doing this.
Rune Factory Frontier has a side character named Roland (which was changed to Nolan in the localization), the former king of the Kingdom of Roland. It's unspecified whether this is in effect or inverted (i.e. he was named Roland because he was to be the King of Roland).
The Warcraft universe has the city of Thaurissan, named by (and after) Sorcerer-thane Thaurissan when he declared himself emperor of the Dark Iron dwarves. Destroyed when Emperor Thaurissan summoned Ragnaros the Firelord, its ruins are in what became the Burning Steppes.
The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind has the cities of Almalexia (Mournhold), Vivec and Sotha Sil, all named after the respective members of the ruling Tribunal (the city of Almalexia's alternate name of Mournhold is because Almalexia was the only one who settled in an existing city).
In Borderlands 2, it's revealed later on that Handsome Jack renamed the town of Fyrestone from the first game into Jackville in order to remind the Crimson Raiders of their failures.
Played for Laughs in Hyperdimension Neptunia V where the protagonist Neptune declares that there should be more "Nep" in Planeptune (as if the name of her city wasn't an Egopolis enough). She declares that the base height for everything is one Nep or 1.46 meters (aka her height).
One of the many parody commercials in You Don't Know Jack feature the transmissions of Ted, a guy who thinks he's living in a world After the End. In the first transmission, he says that he'll rename Earth "Tedonia".
A Hat In Time has Mafia Town, an island city owned by the Mafia of Cooks. Mafia pictures and statues are all over the town, along with banners saying things such as "IF IT AIN'T MAFIA, IT AIN'T QUALITY!" and "MAFIA OF COOKS #1 AT EVERYTHING".
Strong Mad takes over the area around the stone bridge. Being rather dim, he names it "COUNTRY".
Coach Z's country (not shown, but can be assumed to be the athletic field/locker room) is called Coachnya.
The Poopsmith's country (mercifully not shown), is called Poopslovakia. It's probably best not to speculate on what it consists of.
The inanimate objects in the Field get them as well: the Cool Car is divided into Frontzeatserland and Hatchbackistan, the photo booth becomes Snapshakland, the stick becomes Stickstenstein, the brick wall becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Repubricks, the fence is divided into the People's Republic of Front-au-Fence and the Backfence Revolutionaries, and the Blubbo's Whale becomes "50% Off Apple Pie Charts".
Played with in Bonus Stage, when Joel builds a city and names it Philopolis, after the other main character.
Ratboy Genius lives in The Ratboy Kingdom, near Lake Genius and the Ratboy Canal.
The infamous Sonichu comics are set in "Cwcville", after Christian Weston Chandler. (It's apparently pronounced "Quick-ville" judging by the audiobooks and the bad puns.) The currency is named after him (C-Quarters, W-Quarters, and confusingly C-QUARTERS), the only known radio station is KCWC, the drink of choice is CWC Cola note You'd think the official beverage would be NesCWC.), and the mayor's birthday is celebrated as a holiday, under the name of Christian Love Day.
The terrible country of Tyrinaria in The Order of the Stick, home to Lord Tyrinar the Bloody, and source of a good deal of backstory motivation for Haley. The problem being that, by the time Haley gets to the continent where it is located, it's not there anymore; countries there tend to get conquered, renamed, and conquered again every year or so. At current time, there's a Cruelvania, Dictatoria, and two Despotonias (East and West).
By sheer luck, Tyrinaria happens to have been absorbed by the Empire of Blood, where the Order eventually finds themselves in.
Dr. Drakken plans way too far ahead, to what he'll name certain places after his "inevitable victory". When he launches an attack on the Great White North, he plans to rename it Drakanada.
Shego pulls this herself. In the future where she takes over the world, she changes Middleton to Shegoton, Upperton to North Shegoton, and even the clothing chain store Club Banana to Club Shego, leading to one of quotes in the quote page.
Brain of Pinky and the... tried it a few times. He gets his own island country in a bid for US foreign aid, naming it Brainania. He then goes on to name every single feature of the island after himself (at least until Pinky gives him Puppy-Dog Eyes, resulting in the Fjord of Pinky.) In another episode, where he does end up in control of the Earth — by making a duplicate out of papier-mache and convincing everyone else to go there with free T-shirts — he renames the original Earth "Brainus", presumably following the pattern of either Venus or Uranus. The new planet, on the other hand, was Chia Earth.
Even though it's a country, Petoria, named after Peter Griffin of Family Guy, is only the size of the Griffin's house and front/back yard, with the entire city of Quahog surrounding it, effectively making it the smallest country in the world (surrounded by the smallest state in America, no less). To drive the point home, the national flag has the words "PETORIA" and a crude drawing of Peter on a white background.
Peter: I was gonna call it Peterland, but that gay bar down by the airport already took it.
And in a slight variation, when Peter decides to "annex" his neighbor Joe's swimming pool as Petoria's "newest province", he renames it "Joehio".
And of course, a meta-example: the show takes place in Danville, Jefferson County, Some Unspecified State. The show's creators are named Dan and Jeff.
Simultaneously subverted and inverted with the title theme park in the direct-to-DVD release Pollyworld. The subversion is the fact that it's a theme park and not a country. The inversion is that Polly Pocket's father created the theme park and named it after his daughter, making it a lot like U.S. fast food chain Wendy's Old Fashioned Hamburgers.
In an episode of Sabrina: The Animated Series, Sabrina travels back in time three times to prevent herself from being portrayed as a hero. Oon the fourth try, she travels back 100 years to turn the bridge from wood to stone; when she returns, she finds that Greendale is now called Sabrinaville, and everyone in town is now named "Sabrina".
In an episode of Gargoyles, Goliath and Elisa end up in a Bad Future where Xanatos has taken over New York City and renamed it "Xanatopia". Except not really, as it's really Lexington pulling the strings. Except not really really, as the whole shenanigan is just an illusion crafted by Puck. The actual Xanatos is above this kind of thing, really.
In one episode of Care Bears: Adventures in Care-a-Lot, Grizzle actually manages to take over Care-a-Lot, and orders the Care Bears to tear it down in order to build Grizzleton.
Alexander the Great was a serial offender. There were about a dozen cities named Alexandria, with the odd Alexandropolis thrown in. Some of them were given translations of his name to the local languages, such as Kandahar in what's now Afghanistan. When he was feeling really creative, he named one city Bucephala, after his horse, Bucephalus. The generals who took over his domains often named cities after themselves, like Antiocheia (now Antakya) for Antiochos and Seleukeia for Seleukos. (There are actually several Antiochs scattered about.)
He founded almost all of those cities rather than renaming them from something else—or to be precise, he expanded certain existing settlements so much that it probably should count as a new foundation. This wasn't a vanity project: he needed somewhere to house the large numbers of of Greek veterans and civilians that followed his conquests. A prime example is the one in Egypt (by far the largest, most famous, and most successful of the lot): there was a reasonably sized fishing town and port city called Rakote on the site, but Alexander ordered the construction of a large, planned Greek-style city in the area around the town to serve as the center of the Greek community in Egypt and to attract more trade. The result was that Rakote became the Egyptian quarter of Alexandria, a bustling multiethnic port/metropolis/royal capital.
Histeria! once had a sketch with Toast asking for "directions to Alexandria," with him answering each set with a "No, not that Alexandria."
Alexander was really only following in family tradition. His father, Philip II, named and re-named cities after himself too - most prominently Philippi on he site of the conquered city of Crenides (later sometimes known as Crenides-Philippi).
Subverted with Emperor Hadrian, who traveled throughout the entire Roman Empire, commissioning buildings and civil works projects wherever he went. Many of those cities renamed themselves Hadrianopolis in order to enjoy the emperor's favor. Played straight with Antinoopolis, the city he founded in memory of his dead lover.
The Russian cities St. Petersburg (originally named by Peter The Great not for himself, but for the saint that was his namesake), aka Petrograd (renamed during WWI because it sounded too German), aka Leningrad (after Lenin), aka St. Petersburg again;note Famous Russian joke from Soviet times: An old Jew was at some state office, where a bureaucrat was asking him questions for some paperwork. The official asked him, "Where do you live?", to which he replied, "Leningrad." "Where were you born?" "St. Petersburg." "Where did you go to school?" "Petrograd." And then, menacingly, "Where would you like to live?" "St. Petersburg." Now even more Hilarious in Hindsight. and Stalingrad (now Volgograd). There's a move to rename it back to Stalingrad, not in honour of Stalin but in honour of the famous victory over Germany.
Volgograd is a very weird subversion, since Leon Trotsky put in his autobiography that Stalin was very ambitious and insistent on capturing the city (then called Tsaritsyn, but the name comes from Tatar language and is not etymologically related to the Russian word 'Tsar') during the Civil War instead of obeying his orders and helping other regiments. It was only after Lenin's death that he managed to rename the city into Stalingrad (possibly as a Monument Of Humiliation And Defeat against his old rival). After the de-stalinization process in the 50s, the city was finally renamed Volgograd.
After Lenin's death, the city of Simbirsk (where he was born) was renamed Ulianovsk, after Lenin's original name, and in fact the regional district there (the oblast in Russian) still goes by that name.
Likewise, the dacha where he died was renamed from simply Gorky to Gorky Leninskiye.
And from 1949 to 1956, the major port city of Bulgaria, Varna, was named Stalin by the country's communist government.
Königsberg had a double strike against it when the Soviets took over. It had a German name which translated as the King's City. So it was renamed Kaliningrad after the recently deceased Soviet official Mikhail Kalinin. The city of Tver was also renamed Kalinin but was changed back to its original name in 1990.
Nizhny Novgorod was named Gorky from 1932 until 1990, after Soviet writer and revolutionary activist Maxim Gorky, who was born there. He died in 1936, so it was named such while he was still living.
The rename famously did not affect the major automobile company there, which although it started as Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Factory) it remains to this day Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Gorky Automobile Factory), on account of developing a punning association with gazelles along the way.
Yekaterinburg was named for Empress Catherine I (Peter the Great's wife, not to be confused with Catherine the Great (II)) in 1723. It was renamed Sverdlovsk from 1924-1991, after Bolshevik leader Yakov Sverdlov—this renaming was posthumous, though, as Sverdlov died in 1919.
An example featuring repeated Please Select New City Name: In 1869, a Welsh fellow named Hughes established a mining and factory town on the Seversky Donets River in Ukraine, which was named Yuzovka in his honour; this city grew and grew and eventually became a major industrial hub. After the Red October, it was seen as unfitting to have a foreign capitalist's name on a major city like this, so the name was changed in 1923-24 (some say it was briefly Trotsk, after Trotsky, in late 1923), first to Stalin and then to Stalino (in the late 20s or early 30s; it's not clear). Finally, in 1961 (after Stalin's death and denunciation), the city was given its current name, Donetsk, after the river.
After Emperor Alexander I conquered Finland from Sweden, he relocated the capital further east (from Turku to Helsinki) and renamed the main street. Because his rule was seen as an improvement (and then that of his nephew Alexander II even more so), the Finns kept the name.
Saddam International Airport in Baghdad, now called Baghdad International Airport (BIAP) or Al Anbar Airport. And Saddam City, a region/suburb of Baghdad now renamed Sadr City (after the Shia cleric Muhammad Muhammad Sadeq al-Sadr; most of the area's population is Shia). Under Saddam, Iraq was arguably the most extreme example of this trope, a role later taken by Turkmenistan.
Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo did this a lot, going as far as changing the capital city's name from Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo.
Byzantium was originally named after a king named Byzas.
The Roman city built on the same site is in fact an aversion. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus dubbed his new imperial capital Nova Roma (Latin) or Nea Rhome (Greek), it is just that everybody else insisted on calling the place Constantine's City and variants of the latter name stuck until the 20th century.
Beijing was once named Khanbaliq, "city of the Khan", by Kublai Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Neither of whom was really named "Khan". Even "Genghis Khan" is a title in its entiretynote It roughly translates to "Oceanic ruler", which should give you a pretty good indication as to his ambitions: his real name was Temujin.
About half the geographic locations in New South Wales and Tasmania were named after NSW Governor Lachlan Macquarie, mostly by Macquarie himself.
Roman Emperor Commodus renamed Rome, the months (every monthnote That doesn't mean he named every month "Commodus"; he had many names), the legions, the Senate and even the Roman people after himself.
According to legend, Rome was an example, with Romulus, but in reality, it's probably the other way around; Romulus and Remus were mythical characters who were likely named after Rome.
If Suetonius is to be believed, Nero wanted to rename Rome "Neropolis" and replace the Olympic Games with an identical competition called the "Neronia".
British imperialist racist Cecil Rhodes conquered a little patch of land (modern Zimbabwe and Zambia) in Southern Africa by slaughtering everyone who opposed his right to it, and promptly named it Rhodesia.
King Wilhelm I of Prussia named Wilhelmshaven after himself.
Detroit's main street is named Woodward Avenue, supposedly meaning "toward the woods". However, it and many other streets in Detroit were given their names by Augustus Woodward, who was Chief Justice of the Michigan Territory at the time, and was responsible for redesigning the city after a big fire burned it down in 1805. (His grandiose scheme was ultimately not implemented for lack of funds and population, but not before five of his planned major avenues were built.)note They are today Woodward, Jefferson, Grand River, Michigan, and Gratiot Avenues; Jefferson runs parallel to the Detroit River; Woodward is perpendicular to Jefferson; Grand River and Michigan split the area between Woodward and West Jefferson into thirds, with Grand River running along an old Indian trail that leads to Lansing (the state capital), Grand Rapids (the second-largest city), and Muskegon, while Michigan Avenue ultimately takes you to Chicago; Gratiot Avenue bisects the area between Woodward and East Jefferson.
Non-country example: Roman emperors Gaius Julius Caesar and Augustus got their names added to the Julian Calendar as months (July and August), replacing the previous names (Quintilis and Sextilis respectively).note Contrary to popular belief, they did not add new months, thereby "explaining" why September, October, November, and December seem to say "seventh month, eighth month, ninth month, tenth month" when they are months 9, 10, 11, and 12; rather, the Romans changed their New Year from 1 March to 1 January sometime around the beginning of the second century BCE—about 100-150 years before Caesar. The beginning of the civil year—when the term of the consul began—was made 1 January in 153 BCE; this appears to reflect a previous change in the reckoning of New Year's festivities for social and religious purposes at least a generation earlier. Subsequent Roman emperors tried to do the same, renaming other months after themselves (and sometimes after previous emperors as well), but no other changes lasted beyond their deaths.
There is a reason for this: Julius Caesar had actually carried out a much-needed reform of the calendar: the Roman calendar was originally lunisolar and relied on occasional intercalary months to stay in alignment with the seasons. Since these months were announced by the Pontifex Maximus (High Priest), who was usually a politician (Caesar himself, for one), who could (and did!) therefore use his power to declare or not declare an intercalary month to reward his friends with extra time in power or punish his enemies with less, the calendar was far out of whack and needed to be fixed; so Caesar took some ideas he had picked up from astronomers, mathematicians, and so on, and combined them with a concept he had picked up in Egypt (the idea of a purely solar calendar, in which the months were not tied to the phases of the moon), and produced the new calendar, and renamed his birth month "Quintilis" to "Julius" so people wouldn't forget who had fixed the calendar (never mind that he had a hand in messing it up in the first place after 19 years as Pontifex Maximus)—and of course, to satisfy his massive ego and solidify his deification. He was also personally extremely popular, so nobody really minded his taking the name of a month. Augustus was, well, Augustus: he knew how to make changes stick. Also, a few years after he took the title of Pontifex Maximus, he realized that the guy who had held that title between Julius Caesar and him hadn't understood the reform, and had been adding leap years every three years, by counting inclusively (what we today call a fence post error); Augustus rescued the calendar by skipping the next few leap years, so as to get the calendar back on track.
So, July is named after Julius Caesar, who reformed the Roman calendar (which was later named "Julian calendar"). August is named after Augustus, who saved it by correcting a serious implementation mistake. Shouldn't our *current* calendar rename the month of September to "Gregory"?
Williamstown, Massachusetts and the college it contains, Williams College, are named after the same man, Ephraim Williams, who left his estates to Massachusetts in his will on the condition that they use them to build a school, and that the school and the town its in both be named after him.
Herod the Great had a pleasure palace/small city created for himself and called it Herodium.
Mary of Hungary christened Mariembourg after herself when she was governor of the Netherlands.
Melbourne, Australia, was founded by a man called John Batman. For a while it was called Batmania, until it was officially renamed Melbourne in 1836.
Vaasa, Finland was originally named after the Vasa dynasty of Sweden. It was renamed 1825 as Nikolainkaupunki (Town of Nikolai) by Czar Nicholas I of Russia. It was re-renamed Vaasa c. 1918, when Finland became independent.
The Czech entrepreneur Tomáš Baťa founded several towns around the world, naming them after himself (Batawa in Ontario, Batadorp in the Netherlands, Batapur in Pakistan, Batanagar and Bataganj in India...) and centering them on his shoe factories. His half-brother Jan Antonín also founded Batatuba, Batayporã and Bataguassu in Brazil.
Delhi is believed to be named after Dhillu, the king who had the city built in 50 BC.
During his dictatorship, François Duvalier (Papa Doc) renamed the town of Cabaret, Haiti, to Duvalierville and started a megalomaniacal construction project. It was never finished.
Tigran the Great of Armenia named about four cities "Tigranakert" during his reign. The ruins of Tigranakert of Artsakh are located in the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
Bolivia, because of Simón Bolívar.
Subverted with Hoovervilles, shantytowns set up in the early stages of The Great Depression which gained their moniker because the residents felt President Herbert Hoover was responsible for their misery.
An unintentional one for Barack Obama: there is a small city in Japan called Obama, which was founded long before he was even born and is etymologically unrelated to his name. They did erect a statue of him and churn out merchandise related to him after he became known as the presidential candidate/president.
There have been quite a few places named for Josip Broz Tito; Wikipediahas a list. Notably, however, every city named for him in the Yugoslav era got renamed to something else after the country broke up. Which happened rather rapidly after his death.
In 1949 in former Czechoslovakia the town of Zlín was renamed to Gottwaldov after the first communist (or, using terminology of the day, "worker") president Klement Gottwald. It was changed back immediately after the Velvet Revolution.
Saudi Arabia is this applied to a whole country — it is named after its ruling dynasty. It would be like Britain being called Windsorland. Also, within Saudi Arabia, we have:
It Makes Sense in Context. Saudi Arabia as such didn't exist until the Saud family conquered its territories. Before it was whatever Ibn Thistribe, Ibn Thattribe, and Ibn Theothertribe could hold amidst a desert so barren that ruling over territory was more like ruling the ocean then ruling cultivated land and princes counted their power in their herds and numbers of clients rather then their territory. "Saudi Arabia" just means "parts of Arabia ruled by the House of Saud". On the other hand, the territories did have names; most of the country is composed of the old territories of Hijaz (on the western coast, between the mountains and the Red Sea) and Najd (the central plateau); "Hijaz and Najd" or "Najd and Hijaz" would be a perfectly acceptable name for the country, and indeed that's what Abdul Aziz Bin Saud called it for the first six years after conquering Hijaz; he changed the name in 1932 to emphasize that he was running the country as one unit, rather than as two units in personal union.
Liechtenstein is another nation named after its ruling family.
Vallejo, California, named for General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. The next city south is named Benicia after his wife (though her name was pronounced ben-NEESE-ee-ah and the town is usually called ben-EESH-ah or ben-ISH-ah). That's because they prononunced a Spanish name as if it was English.
In many places of Mexico, you'll find many small towns renamed after a president. Examples: Lázaro Cárdenas (formerly Melchor Ocampo, and before that it was called "Los Llanitos"note the small plains or Hueytlaconote from náhuatl, meaning "big place"), Michoacán; and Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (formerly San Miguel de Camargo), Tamaulipas. There were also streets, boulevards and even statues made to honor the presidents, which (while not made by the men themselves, but rather the guys who succeeded them) were made during their lifetimes.
Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa and one of the largest in the world, was named for Queen Victoria by British explorer John Hanning Speke in 1858, during her reign.
There are other places around the former British Empire that were founded and named after her during her reign, such as Victoria, the capital of British Columbia (1843); and Victoria state in Australia (original colony formed in 1851); and the City of Victoria, the chief city of Hong Kong Island, named in 1843.
The former British colony and present US state of Maryland is officially claimed to have been named after Queen Consort Mary (Henrietta Maria), wife of Charles I of England, in 1632 (during her reign), although The Other Wiki cites some historical claims that founder George Calvert actually named the colony after Mary the mother of Jesus.
Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas, was named after King James I in 1607 (during his reign). And Williamsburg, the famously preserved colonial village that was a one-time capital of Virginia Colony, used to be called Middle Plantation before it was renamed Williamsburg in 1699 after then-reigning King William III.
The US state and former colony Georgia was named after King George II during his reign in 1732.
Louisiana Territory, which once covered most of the vast Mississippi-Missouri watershed of North America and was also known as New France, was named for Louis XIV during his reign.
North and South Carolinas (and the city of Charleston, SC) were named after King Charles (both I and II—the first granted the original charter to a certain Lord Heath, the second granted it, after the monarchy was restored, to 8 of his loyal nobles as the original charter was deemed to have expired.) Charles in Latin is "Carolus," which accounts for the "Carolina," meaning Carolus' land.
The city of Charlotte, NC, was named after Queen Charlotte, the wife of King George III. The surrounding county, Mecklenburg, was named after the region of Germany where she originally came from.
When King Charles II gave William Penn a sizeable land grant in North America, he named it Pennsylvania (meaning "Penn's Woods"); William Penn was actually embarrassed that the king named it after him, at which point the King explained that no, he wasn't naming it for Penn himself—whose Quakerism he disdained and whom he personally disliked—but rather for Penn's father, who had been a respected admiral in the Royal Navy who had helped Charles take back his throne, and had been an Anglican to boot (and to top it off, the land grant was in satisfaction of a debt the King owed to the elder Penn). Penn would have preferred either New Wales (because a lot of the settlers who planned to go were Welshnote to this day, several towns west of Philadelphia have Welsh names, and the area is called the Welsh Tract) or Sylvania (again, because of the woods), but Charles II would not change the name of the grant.
New York's (the city and the state) namesake is James Stuart, the Duke of York, and later, King James II. He was the Lord High Admiral when the Royal Navy captured New Amsterdam from the Dutch.
Norway under Danish rule had to cope with at least three examples of this:
King Christian IV named two cities after himself: Kristiansand, and Christiania. The latter doubles as Oslo, but Christian decided to move the entire town across the bay, and then renaming it after himself. It was later renamed Oslo. He also founded Kongsberg (King`s mountain). This name is more of a claim, as the mountain was rich with silver, and the king wanted the indisputed right to prospect there. Thus "the mountain of the king".
His father, Frederik II, did the same thing. The older city of Sarpsborg wasn`t safe enough, so he built Fredrikstad some way downriver.
Christian V founded and named Kristiansund after himself. The Norwegians stuck with the names, lacking better alternatives. Oslo was named back, and there is still a debate over Kristiansund. Fredrikstad stands, and so does Kristiansand.
When English Royal Astronomer William Herschel first discovered the planet Uranus in 1781, he wanted to name it Georgium Sidus (George's Star) after his patron King George III. Other astronomers eventually persuaded him to follow mythological convention for planet names, and it was named Uranus, the Romanized name of the Greek God of the Sky Ouranos.
Ironically, the French wanted to name it Herschel.
Trope prevalent in the naming of the cities in the Belgian Congo: