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Author's Mistakes (General):
Basic mistakes in the way languages work, evolve, and differ from each other.
- Aliens Speaking English: Ignores the difficulty of near-instantaneous translation between very different languages, to say nothing of differing physiology. Often acceptable, since aliens speaking a completely different language can get very annoying.
- Antiquated Linguistics: The Theme Park Version of Victorian (essentially Present Day) English, spoken by everyone post-Regency up until the end of The Roaring '20s. note
- Did Not Do the Bloody Research: mismatches the strength of Foreign Cuss Words.
- Eternal English: Ignores the process of linguistic change, with people 1,000 years ago or 1,000 years later speaking in the same dialect as the creators.
- From the Latin "Intro Ducere": Just because an alleged etymology seems relevant to your point doesn't necessarily make it the word's true history. Also, just because a word was derived from an older one doesn't necessarily make that part of the word's definition today.
- Language Equals Thought: Follows the controversial Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, that language dictates (and limits) the ideas people can have and how they experience the world. Note that this is not necessarily an error, depending on the time and the opinions of the author.
- Language of Truth: If it is impossible to make a false statement in a language, it's impossible to make any statement in it at all.
- Omniglot: Languages take time to learn; very few people in Real Life speak more than four or five well. These people speak more, flawlessly.
- Orphaned Etymology: Hold your horses? What's a horse?
- Personal Dictionary: Someone giving their own idiosyncratic definitions to existing words. Communication doesn't work that way.
- Twisting the Words: Willfully ignoring the context, definitions, or other cues that can affect the meaning of someone's remarks.
- Ye Olde Butcherede Englishe: The Theme Park Version of Elizabethan (Early Modern) English, applied to any and all times before the Regency.
- Hollywood Apocrypha: The Theme Park Version of the Early Modern English used in the King James Bible, applied to all fictional religious texts.
Author's Mistakes (Translation tropes):
Examples of these tropes ignore the differences between languages and assume they all translate perfectly 1:1. And then they get the translation wrong.
- Accent Relapse: Characters who've been demonstrated to speak fluent English prefer to speak with a heavy native accent if they no longer have to keep up the pretence.
- As Long as It Sounds Foreign: A foreign character speaks foreign-sounding gibberish, which is passed off (to the audience) as another language.
- The Backwards Я: Instant Russian, just flip the R's! See also El Spanish "-o" below.
- Bite the Wax Tadpole: Cultural and linguistic pitfalls playing havoc with ad copy in a foreign market.
- "Blind Idiot" Translation: What happens when the translator is not fluent in one (or both) of the languages being translated.
- Cypher Language: When everything in your fictional language just so happens to be exactly the same as your real-life language, only with new words or symbols substituted. That's not inventing a language; that's inventing a code.
- Either "World Domination", or Something About Bananas: An in-universe translation that comes up with two options, one of which is close to the intended meaning and one of which is ridiculously off.
- El Spanish "-o": Trying to fake a foreign language by adding the most known traits of that language into one's own.
- Translation Trainwreck: What happens when a "Blind Idiot" Translation is taken to extremes. Like an actual trainwreck, however, it can be morbidly fascinating.
- Canis Latinicus: Latin-sounding gibberish, or Latin words put together nonsensically (or mixed with Greek), because everything sounds more dignified in Latin.
- Conveniently Precise Translation: A perfect 1:1 translation achieved between disparate languages far more often than should be possible. (But see Lucky Translation for legitimate, real-life examples.)
- Gratuitous Foreign Language: Using a foreign language to add a certain je ne sais quoi... which is not a good idea if you can't actually speak it.
- Indo-European Alien Language: When aliens don't speak English, their language still conveniently adheres to the same grammatical conventions as most European languages—unlike many languages found on this planet.
- Learnt English from Watching Television: While this one is definitely true to an extent as many people will tell you, writers often assume that this applies to ALL languages whether they share inherent similarities (like most latin based languages) or not.
- Recursive Translation: A second- or third-hand (or more) translation that loses more and more nuance with each successive step.
- Just a Stupid Accent: A foreign character never speaks his own language, but speaks the local language like a native, only with an intractable accent.
- Poirot Speak: A foreign character will occasionally grasp for the right word, and will revert to his native language when stumped. So far, so good, but the words in question will always be ones the audience is likely to understand in the other language, rather than the sort of vocabulary a non-native speaker would have difficulty with.
Mistakes with Usage:
Many people assume "linguistics" to be all about correcting spelling, pronunciation and grammar "errors". In fact there is no such thing as objectively correct usagenote , as languages evolve over time - linguists concern themselves with studying actual usage, warts and all, rather than trying to be a Grammar Nazi. The following tropes are not strictly linguistics failures, simply poor usage:
- The Big List of Booboos and Blunders: Words that get misspelled by being confused with other words, or the writer never having seen them written down before.
- Delusions of Eloquence: When Feigning Intelligence meets Sesquicentennial Locomotiveness, hilariosity will be in a state of insinuation.
- Freudian Slip: The belief that a mistake in usage can reveal a little too much about what you really want to sex— say! I meant say!
- Grammar Nazi: Misguidedly treats the rules of proper grammar, spelling, and so on as essential features of the language itself.
- How Do I Used Tense?
- The Malaproper: When someone's word choice sounds like the right word, but is actually the fright ward.
- No Punctuation Period
- Rouge Angles of Satin: Wan righters how Kant spiel really two heavenly in the spoil cheque fracture off there ward proctologist.note
- Spoonerism: Accidentally wixing up the sirst founds of your mords. Invented by Reverend Spooner, the spoon who invented mannerisms (though, sadly, this is not actually a spoonerism!)
- Wanton Cruelty to the Common Comma: Frustratingly common mistakes of punctuation (most commonly, the use of a comma where a colon or semicolon should go) in both amateur and professional writing.
- You Keep Using That Word: Words have colloquial meanings that are understood based on how speakers of the language use them. Some people think that using words counter to its etymology or dictionary definition are improper and try to correct others.
Audience's Misconceptions (Linguistic Dissonance)
While not made up of mistakes in itself, these tropes can cause difficulty with audiences who are unaware of the difference within languages over time and from place to place:
- Get Thee to a Nunnery: Wordplay and humo(u)r that's lost on modern audiences, who don't get the references.
- Have a Gay Old Time: Unintentional hilarity derived from originally harmless words becoming amusing or taking on sexual connotations over time.
- Pronoun Trouble: Gender-Neutral Writing can get lost in translation when one language is more strongly gendered than another— so much for your character's Ambiguous Gender.
- Separated by a Common Language: Misunderstandings and (more) unintentional hilarity encountered across different dialects of the same language.