- Banana Republic: Central and South America
- Bulungi: Sub-Saharan Africa
- Ruritania: Central and Eastern Europe
- Überwald: Central and Eastern Europe as a sinister horror setting
- Qurac: Middle East and North Africa
- Wutai: East Asia
- The Old Country: A fictional country from which major characters emigrated.
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Fictional Counterpart countries
Anime & Manga
- Ulgia for Lebanon in the fourth episode of Noir, as well as the unnamed Middle-Eastern nation in episode 7. The rest of the series takes place in real-world locations like Paris, Spain, and Russia.
- Madlax has a Nafrece (France/Britain hybrid) and Gazth-Sonika (a mixture of Vietnam and the Middle-East) but it's implied to be set in the real world (Japan is mentioned in the early episodes).
- Science Ninja Team Gatchaman: Ameris, Ameria, and Amerishima (all modeled after the United States), the Shosken Kingdom (which looks like a version of Egypt), Asham (looks like India — even had a Taj Mahal-like building in one shot), and Indelhia (YMMV: it's supposed to be a sort of India/Western Asia place). There was also the fictional Central European-esque country of Hontwal (a pun off of "honto wa aru", meaning "It exists"). In the third iteration, Gatchaman Fighter, versions of names of existing countries are used, completely forgetting the names used in the original.
- Academy City and the Elizarina Alliance of Independent Nations in A Certain Magical Index. The former is an independent state in Japan and is the forefront of all science and technology in the Toaruverse, while the latter is an alliance of nations which split themselves from Russia.
- The Gundam metaverse is all over this trope. Gundam Wing has the Sanc Kingdomnote , Gundam SEED has the United Emirates of Orbnote , and Gundam 00 has several, most prominently Azadistannote . The kings, however, are Gundam X and Turn A Gundam, which both take place After the End and thus have new names for a whole bunch of real-world places (X has San Angelino in California, Turn A has Inglessia, AKA New England).
- Michiko & Hatchin takes place in a country inspired by Brazil. Its map is apparently a mix of Brazil and Mexico.
- From DC Comics: Qurac, the Trope Namer for its particular type, home of Cheshire, and a rather unsubtle Fictional Counterpart to Iraq (pre-Iraq War, obviously), right down to its leader, President Marlo, who is an obvious expy of Saddam Hussein.
- There's a lot of fictional countries in Disney comics. Most of them are generic Banana Republics, Ruritanias etc., but one of the most notable is Brutopia, a stand-in for the Soviet Union that even appears in Don Rosa's stories, which otherwise usually stick to real world countries and locations.
- Carl Barks also created the violent and dangerous country of Unsteadystan, blatantly based on Vietnam. It was engulfed on a civil war after a civil war and one of the first things we get to see is a rebel soldier blowing up America's embassy with grenades.
- Duckburg, meanwhile, is located in the fictional American state of Calisota, which corresponds with northern California.
- Tintin visited a lot of these as well as real-world locations. Borduria is a pretty obvious Nazi Germany counterpart, while its neighbor Syldavia is a particularly well-executed Ruritania. There's also Khemed, which is a Qurac, and San Theodoros and its neighbor Nuevo Rico, each of which is a Banana Republic.
- It was a bit more complex. Borduria started out as an expy of Nazi Germany (although the name of its leader Musstler is a blend of Mussolini and Hitler), but after World War 2 it became a counterpart to Stalinist Eastern Europe, with Marshal Plekszy-Gladz (Kurvy-Tasch) as a Stalin expy. Syldavia combined Balkan, Czech and Austrian elements with a king who resembled King Leopold III of Belgium. Although a bit of a Ruritania to begin with, it later became advanced enough to build nuclear reactors and a rocket that reached the Moon in the 1950s. San Theodoros and Nuevo Rico contain elements of Paraguay and Bolivia, as the conflict over the Gran Chapo region is partly modeled on the Gran Chaco War between those two countries.
- Also from Tintin, the secret Inca Empire in Prisoners of the Sun is a clandestine continuation of the historic nation into the present, and the Sondonesian independence fighters in Flight 714 appear to be inspired by similar movements in Indonesia.
- G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero had a story arc taking place in a fictional Middle Eastern country called Benzeen which had been taken over by the neighboring country of Trucial Abysmia with Cobra's help. The whole arc was based on Operation: Desert Storm.
Films — Live-Action
- Moronica from The Three Stooges shorts "You Nazty Spy" and "I'll Never Heil Again"; Fictional Counterpart to Nazi Germany.
- The Great Dictator: Tomania, Fictional Counterpart to Nazi Germany, Bacteria, Fictional Counterpart to Fascist Italy, and Osterlitch, Fictional Counterpart of Austria.
- Avengers: Age of Ultron has Sokovia where the final battle takes place.
- The Terminal features Krakozhia, the home country of the main character Viktor Navorski.
- Ligon: Ligon in the series of the same name by Kir Bulychev is based on his experiences in Burma.
- Mixo-Lydia in Angela Thirkell's Barsetshire novels, is a stand-in for the unpleasant middle-European country of your choice, but mostly Romania. The Mix-Lydian refugees and diplomats have names like "Bronscu."
- Rolitania is named after the odd, so-called "nerd paradise".
- In the Sherlock Holmes story A Scandal in Bohemia the conceit is that Watson for reasons of discretion calls a real-world monarch "king of Bohemia". Strangely enough, at the time of the writing there actually was a king of Bohemia, that being one of the titles of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.
- Utopia by Thomas More.
- 24 has the Islamic Republic of Kamistan (IRK) in season 8.
- Leverage has the country of San Lorenzo, the setting of the season 4 finale.
- Ambassadors follows the lives of British diplomats in the People's Republic of Tazbekistan - a fictional Central Asian country standing in for Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, et al.
- Mega Man Battle Network: While the original series was set in a future version of our world, BN was set in an alternate universe, and thus, has different coutries. Electopia is Japan, Netopia is America and Europe, Netfrica is Africa, and so on.
- The world in the Ace Combat universe looks like a scrambled version of the real world, and most of the countries are fictional counterparts to real countries, eg Osean Federation=USA, Aurelia=Argentina, Sapin=Spain, Belka=Germany, Wellow=Greenland, Amber=Italy, Delarus=Belarus, Sotoa=Arabia, Kaluga=India, Clavis=Australia, Yuktobania=Russia, etc.
- All the countries in Papers, Please, representing various East-European communist states. "Cobrastan" takes the cake, however, being a fictional country in-universe.note
- Dino Attack RPG:
- Much of takes place in the fictional country of "LEGOLAND", first referenced in posts by Kotua in Space with appearances of the LEGOLAND military. The exact location is never stated, but it seems to resemble a typical Western lifestyle, with a mix of Canada/America and European elements.
- Dino Attack RPG also has Barron, a fictional country located in eastern Europe, as a means of explaining Sam Sinister's title of Lord von Barron. Barron is depicted as a rather stereotypical version of Germany home to Mad Herr Doktors.
Whole cloth-fictional countries
Anime & Manga
- Gosick is set in Sauville. Sauville is a tiny French-speaking country between France and Italy. It is supposed to look like a typical western European nation.
- Maken-ki! is set in Tenbi, a fictional region of Japan with it's own geography and government. In chapter 5, Himegami explains (to Takeru) that it's a small autonomous nation and that their academy was named for it.
- Zandia, an island nation with no extradition laws, whose population consists pretty much entirely of supervillains.
- Marvel Comics:
- Latveria and Symkaria, home of Doctor Doom and the Silver Sable, respectively, and neighbour countries with a single shared border; both of them are monarchies that are ruled by the aforementioned characters (via usurping the original dynasty, in Doom's case), and both countries' leaders maintain some measure of cordial relations between their nations.
- Genosha, an island nation with a horrific history of anti-mutant discrimination that was taken over by X-Men supervillain Magneto.
- Wakanda, a strange mixture of high-tech with tribal shields and spears, home of the Black Panther.
- A more generic fictional country from Tintin is the semi-independent Indian state of Rawhajpoutalah (Gajpajama) first seen in The Cigars of the Pharaoh.
- Suske en Wiske:
- Chocowakije in "Rikki en Wiske in Chocowakije"
- The isle Amoras in "Het Eiland Amoras", "De Stalen Bloempot" and "Amoris op Amoras". (Amoras Island, The Steel Flowerpot, Amoris on Amoras)
- Mocano in "De Bronzen Sleutel" (The Bronze Key)
- Frigoria in "Het Bevroren Vuur" (The Frozen Fire)
- Bazaria in "De Speelgoedzaaier" (The Toy Sower)
- Fantasia in "De Lieve Lilleham" (The Sweet Lilleham)
- The country Marmeladië in the Belgian comic strip "'t Prinske"
- Nero: Found in the albums “De Gele Gorilla”, “De Groene Patreel”, “Prinses Lovely”, “De Mosterd van Abraham”,…
- Slobobavia in “De Pijpeplakkers”
- Papland in “De Gouden Vrouw”
- De Kiekeboes: Eunuchië (De Eén zijn Dood), Papagaya (Het Plan Sstoeffer), Travakstan (De Roze Rolls), Boeloe Boeloe...
- G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero has had some in addition to Benzeen and Trucial Abysmia listed under real-life parallels:
- There are four countries close together somewhere in Europe: Trans-Carpathia, Darklonia, Borovia, and Wolkekuckuckland.
- Sierra Gordo, Punta Del Mucosa, and Sierra Muerte are Latin American countries that border each other.
- And of course, there's Cobra Island, an island in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico.
- Elbonia from Dilbert, a country populated by ditzes (their national bird is the Frisbee) who live in waist-deep mud.
- A Garfield strip features Garfield doing a routine on the fence for a boy scout delegation from the country of Booga-Booga. Made even funnier when he found out the hard way that the only currency in Booga-Booga is 800-pound chariot wheels.
- One week of strips from Pearls Before Swine is about Pig digging a hole to Kukistan. Interestingly, the original strips had Pig digging a hole to China, but Pastis had to change that rather than risk angering the Chinese with his portrayal of them. In the rewrite, Pig is kind enough to explain the whole thing in the first panel.
Films — Animation
Films — Live-Action
- The Duchy of Grand Fenwick from The Mouse That Roared: despite being founded by a British Knight, it has never been part of any Real Life country throughout its history; it's just that no one could be bothered to recognize a few square miles-wide country... Until they accidentally hijacked a nuclear device.
- Freedonia and Sylvania in Duck Soup.
- Klopstokia, a Ruritania that participated in the Los Angeles Olympics and won more medals than any other nation in the Jack Oakie/W. C. Fields vehicle Million Dollar Legs (1932).
- In the movie The Interpreter, the plot is all about saving the dictator of the fictional African country of Matobo, which could be a stand-in for any sub-Saharan African country. It seems to be like Uganda under Idi Amin.
- Krakozhia from The Terminal, a Ruritania that Tom Hank's character is from.
- Princess Protection Program: Costa Luna and Costa Estrella.
- Atlantis in Kritias and Timaios by Plato. Although some people like to believe that it was real.
- California (a country populated by Amazons ruled by Queen Calafia) in the chivalric romance Las Sergas del muy esforzado Caballero Esplendían by García Rodréguez Ordónez de Montalvo (died 1504). The states in the US and Mexico are named after it.
- Utopia in the book of the same name by Thomas More.
- Lilliput, Blefuscu, Brobdingnag and most of the other countries mentioned in Gulliver's Travels, although Lilliput and Blefuscu also mirror certain aspects of Great Britain and France, respectively.
- The first of Gordon Korman's Macdonald Hall books mentions "Malbonia". The country "Pefkakia" is prominent in The Twinkie Squad, and it is also mentioned in A Semester In The Life Of A Garbage Bag.
- In The Princess Diaries, the queen is from Genovia, which seems to be a stand-in for the real life nation of Andorra.
- Chanda's Secrets and Chanda's Wars by Allen Stratton take place in a fictional sub-Saharan African country ravaged by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and civil wars.
- C. S. Lewis's novel Till We Have Faces takes place in the fictional kingdom of Glome, which was located to the north of Greece.
- 24: The African country of Sangala in season 7. There was also an Islamic country that was never named in an earlier season. Jack teams up with an agent from that country (nicknamed "Fauxraqistan" at Television Without Pity.com) for a while.
- The West Wing has Qumar, which is a middle-eastern country that is backwards and whose government officials perpetrate acts of terrorism against the United States. So it's pretty much like...
- Commander in Chief has the South American country of San Pasquale.
- The fictional 'presidentdom' of Groland in the eponymous satirical news show - mostly a thinly disguised parody of France.
- Leverage has San Lorenzo in the TV series and Malani in the tie-in novel The Zoo Job.
- The NCIS episode "Defiance" involves the Defense Minister of Belgravia and his daughter. This may be the only episode that uses a fictional country, especially for a show that tries to follow real-life geopolitics.
- Balki from Perfect Strangers is a native of the Mediterranean island of Mypos. Some of his stories about it make it sound like a very strange country.
- Latka's unnamed crapsack homeland in the sitcom Taxi.
- Monte Guano, a tiny country in the Papal States of Renaissance Italy, in the comedy series The Leopard In Autumn.
- The Rogue Isles of City of Villains.
- Soulcalibur IV gives us the fictional country of Wolfkrone, located somewhere in the Holy Roman Empire (present-day Germany) and home to newcomer Hildegard von Krone. Not much of the land has been seen, but it appears to be quite advanced for the late 16th century, considering that the Wolfkrone Monument stage is a carousel complete with animatronic musician-like figures that overlooks a castle and clockwork.
- Gallowmere, the setting of the first MediEvil game, became this once the second game (set in Victorian-era London) was released.
- The Just Cause series takes place only in countries like these:
- Since the third installment of the series, the Dark Parables games are at least partially spent in one of these. The formula usually has the detective arriving in a real world country, then traveling from there to a Fictional Country. The tenth game skips the real world portion entirely and takes the detective directly to the fictional realm of Barsia.
- Glacia, frozen homeland of the villains in the 1973/74 Superfriends episode "The Weather Maker".
- The unnamed state containing Springfield, Shelbyville and Capitol City in The Simpsons is a borderline case, as it is part of the United States, but clearly not any one of the existing 50 states.
- Transformers had an African country called Carbombya, which is ruled by a dictator who is a cross between Idi Amin and Muammar Gaddafi.
- Kasnia (or Kaznia) a country apparently somewhere in eastern Europe in the DC Animated Universe. Over the course of the various series, it starts as a monarchy, briefly becomes a dictatorship which holds the world hostage, undergoes a civil war, and joins the European Union and adopts the Euro as its currency.
- Phineas and Ferb has Drusselstein, the homeland of Heinz Doofenshmirtz. It seems to be an agrarian German-speaking country somewhere in Europe.
- In the 1930s, democratic and socialist politicians in France received letters from dissidents in the East European nation of Poldevia asking for their support. This turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by a right-wing journalist who wanted to show them up and embarrass them and attracted a lot of attention at the time. (In the Tintin album The Blue Lotus, the Poldevian Consul in Shanghai is one of the patrons of the titular opium den). One right-wing French publicist said at the beginning of World War II that young Frenchmen did not want to die for the Poldevians, apparently equating the real-world threat to Poland with the plight of a fictional country.
- San Seriffe: A fictional island country invented by the Guardian newspaper as a hoax in 1977, but popular enough that if you register on the Guardian website, you can select it as your state of origin.