"Stupid national anthem... Look at this flag! Two bears, fighting over a pineapple. What message does this send to the world?! 'Come to Belarus! Where wild animals will steal your fruit!'"Ruritania is a generic name for any archetypal fictional country located in Central Europe or the Balkans, an area encompassing most of the territory east of Germany and west of Russia. This country is characterized by its small size, backward customs, and forests full of Savage Wolves and bears. It is often the home of the Funny Foreigner. The name comes from Anthony Hope's 1894 novel The Prisoner of Zenda. The concept originated originated about the same time; the idea itself was at least in part inspired by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was popularly regarded by western Europeans as an incompetent backwater. It spurred an entire genre, known as the Ruritanian Romance (which is derived from Chivalric Romance, not the love story meaning of Romance). At that time and in most early 20th century depictions, Ruritania had a royal house. The King actually did something, the Prince was dashing, the Princess was dazzling, and the headgear was quite frankly ridiculous. The kingdom was forever being schemed against by a lot of dastardly usurpers or anarchists and was a source of tension amongst the Great Powers. That last bit was actually true, unfortunately. A classic example is, of course, the original. Although it is worth noting that where most examples of this trope are set in the Balkans or Eastern Europe, the original was wedged between Germany and Bohemia and had a Germanic-style culture. Between the wars, the typical Ruritania became slightly less primitive. Wolves, bears, and superstitious peasants still abounded, but automobiles had been introduced and the army now had tanks and planes, with which it prepared bloody revenge on its neighbours. The royals were still around, if a bit less powerful then before, but are now being schemed against by even more dastardly fascists and communists. When WW2 rolled around, Ruritania was likely occupied by the Germans, or was possibly itself an Axis power. In either case, brave partisans equipped with formidable beards kept up a heroic struggle against tyranny without forgetting their true enemy - the village on the other side of the valley. After the war, many Ruritanias became Commie Land and continued to be a lurking place for Dirty Communists, either Soviet-backed or home-grown. With the coming of Hole in Flag revolutions, Ruritania has pretty much reverted to what it started with: ludicrous hair, ethnic strife, poverty, and backwardness. The most noticeable changes are that the monarchy is (usually) gone, replaced by a mock democracy run by some unsavoury generals; the Great Powers are now acting through NATO or the UN. Everyone still seems to hate his neighbours, the anarchists may still be around, or they may have mutated into terrorists or plain old gangsters. With any luck, contemporary Ruritania might be a part of the EU, causing more trouble for its finances than Greece, Spain and Ireland taken together. If the place shows some of the characteristics of Ruritania, but is also full of vampires, werewolves, Mad Scientists, and other Fantasy or Horror genre tropes, you've strayed over the border into Überwald. We hope you brought some garlic and don't leave the hotel room at night. Not to be confused with Ruri-tania.note Compare with Banana Republic, Qurac and Bulungi.
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- Discover's advertising includes a bearded Ruritanian man calling himself "Peggy," who acts to mock their competitors' overseas call centers.
Anime and Manga
- Sailor Moon actually named its fake countries D Country, with its Nerd Glasses-wearing princess simply named Princess D, and U Country, with its... vampire ambassador. No doubt D Country is the original home of Master-D. In the anime, there's also the Amethyst Kingdom, where apparently, the concept of money doesn't exist. Fridge Logic much?
- Lupin III: A few miscellaneous Ruritanias have been featured on the various Lupin TV series. Notable movie examples below.
- The Duchy of Cagliostro from The Castle of Cagliostro. Lupin states that the country is 'Ruritanian' when they first enter it, along with it being the smallest UN nation (population: 3500).
- Vespania from Lupin III vs. Detective Conan, contains expected first-world technology, but remains much less developed and less economically powerful than other countries. A new mineral found only in their country is stolen by Lupin.
- Meine Liebe is set between world wars in a lovely noble monarchy on an non-existing island in the Bay of Biscay which lives as if it was still XIX or even XVIII century.
- Iono the Fanatics is a two-issue Girls Love manga whose whole plot is about an Ordinary High-School Student being pursued by the Loveable Sex Maniac queen of a small and obscure European nation. In fact, it's implied at several points that the queen's obsession with having a massive (several thousand strong) harem of women is partially responsible for the traditional poverty associated with Ruritania — one part the economic drain of having to support hundreds of women who live lavish lifestyles but basically do nothing but lounge around, have sex and otherwise amuse themselves, one part the implcation she's already taken most, if not all, of the women in the country as her courtesans.
- The Marvel Universe has several, most notably Doctor Doom's homeland of Latveria.
"Come ski in Vorozheika. Also shoot bears."
- Latveria's next-door neighbor Symkaria, which exists mostly as a base for the Sablinova family's assassin company, the Wild Pack. They hold annual diplomatic dinners.
- Slorenia, which was invaded by Ultron.
- Vorozheika, a former Soviet republic currently ruled by rogue Eternal Druig.
- Nightcrawler once rescued a woman named Judith Rassendyll, who turned out to be the queen of Ruritania (Uncanny X-Men #204).
- To some extent, the portrayal of real Central and Eastern European countries in Marvel comics can verge on this — it can be only a small step from Oktoberfest to Ruritania. Germany, apart from Berlin, for instance is generally portrayed in older Marvel comics as a mostly rural place rife with superstitious villagers and sinister looming medieval castles. Giant-Size X-Men #1, for example, opens in the village of Winzeldorf that "has hardly changed over the centuries", apparently to such an extent that they haven't even installed street lighting. Culturally, the place where Mystique gave birth to Nightcrawler, lorded over by a local baron, resembles part of prewar Europe. Pre-Franco-German War, that is.
- In the DC Universe:
Green Lantern (upon landing in Costa Verde): "This Earth may be smaller than ours, but they still have room for countries we don't have!"
- Markovia, ruled by Prince Brion Markov, who is also the superhero Geo-Force.
- Kahndaq, homeland of Black Adam.
- The DCAU has Kaznia/Kasnia.
- For a while after the "Our Worlds At War" arc, there was the Soviet breakaway state of Pokolistan, ruled by the human version of General Zod.
- A Mythology Gag brought up repeatedly in the four-part Justice League/Avengers intercompany crossover. The JLA members in particular are nonplussed about the absence of many of their universe's Ruritanias and fictional cities.
- Superman - Ruritanias were very common in both The Golden Age of Comic Books and The Silver Age of Comic Books. The first appearance of Lex Luthor was in a 1940 comic in which he was revealed to be the mastermind behind a war between fascist Toran and peaceful Gallonia.
- The Adventures of Tintin feature Syldavia, a kind of Balkan Belgium menaced by its warlike neighbor Borduria. Borduria stands in for Nazism in Tintin: King Ottokar's Sceptre and for Stalinesque Communism in later stories. Syldavia is an atypically detailed version of Ruritania with its own flag, royal dynasty, historical events and even a language created by Hergé. The made-up language, despite being written in Cyrillic script, was, remarkably, not Slavic but a dialect of Flemish/Dutch with some curious phonetics. In Tintin Destination Moon, it becomes the setting for a fictional space program.In Tintin The Calculus Affair, Syldavia and Borduria are struggling in a secret war for Calculus' device. The consul of Poldavia (see under Real Life) makes a brief appearance in Tintin The Blue Lotus.
- Spirou and Fantasio visit the country of Bretzelburg, a faux-Austrian military dictatorship which borders another imaginary country of faux-Italian flavor, Maquebasta. It is probably a faux-Liechtenstein, a very tiny monarchy located between Austria and Switzerland.
- Carl Barks' and Don Rosa's Disney Ducks Comic Universe have Brutopia, an obvious name-changed version of the USSR.
- Also appears in several Mickey Mouse comics:
- In Floyd Gottfredson's classic "The War Orphans" (1944), Mickey helps two kids from a Ruritanian country threatened by the Nazis.
- Gottfredson's earlier "Monarch of Medioka" (1937) basically repeats the story of the Prisoner of Zenda with Mickey replacing "Prince Michael."
- Romano Scarpa's "Mystery of Tapiocus VI" (1956) finds Mickey helping out the amnesiac king of Mazumia, another Ruritanian country.
- In a more modern story, Mickey and Goofy travel the small country of "Schnitzelstein" to catch a thief, but Mickey forgets that he isn't a well-known detective in Schnitzelstein, and cannot simply walk into a police office and demand their cooperation; he gets Goofy and himself wanted as criminals.
- Casty's recent "The World To Come" finds Mickey and Eega Beeva engaged in intrigue with the country of Illusitania, which is shown on a map as being located near Medioka and Mazumia.
- Another Disney example, Belgravia from Paperinik New Adventures.note
- TV 21, the comic which tied in to various Gerry Anderson shows, had the country of Bereznik which acted as a recurring source of antagonists. This country was apparently carved out at some point in the 21st century from various real life countries following The Great Politics Mess-Up.
- A Richie Rich comic once featured a country called Insignifica, a land so small that it could be bought with two unique coins minted for the royal family, the tallest of whom was considered rightful heir to the throne.
- The germanic Zôtrland in Ach!lle Talon adventure Le Roi des Zôtres.
- In the My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic oneshot fanfiction, Adored the Changeling Kingdom is a straight-up allegory to Tsarist Russia. It is a mountainous, winter beset country, overwhelmingly populated by a large and extremely poor peasant population who are ruled over by an extremely rich, but incompetent and inept autocratic monarchy. Queen Chrysalis is essentially the Tsar; incompetent, having little grasp on the reality of her subjects' suffering, living in an extravagant palace.
- The Powers Of Harmony has the small town of Transylmane in the Hollow Shades region of Equestria.
Films — Animated
- World Grand Prix competitor Rip Clutchgoneski from Cars 2 hails from the newly independent "Republic of New Rearendia".
Films — Live-Action
- The Beautician And The Beast has Slovetzia, a communist kingdom Ruritania, ruled by dictator Timothy Dalton. The Nanny introduces Eagleland values to him, like freedom and democracy, the whole country is stunned, adopt Eagleland osmosis and the dictator falls in love with her. The End.
- The 1982 film adaptation of Evil Under the Sun is set on an island resort in the Adriatic kingdom of Tyrrania (apparently Albania). The source novel was set in Devon.
- Borat note turns Kazakhstan into a Ruritania as a satire on how first-world citizens view foreign, third-world countries. The country is depicted as a cartoonish backwater, with cars drawn by donkeys and absurdly intolerant local customs. The scenes were actually filmed in a Romanian village. The people of the village didn't take it with much humor when they heard what the actual movie was about. The only real Kazakh in the movie appears in the village as Oksana. The Khazak language featured in the film is all other languages, depending on the speaker. Borat speaks mostly Hebrew with some Polish thrown in. Azamat speaks Armenian.
- The Marx Brothers movie Duck Soup (1933) has Freedonia, land of the brave and free! In a clear-cut case of Western Imperialism, the wealthy Mrs. Teasdale insists running dog Rufus T. Firefly (Groucho) be appointed President in return for half her husband's fortune to avoid an impending liberation by neighboring Sylvania. (It's not clear whether this is the same Sylvania portrayed in the 1929 film The Love Parade, in which Maurice Chevalier plays a Rich Idiot with No Day Job who becomes prince consort to Sylvania's Queen Louise.)
- The largely forgotten W.C. Fields classic Million Dollar Legs (1932) takes place in Klopstockia (chief exports: goats and nuts: chief imports: goats and nuts: chief inhabitants: goats and nuts). The country's out of money and the President's own cabinet are plotting against him. American salesman Migg Tweeney, who's fallen in love with the President's daughter, notices a lot of champion-level athletes among the general population. Since his boss plans to give huge financial grants to Olympic gold medal winners, Tweeney arranges to have Klopstockia entered in the 1932 Games. In the opening scene we see that Klopstockia is 56km from Haustpeff. Both this film and Duck Soup were produced for Paramount by Herman Manckiewicz.
- In The Smiling Lieutenant, the lieutenant is forced to marry the daughter of the king of a tiny Germanic principality called Flausenthurm.
- In Steven Spielberg's The Terminal, Victor Navorski comes from the fictional East European country of Krakozhia. Though the Krakozhian language is actually Bulgarian.
- Chitty Chitty Bang Bang has Vulgaria. It is as much Prussian as Ruritanian.
- The 1940 film The Son of Monte Cristo takes place in the the Balkan kingdom of "Lichtenburg", where the good Princess Zona (Joan Bennett) suffers from the advances of the unscrupulous dictator, General Gurko Lanen (George Sanders). The eponymous hero (Lewis Hayward) leads the revolution in the guise of "The Torch."
- The Great Dictator: Tomania, Fictional Counterpart to Nazi Germany, Bacteria, Fictional Counterpart to Fascist Italy, and Osterlitch, Fictional Counterpart of Austria.
- You Nazty Spy - A The Three Stooges short has Moronika, which stands in for Germany in the ''Moronika for Morons!''
- Concordia in the Cold War comedy Romanoff and Juliet, a postage-stamp European nation that has been conquered and liberated so many times that its citizens "are nominally the freest people in the world", and every day is an Independence Day of some sort. (In the original stage version, the country is not named.) Fiercely determined to maintain neutral during the Cold War, the prime minister ended up playing matchmaker between the Russian ambassador's son and the American ambassador's daughter. Concordia is the ass of the UN; at the UN roll-call, all the nations are called in alphabetical order, with a note on the bottom of the page, "P.S. And Concordia." The country could be a parody of Tito's Yugoslavia.
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire - The Durmstrang students hailing from an unspecified Ruritania showed up for the Triwizard Tournament in a ship bearing the double-headed eagle of the Byzantine Empire. The name Durmstrang comes from Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress"), a German literary movement. The students are all young men in neat crewcuts and presented in a very disciplined and proud manner (like archetypal German students), wearing tsigeika coats and karakul hats (which are Slavic). Meanwhile, their headmaster Igor Karkaroff has a Russian-sounding surname, looks like Grigori Rasputin (who was Siberian), and behaves like a stereotypical Russian. At least some of the Durmstrang students have their nationality exactly specified (as Bulgarian).
- Austin Powers features a nuclear warhead being stolen from the country "Kreplachistan." Kreplach is a Yiddish word for small dumplings, possibly indicating that Kreplachistan is a disguised Israel.
- The Duchy of Grand Fenwick in The Mouse That Roared.
- The country of Strackenz from Royal Flash, a movie explicitly parodying Hope's The Prisoner of Zenda and its imitations.
- The unnamed country in the 1978 UK-Canadian mockumentary drama Power Play. The whole plot starts with a coup that tries to overthrow the local People's Republic of Tyranny that ruled the country until then.
- The Princess Diaries: The tiny European kingdom of Genovia (a stand-in for Monaco).
- In Eurotrip, Bratislava is presented as such, with bleak, post-Soviet urban decay and overblown stereotypes of post-collapse Eastern European poverty.
- In Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story, White Goodman mentions that team Purple Cobras' resident Dark Chick Fran Stalinovskovichdavidovitchsky hails form the country of Romanovia, where Dodgeball is the national sport.
- The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg is set in an obviously Germanic little kingdom called "Karlsberg" around the beginning of the 20th century.
- Casino Royale (2006) averts this, with Montenegro portrayed as a modern Mediterranean country with a distinctive Italian-like charm, advanced infrastructure and luxurious facilities (so much so that apart from a few characters calling it by name and a flag popping out here and there, it could just as well pass as Italy). The movie was a godsend for the Montenegrin tourist industry.
- The Grand Budapest Hotel is set in the fictional Central European country of Zubrowka, the seat of an empire before a conflict (described by director Wes Anderson as a amalgamation of WWI and WWII) with its "neighbor to the north" breaks out in late 1932. The Empire of Zubrowka quickly falls due to government and military incompetence, endures a short-lived but imperious occupation, becomes the Republic of Zubrowka, and is overtaken by a Communist regime in the 1940's. By the modern day, the former Republic of Zubrowka is a quiet Alpine backwater. Zubrowka itself was designed as a representation of Austria, with Lutz, its capital city, intended to be Vienna, Prague, and Budapest "all rolled into one".
- Civilization is a 1916 anti-war film set in the nation of Wredpryd, which is obviously (spiked helmets, upturned mustaches, submarine warfare), supposed to be Germany.
- Both the 1925 version and the 1934 version of The Merry Widow are set in fictional tiny Eastern European principalities, Monteblanco in 1925 and Marshovia in 1934, countries tiny enough that one widow taking her fortune abroad is Serious Business. See Theatre below for the original opera.
- Avengers: Age of Ultron has Sokovia, a fictional Eastern European nation with HYDRA operations, and home to Pietro and Wanda Maximoff. It has a post-Soviet vibe to it, signposted in Cyrillic and possessing an architectural mix of toned-down European-style facades with concrete buildings, and apparently has seen violent conflict within the last ten to fifteen years. The country is also notably more backward, with a restive population hostile towards the Avengers. It appears to be a mashup between the twins' comic book home country of Transia and the nation of Slorenia which Ultron massacred.
- In Film/Koenigsmark/Crimson Dynasty (1935), Grand Duchess Aurora is forced into marriage with the much older Grand Duke Rudolph, who mysteriously "dies abroad". Aurora returns to her castle and duchy, where she falls in love with her husband's nephew's French tutor. War between France and the eastern empire or federation breaks out. Caught between divided loyalties and a dynastic struggle, what is Aurora to do? Takes place mainly in a Bavarian-style castle surrounded by wolf-haunted forests. Based on a novel by Pierre Benoit, it was made in both English and French.
- In The Prince and the Showgirl, the titular prince is the prince regent of a fictional Balkan country called Carpathia.
- Charlie Chaplin's 1957 comedy film A King in New York begins with King Igor Shahdov being deposed by a revolution in his distinctly Ruritanian East European country, fleeing to the United States only to discover his securities were embezzled by his Prime Minister.
- The Trope Namer is the fictional country from Anthony Hope's novel The Prisoner of Zenda, which was published in 1894 and inspired a whole genre of "Ruritanian Romances." There's some evidence that Hope intended Ruritania to be a No Communities Were Harmed version of Romania rather than a generic East European country, having done rather a lot of research, but it was hard to tell unless one happened to have done as much research as he did and overlooks that he placed Ruritania not in Eastern Europe, but smack in between Saxony and Bohemia, two of what then were some of the most advanced industrial regions in Central Europenote .
- There is also a fair bit of Unbuilt Trope at work. Most later Ruritanias tend to be small, backwards and, at least in the early imitations, idyllic. Stephenson's Ruritania was a decent-sized (the capital city is large enough to have a cathedral and is described by Londoner Rassendyl as a "great city") modern (if not particularly socially progressive) country which played a pivotal role in European history on a number of occasions, and which was plagued by public order problems, deep socio-economic divides, having an absolute monarch who was neither particularly well-liked nor particularly competent and internal squabbling in the royal family bringing the nation to the brink of civil war.
- However, the literary Ur-Example is found in Robert Louis Stevenson 1885 novel Prince Otto, featuring the alpine country of Grunewald.
- Graustark from the novels of George Barr McCutcheon.
- The Duchy of Grand Fenwick, a tiny European country about the size of a small town, in the Mouse books by Leonard Wibberley. It defeats the United States in a war in The Mouse That Roared (which it intended to lose); beats the U.S. and Soviet Union in a space race in The Mouse on the Moon; and disrupts the world's finances in The Mouse on Wall Street. In a medieval prequel, Beware of the Mouse, he gives more background on the founding of Grand Fenwick. Here Grand Fenwick is located between France and Switzerland, and the population is English.
- Harry Potter - The Durmstrang Institute of Magic possibly exists in a Ruritania with Eastern European and Germanic overtones. It's never stated exactly where it's located. Some students explicitly hail from Bulgaria or Russia, while former student Gellert Grindelwald has a Hungarian first name and German surname. The name "Durmstrang" is a fairly obvious play on the German phrase "Sturm und Drang."
- Genovia in The Princess Diaries book series is a fictitious European Principality, however it is more Mediterranean than Easten European. It's a teeny place (1 mile long, with a population of 50,000) which is supposed to be between France and Italy (reminiscent of Monaco, or, maybe, Seborga) or between France and Spain (like Andorra) in the movies where it's a Kingdom. It's pretty nice, if a bit dull.
- 1938 novel Biggles Goes To War features two Ruritanias: small, peace-loving Maltovia and bullying larger neighbour Lovitznia. Although a thinly-disguised allegory for the German takeover of Austria, in the novel it is the Maltovians who appear more German and the Lovitznians who have more of the Slav about them. It is left to the reader to decide whether Capt. Johns was inverting the stereotype or subtly pushing a message about the Red Menace...
- Borogravia from the Discworld book Monstrous Regiment.
- Mixolydia is a Slavic Ruritania invented by Angela Thirkell for her Barsetshire novels. In the novel "Cheerfulness Breaks In," set in the opening year of World War Two, Barsetshire has to accomodate a number of refugees from Mixolydia, all of whom are various foreigner tropes. We learn that the local religion is Orthodoxy, and they have a long list of hereditary enemies among real-world nations. The name is a word-play on the mixolydian mode or scale in music.
- Barrayar in Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan Saga book series is basically a planet-wide Ruritania. The planet was settled by Russians, Greeks, French, and English, with Russian culture dominating. Take a multi-cultural interstellar colony, add several centuries of dark ages, and shake.
- The plot of the Agatha Christie novel The Secret of Chimneys is about the murder of the prince of the Balkanic state of "Herzoslovakia", and the identity of the next in line for the throne. Many plot elements are (probably deliberately) reminiscent of The Prisoner of Zenda.
- Dashiell Hammett's Continental Op novella This King Business is a weird genre hybrid that puts a hard-boiled detective into a The Prisoner of Zenda-style plot.
- Ursula K. Le Guin's Orsinian Tales - The fictional Central European nation Orsinia fits this trope perfectly, covering several centuries of imagined history.
- "The Loyal Traitor", in G. K. Chesterton's 1930 book Four Faultless Felons, takes place in the mythical Teutonic kingdom of Pavonia (<L., pavo, peacock).
- James Hogan's Voyage From Yesteryear has Baluchistan, a tangentially-mentioned (and surprisingly extant, though only as a region in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, and not a state) battleground for the US and USSR.
- Agaton Sax - This detective drama spoof featured the Balkan (and appearenly Communist) republics Brosnia and Mercegovina. The eponymous detective starts his career by stopping counterfeiters from wrecking the Brosnian economy. Brosnian criminal mastermind professor Anaxagoras Frank is a regular bad guy, and the author, who loved to play with language, gives us several examples of "Brosnian".
- The main character of Rose Tremain's The Road Home hails from an unnamed Ruritania whose location is never given to any more precision than "Eastern Europe". It is generally considered to represent Poland - the story was loosely based on accounts of Polish migrant labourers - but doesn't resemble it very much.
- Evelyn Waugh's Vile Bodies just went ahead and named its version "Ruritania". The ex-king is a minor character who appears at a party and misses his old pen, which had an eagle on it.
- Many Michael Moorcock works feature the fictional Central European city-state of Mirenberg to a greater or lesser extent, although it's quite a lot more culturally and artistically sophisticated than the usual Ruritania.
- Robert Musil's "Kakania" (from the term "K.u.K.") wasn't so much based on the Habsburg Empire. Rather, it pretty much was Austria-Hungary. He proceeds to describe how strange, unappreciated and unflattering it was. In the end however, he realizes that Kakania/Habsburgia had an underlying order that betrayed a stroke of genius.
- The Duchy of Strackenz in Royal Flash (Vol 2 of The Flashman Papers). This is something of a mobius example because, in-story, Anthony Hope based The Prisoner of Zenda on Flashman's account of his exploits in Strackenz.
- Andre Norton's first novel, The Prince Commands, took place in "Morvania" in the early 1930s. The Air Force consisted of one barely-flyable plane, and horse cavalry was still a viable force because machine guns were rare and armored cars or tanks not available. The conspirators against the throne included a Communist agitator; the old king had been a brutal tyrant; and the rightful new king, after dodging an assassination attempt, was Faking the Dead and pretending to be a bandit chieftain, rebel, and werewolf. Despite its small size, the place was apparently strategic enough that the main character, newly designated as Crown Prince, had to make state appearances in Paris, London, and Berlin on his way to Morvania (he'd grown up in the U.S., and ignorant of his heritage, too).
- Bram Stoker's The Lady in the Shroud features the Land of the Blue Mountains, a very, very thinly-veiled Mary Suetopia version of Montenegro.
- Calbia, from the Doc Savage novel The Kingmaker.
- The kingdom of Zembla in Charles Kinbote's "notes" in Vladimir Nabokov's Pale Fire. Anything more would confuse you.
- Subversive Activity is set in 1875 in Maldona, which occupies a small peninsula east of Greece and west of Turkey.
- A College Of Magics and When The King Comes Home feature a cluster of small countries that were each a duchy in the old-time Kingdom of Lidia before it fell apart. Most of them (including Galazon, the heroine's homeland in A College of Magics) are still duchies, but Aravill promoted itself to a kingdom (and is considered jumped-up by its neighbours).
- The American government textbook American Government by Wilson and Di Iulio contains a hypothetical scenario in which you are asked how you, as a journalist, would deal with inside information about terrorists from Ruritania.
- The fictitious travel guide Molvanîa: a Land Untouched by Modern Dentistry is about one of these. Molvanîa itself is probably better known on the Internet as the home country of pop singer Zladko Vladcik (played by the book's co-writer Santo Cilauro) of 'Elektronik Supersonik' fame.
- Gerolstein in the Prince Rodolphe tales by Eugene Sue.
- The Former Soviet Autonomous Region of Krassnia in The Restoration Game by Ken MacLeod. The book is mostly set in the present, in which Krassnia is a bit of the Georgia/Chechnya border with its own language and dreams of independence, but has extensive Flashbacks to Krassnia under the Soviets in The Thirties and The '80s and as part of the Russian Empire in The Edwardian Era. The name is a Shout-Out to an allegory by J.B.S. Haldane, in which the Republic of Krassnia has "materialism" as a state religion, and this very much informs the character of MacLeod's Krassnia.
- Avram Davidson's stories of Dr. Eszterhazy are set in the Empire of Scythia-Pannonia-Transbalkania, the "Fourth largest empire in Europe." It's pre-WWI Austria-Hungary turned up to 11, and a recurring theme in the stories is that any change will likely plunge the whole place into bloody chaos.
- Used by name in Philip José Farmer's Riverworld book The Dark Design as one of the millions of tiny states along the great River.
- Lutha in The Mad King by Edgar Rice Burroughs.
- Brungaria in some of the Tom Swift books (e.g. Tom Swift and the Galaxy Ghosts).
- The plot of the Bernie Rhodenbarr novel The Burglar Who Thought He Was Bogart has the creatively named kingdom of Anatruria stand in for Malta for references to The Maltese Falcon and for Czechoslovakia for references to Casablanca. Due to the tone of the aforementioned films, Anatruria is Played for Drama.
- The fictional country of Ravka in The Grisha Trilogy is based off of Tsarist Russia.
- Samavia in The Lost Prince by Frances Hodgson Burnett is one of the last hurrahs of the pre-WWI romantic Ruritania. It's somewhere on the far side of Austria-Hungary from England, but the one time its precise location is given it is expressed in terms of the countries Samavia shares borders with, all of which are just as fictional as it is.
- The Enid Blyton novel The Circus of Adventure has the fictional kingdom of Tauri-Hessia.
- An unusual example can be found in the city-state of Besźel, one of the titular cities in China Miéville's The City & the City. It's described as being bustling and economically prosperous in the 80s, but decayed and backwater in the current day, overtaken by its neighbor city-state, the Istanbul analogue of Ul Qoma. What's so unique about Besźel and Ul Qoma is that they occupy the same space. The citizens of one city are taught from birth to completely ignore the existence of the other, setting up much of the book's plot.
- Simon Templar aka The Saint spent much of his early career fighting the villainous Crown Prince Rudolf - whose country is never named but who gives a distinctly Ruritanian impression.
Live Action TV
- The Doctor Who story "The Androids of Tara" takes place on a Ruritanian planet called Tara, where aristocrats fence with electrified swords. Peladon, the setting for "The Curse of Peladon" and "The Monster of Peladon" has Ruritanian elements. The technologically premodern and tradition-bound planet of Peladon, which still has a monarchy nevertheless has great significance to the galactic powers, given its natural reserve of trisilicate.
- Mission: Impossible sent the main characters into various incarnations of Soviet Ruritania on a regular basis. The producers made up a fake Ruritanian "language" (called Gellerese after the show's executive producer) to use on signs; the idea was that it look somewhat Slavic, but similar enough to English that the viewing audience could immediately guess what it meant - and thus such subtle jokes as "zona restrik", "machinawerke", "gäz" and "entraat verbaten" got into an otherwise serious show.
- Surprisingly, the utility covers for gas pipelines in Real Life Poland really are labeled "gäz".
- The Monk episode "Mr. Monk Falls in Love" involved the country of Zemenia.
- Perfect Strangers, of course, has the Mediterranean island nation of Mypos, a takeoff on Greece and/or Cyprus with elements of a tourist's eye view of Turkey, Armenia and Lebanon. Aspects of Mypos culture seem to be borrowed from George Papashvily's famous book Anything Can Happen, about his early days in the U.S. as a Georgian immigrant. In fact, one episode was a retelling of Papashvily's epic tale of how he attempted to go into business with some friends and made and sold khinkali dumplings to restaurants.
- Often invoked during the "Improbable Mission" segments of Whose Line Is It Anyway?. Colin and Ryan inevitably end up doing a task for the president or prime minster of a country with a name like Allupania or Garfunkistan.
- Malcolm in the Middle has Lois's mother hailing from an unspecified Ruritania, full of wacky traditions including intricate sword dancing for the ladies and extreme contests of strength and mind for the men looking to obtain a wife. Not to mention said mother's ability to intimidate Lois just by speaking her native language.
- There were hints at this country being located in Eastern Europe, and one episode (relating to a St. Grotus day) also strongly implies that said country was actually Croatia (as it took place at a Croatian community center, had a Croatian flag, and it even had poster of Zagreb Cathedral).
- Several episodes of Get Smart featured the Balkan nation of Coronia, which was so much a Ruritania that the episodes it appeared in were a retelling of The Prisoner of Zenda.
- NCIS has a country called Belgravia. (See the comics section for its origin.) In one episode the team has to protect the daughter of the Belgravian ambassador.
- JAG: In “Washington Holiday” Harm is assigned as naval escort to the daughter of the King of Romania while in DC. While Romania is a real country it has not restored its former monarchy in real-life.
- Spoofed in Castle : A murdered spy was supposed to assassinate someone from a country called the Republic of Lovania, but quick Internet search reveals that no such country exists.
- Latka Gravas in Taxi is from an unidentified Ruritania. The national dress seen in episodes like "The Wedding of Latka and Simca" places the homeland somewhere in central Europe.
- The Monkees episode "Royal Flush" has Davy rescuing the princess of Harmonica from drowning, only to find her uncle, Archduke Otto, is trying to assassinate her before she becomes queen. The trope is played with when he spells the name of the country on the phone, there's a pause and he exclaims "There is so!"
- Also, in “The Card Carrying Red Shoes,” a ballerina from the country Druvania falls in love with Peter (or, his “face”).
- And in “The Prince and the Paupers,” Davy switches places with his doppelganger, the prince of Peruvia.
- And again in "Everywhere a Sheik Sheik," Davy is set to marry the Princess Colette of the fictional middle-eastern nation Nahudi.
- In That '70s Show Fes' home country is never identified. Teasers are given that he's anything from Central American to Eastern European. There are multiple times he refers to it as "whatever the hell country I am from."
- The Price Is Right once offered a trip to "Boguslovania" as an April Fools' gag showcase.
- One episode of the Danish political drama Borgen centres around the visit of the president of Turgisia, a former Soviet republic with a dubious human rights record.
- The long-running soap opera Days of Our Lives had an often villainous family, the Alamains, who were royalty from a small European country named Alamania. In an aversion, it's actually implied to be somewhere around France, Germany, and/or Switzerland (and Alemannia is a Real Life alternate name of Germany), but the country is often depicted as so impoverished, autocratic, and corrupt that it might as well be a former Soviet Bloc country.
- Family Tree: Luba comes from Moldavia, which is treated as Ruritania. She frequently discusses bizarre beliefs and customs from her home country.
- Slaka from the British series The Gravy Train Goes East is a post-communist version of this, and is Played for Laughs. Appropriately enough, the series was filmed in 1991, shortly after the Hole in Flag revolutions.
- One MacGyver episode featured two nations called Samadia and Azmir.
- In London's Burning, Blue Watch tackle a fire at the London embassy of Crajova.
- In the introduction to one episode of Canada's Worst Driver Ever, host Andrew Younghusband says that he was doing some reading on "the driving practices of the Volvovian tribe who live in Southern Truckcaristan.''
- Whodunnit? (UK): "A Deadly Tan" featured the murder of a dictator in a Ruritania called Barania, which one of the characters indicated was located between Moldova and Albania. The security forces seemed to have stepped out of a Banana Republic, however.
- The 30 Rock episode "SeinfeldVision" reveals the existence of two European countries that only rich people know about: Svenborgia and Grenyarnia.
- One episode of Forever features a Ruritania called Urkesh. Henry saved its prince decades ago, before the monarchy was overthrown in a violent revolution. When the prince, now an old man, dies in New York, Henry investigates and discovers that he was poisoned. Henry's phrase to the deceased's wife after finding out who he was indicates that the people of Urkesh speak Russian. A scene at an Urkesh restaurant indicates that they use Cyrillic.
- Dilbert has the imaginary Third World country of Elbonia, which according to Word of God, it represents the American view of any country without cable TV: they wear fur hats and wallow around in waist-deep mud. They're also an entire nation of idiots, who have animals in their government and fight wars over handedness (as in, left vs. right).
- There is also the occasional mention of the neighboring country of North Elbonia, which is just like Elbonia but with an even worse government which is downright evil instead of merely stupid.
- Incidentally, the strips which introduced Elbonia described it as an Eastern European country which had recently changed from communism to capitalism (this was written around the time of The Great Politics Mess-Up). This backstory appears to have been Retconned away in subsequent strips.
- Lower Slobbovia is a communist Ruritania which plays a large role in many Li'l Abner plotlines.
- The Radio 4 Sitcom Man of Soup was set in a Ruritania parody with all the associated tropes turned Up to Eleven.
- Bob & Ray - the "funnies in the news" announcer Peter Gorey (Bob, using a Lorre accent: "Een other news, only vun man vas keeled attempting suicide today...") hailed from Lower Schizophrenia.
- Space:1889 places an actual Ruritania in the Balkans, in Conklin's Atlas of the Worlds.
- In the popular card game Contraband, the most valuable card that players must smuggle past the "Customs Officer" is labelled as the Ruritanian Crown Jewels.
- Possibly the Ur-Example : The Grand Duchy of Gerolstein in Jacques Offenbach 1867 operetta La Grande Duchesse de Gerolstein.
- Andorra in Max Frisch's eponymous Andorra. Explicitly stated not to be related to the real-life microstate of Andorra in any way. Then there is also its unnamed, bigger Fascist neighbour, which seems to be closely inspired by Nazi Germany.
- The Irving Berlin musical Call Me Madam has the duchy of Lichtenburg — a portmanteau of Liechtenstein and Luxembourg: "too small to be a city, too big to be a town." Its main export is cheese.
- Pontevedro in The Merry Widow (renamed Marsovia in the first English translation of the operetta). By the way, it's a thinly disguised Montenegro.
- In Ivor Novello's King's Rhapsody, most of the action takes place in the kingdom of Murania.
- Young Frankenstein says outright, in the song "Transylvania Mania," "Whether you're in Ruritania, or a dance hall in Albania."
- Gilbert and Sullivan created two significant Ruritanias: Barataria in The Gondoliers and Pfennig-Halbpfennig ("Penny-Halfpenny" in German) in The Grand Duke.
- Don't Drink The Water, written by Woody Allen early in his career, is set in the American embassy of an unnamed Soviet Ruritania.
- Jean-Paul Sartre's Dirty Hands (Les Mains Sales) is set in a fictional European country called Illyria during World War II. It is supposed to be an ally of Nazi Germany, on the verge of being annexed to the Eastern Bloc.
- Half-Life 2 is set in what appears to have been at one time a former Soviet state. No word has been given on the place's true location, and judging by the accents of all the NPCs you meet there, none of them are from there (seeing that many of them were forcibly relocated.) The only true native seems to be Father Grigori.
- Strangely though, the gas pumps around City 17 are labeled in Swedish.
- City 17, while not acknowledged to be anywhere specific within the game, is modeled after Sofia, capitol of Bulgaria and the Art Director's home town. The plaza in particular is almost identical (besides the Combine locks, checkpoints, cameras, and sense of Orwellian tyranny, of course).
- The car wrecks are distinctively eastern block, like the trabant.
- In the Ace Combat series, the nation of "Belka" (a real word, Russian for... squirrel?..) is the bad guy country and starts the Belkan War. Half the countries in Ace Combat follow this pattern — Yuktobania, Usea, Estovakia, etc.
- Chrome Hounds's fictional nation, The Republic of Morskoj. Its history labels it as a former Soviet satellite that gained its independence when the Soviet Union collapsed, though they remain strong allies with Russia. Of course, they live in the coldest region of the fictional continent the game is set in. Olyena Guba seems to be the remnants of Ruritania past. And it is normally a Morskoj territory.
- Infocom's Border Zone is set in the fictional Soviet satellite state of Frobnia, complete with gruff officials demanding papers, run-down Soviet-era block apartments, international Cold War espionage plots, and a faux-Slavic language.
- The satirical PC shooter Heavy Weapon revels in this trope, set in an alternate 1984 where the "Red Star" has declared war on the rest of the world, and the player rolls the title vehicle through nineteen faux-Soviet countries.
- Act 3 of Metal Gear Solid 4 simply takes place in "Eastern Europe". Although the specific country you're in is never named, it is certainly Prague within the Czech Republic. Notably, though, it's not portrayed as rural at all; the entire mission takes place in a reasonably modern city.
- Metal Gear - Outer Heaven, although various supplementary materials state that it is located within the Republic of South Africa. The Galzburg region of the Republic of South Africa, however, does qualify as a ruritania.
- Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake - Zanzibar Land. It straddles the line between Ruritania and Qurac.
- Sega's tactical RPG Valkyria Chronicles features the not-so-subtle "East European Imperial Alliance" as the villain nation, managing to mix together Tsarist Russia and the Warsaw Pact into one fun, evil package. They also look like Putting on the Reich A Nazi by Any Other Name.
- Republic: The Revolution is set in Novistrana, a post-Communist Ruritania complete with lots of concrete and people Speaking Simlish with a distinctly Slavic cadence.
- Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney has the Republic of Borginia, which is vaguely eastern European and has what are probably Romani and its language, Borginian, is written in dingbat characters.
- In Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth there is Cohdopia, an European nation that was split into two smaller countries (Babahl and Allebahst) as well. As well as as the republic of Zheng Fa.
- Sloborskaia in the N64 adaptation of Mission Impossible (1997).
- Sercia (presumably a pun on Serbia) in Time Crisis.
- The Malden Islands and the Independent Republic of Nogova Island from Operation Flashpoint. Bonus points for them being ex-Commie Lands that recently liberated themselves from Soviet clutches (but had to fight for their own independence once again during the storylines of the game's campaigns).
- Operation Flashpoint's Spiritual Successors, ARMA: Armed Assault. The Kingdom of Sahrani Island from the first ARMA game played this trope fairly straight, being a stereotypical Mediterranean-esque monarchy. It's adversary is the aforementioned People's Republic of Tyranny in the northern half of the island, which broke away from the kingdom a few years ago. If you succeed in beating the main campaign, you can defeat the Democratic Republic of Sahrani and help restore the original united kingdom.
- In ARMA II, you get the Republic of Chernarus, a Czech-speaking country bordering on Russia that gets entangled in bloody civil war with Russophone Communist extremists (and later with Nationalist militias), sparking first a NATO, then a Russian intervention. It takes its name from Belarus, its geography from the Czech Republic, the conflict from the The Yugoslav Wars, and its general aesthetics from Ukraine. Incidentally, since the outbreak of the Ukrainian Civil War in 2014, it has become surprisingly prophetic in its subject matter.
- Also, the conflict in Takistan seen in ARMA II: Operation Arrowhead has any resemblance to the First Gulf War for how it started, the Second Gulf War for what happened to the country, or to Afghanistan for how the local people behave.
- Arstotzka of Papers, Please is a Soviet-era Ruritania set among a cluster of other Ruritanias. It has all the features of a Soviet Bloc country of the era, including bureaucracy, constant rule changes, and rampant corruption — but given the constant flood of people trying to sneak in, it's entirely possible the surrounding nations are even worse.
- In the Strong Bad Email "secret recipes", Strong Bad claims his family is from "Bumdumbourge". "It's near, uh, Totalslava."
- Wallachia, in the Whateley Universe. Supervillain Lord Paramount took it over and crowned himself Prince of the country.
- Wallachia is a real place, nowadays a geographic region of Romania. It was formed as a principality in the 14th century, an independent nation ruled by a price.
- This article on Cracked (about ridiculous G.I. Joe action figures) parodies this trope by mentioning that villain Darklon originates from "the kingdom of Darklonia, a nebulous Eastern Bloc nation sharing its borders with Borovia and Madeupbullshitistan".
- Ben 10: Ultimate Alien gives us Zarkovia, a small monarchy somewhere in Europe.
- Doug: The country of Yakistonia, home of Fentruck Stimmel.
- Rolf of Ed, Edd 'n' Eddy seems to come from one of these, though we never learn what "the Old World" is actually called. We do learn of its wacky customs in one episode, however, which include Folk Songs rife with violence between the singers ("That's my horse!" *SLAP*), "bartering poles", upon which the seller and consumer must balance by their abdomens while conducting business with produce and livestock, and idiots falling into holes being sufficient grounds for a celebration.
- The Fairly OddParents has Ustinkistan where Vlad and Gladys, Timmy's maternal grandparents, hail from.
- The Robo-Hungarian Empire from Futurama, which manages to be impoverished and technologically backward despite being inhabited entirely by robots. Its capital, Thermostadt, is a robotic Überwald.
- There's also an in-universe Ruritania, Robonia, made up by Bender as a part of a con to win the Olympics. It's national anthem? "Hail, Hail, Robonia! A land that I didn't make up!"
- In Phineas and Ferb there's Drusselstein, home of Dr. Doofenshmirtz and borderline Überwald.
- Rocky and Bullwinkle had Boris and Natasha's home country of Pottsylvania, an imaginary Soviet satellite where literally everyone is a spy.
- There was also an arc featuring a country that was actually called Ruritania.
- Thembria from TaleSpin was a mock version of the Soviet Union (which was still around at the time), with its hostile sub-arctic climate, babushka-clad peasantry, an inept centralized government that still insisted it was "glorious" and a moribund economy that resulted in constant shortages of everything. The last of which happened so often that a Running Gag was the Thembrian Air Force never had any actual bullets for shooting down enemy aircraft and would ineffectively wail away with whatever they did have, including bathtubs and lunch meat.
It gets worse; they even ban imagination, because imaginative people do not conform.
- The Venture Bros. had an episode featuring the country run by the villain Baron Underbheit. It resembled the generic Eastern Europe country in every way... castles, forests, doomy dooms of gloom... but it is learned in the last few seconds of the episode that it somehow borders Michigan. Baron Underbheit is an expy of Doctor Doom. (As lampshaded by the Monarch)
- In the Space Race episode of Dog City, the "other side" was Catsylvania, represented by the feline cosmonaut Bestov Breed.
- Baron von Rottweiler's castle appears to be located in such a place the few times it's seen.
- The actual Transylvania, complete with Castle Frankenfido, appears in another episode. Everyone has a vaguely German accent and there are mobs of villagers in Victorian garb carrying torches and pitchforks.
- In "Bark to the Future," von Rottweiler takes over Dog City and turns it into Rottersburg, a Ruritania-style dystopia where State Sec Mooks patrol the streets and propaganda posters urging everyone to vote for von Rottweiler (OR ELSE!) adorn every wall and they have Oktoberfest all year long.
- Short version: Not entirely unjustified thanks to Central and Eastern Europe having a long history of conquering and being conquered, resulting in some odd mixing of ethnic groups, religious affiliations and language families, often within a single empire.
- Of course one may say this is so from a perspective that tends to overlook the mixture of ethnic groups, religions and language families at home because they are familiar. For instance, the United Kingdom (from which the Republic of Ireland separated since Hope invented Ruritania) contains at least four ethnic groups (English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish) and at least six indigenous languages from two families (Germanic and Celtic) without counting the immigrant communities (often from former British colonies).
- Poldavia (Poldévie) was a fictional country invented by a French journalist who was a member of a far-right organization in 1929. Its supposed representatives wrote letters to French Senators to ask them to intervene in a Civil War supposed to take place in their country. The prank mainly targeted radical-leftist and anticlerical Senators. The politician Marcel Déat in an editorial printed on May 4, 1939, wrote that Danzig was not worth fighting a war over and that French farmers had no desire to die for the Poldavians ("mourir pour les Poldèves"). Déat went on to become a prominent fascist politician in Vichy and occupied France. Poldavia was also cited as the "birth place" of Nicolas Bourbaki.
- Sometimes real world politicians are asked about situations in fictional countries as a "gotcha" test. One example referenced "Freedonia" which at least one Congressman claimed to recognize. A similar prank poll targeted at voters asked them if they supported bombing "Agrabah." 30% of Republican respondents and 19% of Democratic respondents said that they did.
- In fact, the history of many real-life east European provinces can explain the mishmash of unrelated cultural elements (German, Slavic, Turkic, Greek, etc.) usualy found in the description of fictional Ruritania. For instance, the real-life province of Bukovina has successively belonged to Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austria, Romania, the USSR and is at the present time cut in half between Ukraine and Romania.
- More specifically the odd empires that formed and encompassed multiple ethnic groups with Austria-Hungary being the most notable example as it included Germans, Hungarians, Slavs, and Romanians.
- Then you had the Ottomans that managed to control Turks along with Greeks, Albanians and most of the Southern Slavic Groups.
- The Russian Empire is assumed to have been mostly Slavic, but also ended up with regions that were Turkic, Mongol, Chinese, Korean, German, Baltic (frequently mistaken for Slavic), Romanian, and Finnish, as well as various immigrants who settled in the Russian (or later Soviet) Empire, including French, Spanish, Scottish, Welsh, and even African-Americans and Africans. Most of it would carry over into the USSR, some parts more willingly than others.
- The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had several varieties of Slavs (Poles, Ukrainians, Belorussians, etc.) Balts (modern day Lithuanians and Latvians), Prussian Germans, a good chunk of Europe's Jews and the odd smattering of Hungarians, Czechs, and Slovaks in those border nations. It's one of many reasons it was seen as a rather progressive empire in its heyday in spite of the unique mess of ethnic identity.
- More specifically the odd empires that formed and encompassed multiple ethnic groups with Austria-Hungary being the most notable example as it included Germans, Hungarians, Slavs, and Romanians.
- A real life counterpart of Ruritania could be some of the East European unrecognized nations such as Transnistria (officially part of Moldova) or Abkazhia (officially part of Georgia): They have their own governement, money and so on. Still, they don't appear on any official diplomatic map. Or also territories that claim nation status at some point or another (and thus, become the center of the world's attention when civil wars break there). Some have since become independent (eg. Kosovo), others failed to do so (eg. Chechnya).
- In relation to the above examples, remember that the Germans used to have quite a Diaspora before Bismarck's grand project for a unified German state in the 1860s, and "Germany" used to be a geographical term that described that lands belonging to the German countries of Prussia, Austria, and the Holy Roman Empire. Many German minorities existed in large parts of Eastern Europe, such as Transylvania, Prussia itself before it was disbanded, and the Sudetenland. These areas easily resemble Ruritanias with their German/Slavic ethnic groups and the tension between them.
- Ernest Gellner's history book Nations and Nationalisms explains the origin of nationalism through the hypothetical example of a place called Ruritania (probably based on the Czechs, Serbs, and/or Slovaks), a culturally-distinct province in the equally-hypothetical empire of Megalomania (which is probably meant to be the Austro-Hungarian Empire). Gellner then describes how Ruritania might become an independent nation-state by inventing a national tradition based on various folk cultures (which is what most of them did), or might try to assimilate into mainstream Megalomania. We should note that Gellner was a German-speaking Czech Jew from Prague, and was in a position to certainly know about the Austro-Hungarian Empire and its ethnic makeup.
- Surprisingly, the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire in real life was a subversion of this trope, partly because many Europeans didn't bother looking into the state that much. Among other things, it was also home to the second oldest subway on the Continent (in Budapest) and one of the most comprehensive education systems there as well.
- Bosnia around WWI, however, fitted the trope and the page picture to the T. In the middle of the Balkans? Check. Part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire? Check. A mish-mash of dozens of ethnicities, religions and cultures? Check. Mostly Slavic with a heavy dose of Ottoman and Germanic influences? Yep. A long and bloody history to account for all that diversity? Double check.
- It might be well to note some people do take offense. Inventing Ruritania: The Imperialism of the Imagination, by author Vesna Goldsworthy (from Serbia, an Eastern European country frequently stereotyped as a Ruritania), is one attempt to prove how the perceived Ruritania is essentially an offensive "Balkan-sploitation": the various Central and Eastern European peoples are turned into a silly Flanderization, an exotic setting full of funny and silly ethnic stereotypes, where all the many problems are exclusively their own fault, and which contrasts with self-perceived "civilization" and "high culture" of the Western audience.