In the age of analog television, TV pictures were transmitted as a series of lines that were drawn on the screen extremely fast. The term for this type of image is "raster," from the Latin "rastrum," meaning "rake." Flatscreens don't do this, and instead produce a moving picture as a series of quick stills, as film does.
During the era in which Raster Vision was a genuine phenomenon, movies that showed television tended to aim for Crystal Clear Picture, either using a picture drop-in or a special TV set with the same refresh rate as a film camera (24 frames per second). Actual TV sets (in North America, at least) refreshed at 29.97 fps, and this speed mismatch produced a strong, unpleasant flicker in the filmed image.
Although precursor examples (such as the holograms in Star Wars) existed, Raster Vision became common when film and television production fully entered the digital age. As with Lens Flare before it, Raster Vision - once an unsightly product of technical limitations - became an aesthetic unto itself. Examples in media are one of two types:
Genuine: A filmed TV set, with flicker and scan lines. TV shows (except for Soap Operas) were generally filmed, rather than taped, and will show flicker. (Recording a TV set with a camera with the same refresh rate doesn't produce flicker). Scan lines are most noticeable on black and white sets, which have a single, uniform layer of greenish-white zinc sulfide on the inside of the picture tube. The different systems for reproducing color have overlaying wires or grids that obscure the raster effect to a degree.
Simulated: Much more common in 21st century media. Scan lines are often much thicker than they were on CRT televisions - a visibly thick line is impractical for picture reproduction - and appear on flat screens and holograms, neither of which reproduce pictures as raster images.
Raster Vision examples:
- Perhaps the earliest example comes from "Captain TVideo," a spoof on Captain Video that appeared in a 1954 issue of MAD magazine (still a comic book at the time). Every single panel is covered with hand-drawn horizontal lines, which add to the spoof's running joke that the production values of Captain Video were terrible (which, by all accounts, they were).
- Common in the films of the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
- Averted in Videodrome, which is credited as being the first film to feature low-flicker television.
- Used in stylized form on the poster's logo, however.
- Used for a Video Phone showing only the back of the President's head in The Crazies (1973). note
- Used in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope for the holograms. This is an early use of Raster Vision as an aesthetic - the crummy holograms fit in with the worn-out nature of the tech shown in the movies.
- Seen on the Nostromo's various computer monitors in Alien (but see Alien: Isolation under video games, below).
- Vertical raster bars appear on the TV set inside the Construct in The Matrix.
- Once La Résistance has unlocked the data from the mind of Johnny Mnemonic, J-Bone hijacks the airwaves to wide-band (broadcast) the cure for Neural Attenuation Syndrome to the masses. His broadcast is twitchy and low-resolution, but still coherent. This undermines the Evil Plan of Pharmakom and the Yakuza to keep much of humanity tethered to a cure to the disorder they created.
- In the original RoboCop (1987), the title character sees in raster lines after becoming a cyborg.
- On the close-up shots of televisions in Lethal Weapon.
- In the holographic interface in Paycheck.
- Used for some (but not all) video screens in Interstellar.
- Appears on the final TV screen shown in Don't Breathe.
- Used not only for video footage but for the poster of Europa Report.
- Contact features a lot of this, with a whole scene dedicated to showing a science team trying to make sense of a TV signal from deep space.
- Appears on the spaceship's black and white monitors screen in Ascension.
- In the video for "Ghost", part of the Mystery Skulls Animated series, this effect is used for a flashback... as shown in a picture frame...
- The video for "Weird Al" Yankovic's "Word Crimes" includes a snippet recreating the Windows 95 desktop as seen on a CRT monitor.
- Used for the opening seconds of Meghan Trainor's "NO" video.
- Used in the video for "Crack" by The Left Rights (the part that recreates Super Mario Bros.)
- Occurs naturally on the CRT Video Phone screens in Babylon 5.
- Appears in the period-correct screens on Stranger Things.
- Appears on the TV screens in The Man in the High Castle (which, somewhat oddly, are 16:9 CRTs - in the 1960s.)
- Used in the archival footage in the Netflix documentary series Wild Wild Country.
- In order to recreate the feel of the Nostromo from Alien in Alien: Isolation, CRT screens were videotaped, with that footage then dropped into the game and displayed on in-game screens for the proper analog feel.
- Used for the dispenser screens in Team Fortress 2.
- Used on the futuristic computer screens of the Combine in Half-Life 2
- Shown in SOMA. Especially odd for the setting, being in the year 2104 using flat-screen monitors.
- Raster lines appear as an overlay on kill screen playbacks in Overwatch.
- The Stella Atari 2600 emulator includes some optional effects to simulate a CRT TV.
- The outro for Game Grumps takes the form of a CRT screen (with the show's logo burned into it).