"Now that I have said it, it must be Canon!"
Word Of God
is stuff the creators have said is true about their universe, even though it's not in the actual work.
Word Of Dante is stuff the creators haven't said is true about their universe — but everyone assumes it is true because an independent authority, scholar of the work, or Big Name Fan
has said it — often with supporting arguments. It's a kind of ascended Fanon
(though not Ascended Fanon
). A more literary criticism friendly technical term for it would be deuterocanon.
Why does it matter? Because everyone
thinks the Word Of Dante applies to the original work, and so it gets mixed into future adaptations and popular allusions. It can even overrule original canon (if that isn't known as much as it's known of) or Word Of God
. Take our Trope Namer
: if it weren't for Dante Alighieri
, later writers wouldn't speak of hell having circles with specific Karmic Punishments
. Hell is depicted in broad strokes in The Bible
— a place of darkness and wailing and gnashing of teeth, a lake of fire — that's really as specific as it gets. That there are specific places in Hell to send the unchaste, the literal infidels, and the betrayers is all Dante's idea.
This is especially likely to happen if there is no one who can unambiguously provide Word Of God
. Without Word Of God
or Word of Saint Paul
, Word Of Dante is the strongest authority you have on how to interpret the canon. Often created when an Expanded Universe
claims to be "official" and thus canon, but is ignored by the primary canon. If there is
a Word Of God
, however, then what Word Of Dante does get produced is just as likely as Fanon
to be Jossed
at some point.
Frequently creates Adaptation Displacement
. May also help create Misaimed Fandom
if the Dante's ideas contradict true canon or Word Of God
May be the cause of Newer Than They Think
, especially if Dante is much younger than the work. Again, it's easier to have Word Of Dante if there is no longer anyone
to give Word Of God
Beam Me Up, Scotty!
is a version of this, where the Word of Dante is a phrase.
Also related is the Death of the Author
, a concept from the field of literary criticism which states that all theories about a work (regardless of their source
) can be equally valid. See also God Never Said That
If Word Of Dante ever becomes canon, it's Ascended Fanon
. If the Dante in question was actually involved in creating the work or has a connection to the creators, then it's Word of Saint Paul
Notice that despite all this, in Real Life
Dante Alighieri's concepts, although highly praised, are not really considered canonical in any branch of Christianity
, including the Catholic Church, of which Dante was a member.
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Anime & Manga
- Quite a few Dragon Ball fans (including some on this Wiki) believe that the name of Lunch's blond gun-crazy alter ego is "Kushami". The name was coined by an American translator in the mid-1990s in order to distinguish between "Good Lunch" and "Bad Lunch", using the Japanese word for "sneeze".
- Most fans treat the "Toriyama intended to end the series at the Freeza saga, but his editors stopped him" rumor as unquestionable fact. Many fans do the same to the "Toriyama abandoned his plan to make Gohan the hero of the Buu saga because he was sent death threats by Goku fans" rumor. In actuality, both of these rumors were started and perpetuated by fans, and they have never received official confirmation.
- The fangame Fullmetal Alchemist: Bluebird's Illusion was a source of something like this among some Fullmetal Alchemist fans back when Pride hadn't been introduced. There were quite a lot of fanworks based on the game.
- At no point in Code Geass canon is it ever stated that Lamperouge (the last name Lelouch and Nunnaly take after faking their deaths) was Marianne's maiden name. Despite this you see this referenced at various times in fan works, including on this very wiki.
- Action Girl Kallen Kouzuki goes by her Britannian father's surname "Stadtfeld" when in public due to the social stigma against Japanese. Fans often assume that she also "westernizes" her first name to "Karen" at the same time, or occasionally that she really is named Karen, and "Kallen" is her attempt to reject her "slave name". None of this reflects on canon; in fact, characters who only know her in her Stadtfeld identity still call her "Kallen".
- It's odd, but only in English. "Karen" and "Kallen" are both spelt and pronounced the same way in Japanese, except that Japanese people usually have their names written in kanji, not katakana, which is often reserved for loan words from English and other languages. It should also be noted that "Kouzuki", her Japanese family name, is written in kanji. That might be because she's a main character, as Suzaku also spells his name in katakana... Whereas all other Japanese characters spell their name in kanji. There is still no word on whether or not this is implying that Kallen and Suzaku have strong western ties, which they do, or are just made simpler to spell and write for merchandise, or are suggestive of their dual natures, so any speculation is fanon alone.
- The Director's Cut films of Death Note are not canon, and not generally regarded as such... except for the funeral scene. (And, more controversially, the scenes in the shinigami realm.)
- Recently, some pre-Sainthood "real names" for the main cast of Saint Seiya have been popping up in fics, particularly the last name "Amamiya" for Ikki and Shun. This in spite of the fact that only their constellation-based Saint titles have ever been used in the series proper.
- The FUNimation dub of Soul Eater uses male pronouns to refer to the character Crona, leading many who watched the anime to believe that Crona is officially male. At the same time, an early online fan translation of a Soul Eater chapter refers to Crona as Medusa's "daughter" causing many of those who read the manga to believe that Crona is officially a girl. Unfortunately, neither is right. FUNimation had to settle with male pronouns by default and the translation in the manga is wrong. Crona, in both the original anime and manga, is referred to using genderless pronouns and as Medusa's "child". Many fans have decide to just call Crona an "it".
- While Funimation calling Crona a "he" may not necessarily be right, it is technically correct. In the English language, "he" is the gender-neutral pronoun that is supposed to be used when something's gender is unknown. Funimation, as well as numerous actors on the show, have all confirmed this fact, saying it's the best they can do and that they were well aware of the conundrum when they dubbed the series. Even if Crona's actual gender had later been revealed to be female (which it wasn't), it would still be correct to refer to him as male up to that point because the characters themselves also question his gender in the story.
- Also, it's commonly thought that the name of Maka's unseen mother is "Kami" because one translation group mistook part of the Japanese word for "wife" which her ex-husband Spirit used in reference to her, for her name. In actuality her name is never given.
- In Elfen Lied, Number Three (The Silpelit who infected Kurama, causing Mariko to be born a Diclonius) is often given the name Sanban by fans, even though that is simply the Number Three's Japanese translation, unlike Number Seven Nana, which is both a name and number. Further, a listing that only says it is from an official site states that Three is Nana's older sister. Nothing said in the manga or anime supports this.
- The Puella Magi Madoka Magica fandom has more or less unanimously decided that Homura is Conveniently an Orphan, given that there is no indication that she has any sort of parent or caretaker. It is also an absurdly common piece of fanon that Charlotte was a cancer patient. (There is some official material that seemingly contradicts this, but it's actually information about a prototype character which gives it dubious canonicity.)
- Axis Powers Hetalia fandom has tons of these, partly because of Real Life being something of an alternative source material, partly because the webcomic is scattered between the site, the author's blog and — in some cases — only on fansites because strips were removed or lost from the main site. There's also to the scanlations with often questionable quality translations, although they have been easier to find as of late. You can find examples in the Fanon page.
- In Fairy Tail, an early online manga translation translates the character Yajima's name as "Shitou", for whatever reason. Subsequent chapters call him "Yajima", leading people to believe he is actually called "Shitou Yajima". Seriously, it's everywhere; he's even credited as "Shitou" in the English credits of the FUNimation dub of the anime. The thing is, the chapter that gives his name in the collected manga volume calls him "Yajima", not "Shitou". The only logical explanation is that the original version of the chapter called him "Shitou", but the author changed it to "Yajima" for the manga volume. But because the original Japanese version of the chapter likely doesn't exist online, the issue may never be clarified.
- People also agree that Lucy's mother died on July 7th, despite only the year that she passed away (X777) having been shown.
- It's also assumed by the pirating crowd that Natsu and likely Gajeel are over 400 years old. Even if they were seen as children they couldn't pass through a barrier stopping people over 80, their ages are listed as unknown, and Zeref recognized Natsu, so the theory is well supported. The only flaw, as anyone who actually buys the volumes might know, is that Mashima stated in a Q&A section that this is not the case.
- Mashiro from Sakurasou no Pet na Kanojo is usually taken by Western viewers as autistic. However, this was never mentioned in the original; just that the descriptions about her follows textbook definitions of autism so closely that they just can't give any other explanation.
- This trope itself is the method in which Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, Apple Seed and Real Drive are all established to take place in the same universe, though it has to disregard certain parts of each history to accomodate each other.
- Apple Seed has a technical manual that details the history of Earth that leads up to the current world the series takes place in. It establishes that the Cold War came to a peaceful resolution in 1986 which resulted in 1/3rd of the United States to become the Russo-American Alliance note , that World War III broke out in 1996, and in 1997 a giant meteor struck Beijing, China. As a result of the war and the meteor, the upper hemisphere of the planet has been severely damaged, with new lakes and seas formed and scattered all over. A map of this world can be seen at the end of 2nd Gig despite there being no mention of these events.
- Kenji Kamiyama took this foundation and added upon it in Stand Alone Complex, establishing that the 2nd American Civil War in 2016 resulted in the remaining 2/3rds of the US being split again, with 1/3rd of the states becoming Imperial Americana aka the American Empire. (The country was split up by each of the states themselves, resulting in Imperial Americana now occupying the greatest land mass of the United States note . The United States Of America was reduced to the Rocky Mountain states and the border states along Canada. The series also establishes that World War IV begins in 2019, and that Japan has developed technology to lay the foundation for the existence of the Bioroids that appear in Appleseed.
- Real Drive is an interesting example in this equation. Originally, it was going to take place in the Stand Alone Complex universe, but the director decided he would rather just make it it's own universe instead, since it is mostly a Slice of Life series. However, Real Drive uses the exact same technologies established in Stand Alone Complex: Cyberbrains, full prosthetic bodies, Operator androids, and a type of nanotechnology that was developed from the "Radiation Scrubber Nanotechnology"- which itself was the project that a prominent character in Stand Alone Complex was the director overseeing the development process. All of this technology is visually presented to look just like it does in Stand Alone Complex, which makes the similarities too close to simply accept that the director said that it takes place in it's own universe.
- More minor than some of these other examples, but fans of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha will often bizzarly associate the titular character as a lover of strawberry and cream based deserts and foods, even though there is little to no evidence of this matter.
- Adrian "Ozymandias" Veidt from Watchmen is often, in fandom, depicted as German, the son of a Nazi officer, and driven to his own well intentioned extremism out of a keen desire to atone for what he feels is an inherited murderous stain. All of this was invented by Matthew Goode, who played him in the film version- in fact, there are hints that despite his looking like the Nazi party's own invented Aryan ideal, Veidt in the graphic novel very well might be the son of Jews who fled the Nazis. He's presumably named for actor Conrad Veidt, a German socialist who left the country because of how much he hated the Nazis.
- Before Watchmen makes it explicit that something similar to the latter is what happened, though whether the Veidts were Jewish is never established for certain.
- Lots and lots of fan characters from the Vocaloid fandom have achieved popularity status with the main characters, and in videos and songs featuring them, you'll almost certainly find people in the comments wondering if Haku (the Anthropomorphic Personification of clumsy new users), Neru (the personification of Image Board trolls) or Sai (whose creator can be clearly identified outside of image board masses and does all her own songs) is an official member of the cast. It goes the opposite way, too — because the English-speaking programs like Miriam are older and given less attention, far too many people forget they exist.
- The Star Wars Technical Commentaries fit this trope so well that much of their information overrides canon in the eyes of fans. The best example is the class name of the Star Destroyers from the original trilogy. Canonically, they're Imperial-Class according to the EU, the official website, and Word Of God. Dr. Saxton, who wrote the technical commentaries, dubbed them "Imperator-Class" on the grounds that "Imperial" is a stupid name for a warship; he assumed that the Empire followed American and British tradition in naming ships and classes. Many fan works use "Imperator-class" and the name was eventually canonized in Revenge of the Sith: Incredible Cross-Sections (penned by Saxton as an author for Lucasfilm Licensing). Go, Roman naming-schemes!
- Though there has been a HMS Imperial, so the name isn't that unlikely...
- Though it's still established that, presumably out of pure ego, the Emperor changed the name to Imperial-class after he turned the Republic into The Empire.
- Probably the most widely accepted piece of fanon (even on this very wiki) is the idea that Palpatine, Thrawn (and sometimes even Revan) were actually Well Intentioned Extremists, uniting the galaxy under a single powerful rule to best prepare them for the arrival of an even more powerful foe, specifically the Yuuzhan Vong.
- Not mentioned explicitly as the Vong, but Palpatine's agent in Outbound Flight tells Thrawn that the Emperor is trying to unite the galaxy in an attempt to stand against an (at the time unnamed) enemy from beyond the Galactic Rim. This is what first convinces Thrawn to side with the Emperor, as he had encountered an unknown extra-galactic enemy before. Kreia in Knights of the Old Republic II makes a similar comment about Revan, but that later turned out to be the True Sith, members of the order that fled into solitude sometime around or before the Great Hyperspace War.
- Inception shows the agents to have Reality Warper powers within a dream allowing them to alter it as they see fit. Many fans have since adopted the belief that this altering is what's allowing them to use the various action movie tropes, like the Pin-Pulling Teeth or the Bloodless Carnage. This would make the use of almost any trope justified by the narrative, at least in the scenes that take place inside a dream. (And as for the rest...)
- The Cthulhu Mythos includes various authors contemporary with and following after HP Lovecraft whose stories are considered canonical. Some works written previous to the original Mythos are also considered canonically part of it, like some of the works of Ambrose Bierce and The King in Yellow.
- Charles Perrault and The Brothers Grimm, by committing oral traditions to print in standard versions, are as guilty of this in print as Disney has been in film.
- Before Perrault got hold of the "Sleeping Beauty", the prince found her asleep in the forest and raped her without waking her. It was only one of their children sucking the splinter from her finger that finally woke her. Whereupon the prince went home to his wife...
- In the best-known version of "Rapunzel", the old witch learns that Rapunzel has been visited in her tower when Rapunzel foolishly answers her, "Mother Gothel, why are you so much harder to pull up than my prince?" In the first printing of their story collection, Rapunzel's question is, "Mother Gothel, why have my dresses grown so tight around the waist?"
- Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is often taken as canon for Hamlet, even if incorporating a postmodern look at the nature of theater into a straightforward if rich story about revenge makes no sense. (It helps that Tom Stoppard is careful about making sure when in Hamlet the various events of his own play happen.) Even people who can't consider the events canon "know" that they must be either allowed for or explicitly ruled out, which gives Rosencrantz and Guildenstern importance they would not otherwise have. Since Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is recent, it's easy to trace the effects: the film of Hamlet with Laurence Olivier cut the pair entirely because they were minor characters with little effect on the main plot — which is why Tom Stoppard wrote his play in the first place. In modern versions, even ones that don't consider Stoppard canon, this is all but unthinkable. (The Mel Gibson version shows their execution, for instance.)
- Though it has become accepted that Hamlet speaks his lines to Yorick's skull in the famous graveyard scene, Shakespeare's First Folio (the first authorised publication of the play) makes no mention of it in the stage directions. In fact, Shakespeare used very few stage directions, so the ones that appear in modern editions have usually been added by subsequent editors.
- That said, it's pretty clear from the lines that he is, in fact, intended to be talking to a skull. In particular, there's the darkly humorous pun, "Not one now, to mock your own grinning? Quite chap-fallen?" Chap-fallen figuratively means looking dejected, but literally means "jaw-dropped" — or in this case "jaw fell off".
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle never described Sherlock Holmes as wearing a deerstalker cap or smoking a calabash pipe* . Those elements that were popularized by illustrations — including the pictures printed with the stories — and stage productions. So many people consider them canon that the 2009 film got criticized for dropping those elements.
- However, many people forget that the stories were originally published in The Strand, accompanied by Sidney Paget's illustrations. Those illustrations do show Holmes in deerstalker cap and occasionally with a pipe (though a straight billard, not a calabash). It wasn't until the books were reprinted that these illustrations were left out, and forgotten by many readers. Conan Doyle specifically asked for Paget to continue doing illustrations for his stories, making the illustrations canon. The cap and cape weren't all he wore, but it was certainly part of his wardrobe, though generally only worn in the country, not London.
- Basil Rathbone wore them in his classic 1939 films, The Hound Of The Baskervilles and The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, more reason to associate this outfit with the great detective.
- Similarly, it's generally accepted these days to present Mycroft Holmes and the Diogenes Club as some sort of cover organisation or outpost of the British secret service. This is largely an invention of later pastiches; aside from a few hints that Mycroft's job in the British government is a bit more extensive than he likes to admit ("on certain occasions he is the British government"), it's never really suggested in the original canon that either the club nor Mycroft are anything other than what they appear to be (a near-silent club for reclusive eccentrics and a Brilliant, but Lazy civil servant respectively).
- Holmes' relationship with "The Woman", Irene Adler, has largely been expanded from a healthy respect for the one person we ever see outsmarting Holmes to a Dating Catwoman-like Unresolved Sexual Tension situation at the very least, thanks more or less to this trope combined with Promoted to Love Interest.
- This gets even weirder when one remembers that Irene married her own lawyer during that case and had no romantic interest in Holmes whatsoever.
- And there's the fact that he only has any contact with her once (briefly) when he's casing her house under an assumed identity. The closest that they come to even having a conversation is when Irene leaves an extended letter for Holmes after she's already escaped.
- Tolkien never explicitly stated that Elves inThe Lord of the Rings and related works had pointy ears — in fact, no special physical traits are given except that they seem to be more slender, more elegant, and taller than men (thus implying that they might, apart from that, look more or less alike).
- In his letters, he shows the assumption that such an appearance was obvious (since English "elfs" have always been described as such), and explains how the Sindarin word for "ear" originates from their word for "leaf".
- It's also widely accepted in Tolkien fandom that Smaug was the last dragon. In fact, this is never stated anywhere in the books, and indeed some of Gandalf's dialogue with Frodo implies that there are still dragons out there — Smaug was merely the greatest of his age.
- It's not so much that Smaug was the last dragon, he was supposed to be the last of the "great" dragons. Any other dragons that still existed were lesser dragons.
- Arthurian legend has gone through many cycles over the centuries, so that many of the familiar features may be newer than you'd assume. The character of Lancelot, his affair with Guinevere, Mordred's incestuous parentage, and the quest for the Holy Grail all came about during the legend's resurgence in popularity during the late middle ages. Some of them likely came to us by way of Le Morte d'Arthur, which appears to be one of the older in-depth codifications of the legend. The best-known version of the "sword in the stone" story, as well as many now-common attributes of Merlin, were introduced in the 20th century with T.H. White's The Once and Future King.
- The entire concept of the Holy Grail is this trope from start to finish, as there is nothing in The Bible that even suggests any piece of tableware was blessed or holy in any way, and originally Arthur and gang were searching for a fairly standard magical MacGuffin, and a cauldron at that.
- The "sword in the stone" story did appear in Le Morte d'Arthur, the sword just isn't Excalibur.
- The Chronicles of Narnia: these books are among the few fantasy epics that does not have any Doorstoppers among its volumes because C. S. Lewis, while not neglecting Character Development and worldbuilding, didn't take it as seriously as either Tolkien or modern Young Adult fantasy writers. As a result, the live-action films from the 2000s have more of such activity than the books do. The Prince Caspian film deviates enough from the book that the film continuity is considered an Alternate Continuity from the books, but even Fan Fic writers who explicitly reject film continuity may unconsciously accept film characterization for the Pevensies. There is subtle Values Dissonance between the two.
- When there was just one film, the fandom started to accept the film's version of life for the Pevensies before going to Professor Kirke's place, since C. S. Lewis didn't consider it relevant. Technically, it wasn't, but modern fans enjoy that sort of thing. Thus, the Pevensies come from Finchley, since it's nice to narrow it down from "England".
- World War II in The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is simply there to get the Pevensies where they need to go. The live-action film pushed what was implied to the foreground, reminding people that you can't ignore that war if you have been in the warzone. Fanfic post-film reflects this, and is likely to include Mr. Pevensie at war rather than at university (which The Voyage of the Dawn Treader implied). The second film similarly reminded writers that the war had not stopped during the intervening year.
- Lots of people think Caspian/Susan is canon, when actually they barely talk to each other in the Prince Caspian book. The movie, however, did make it canon.
- In the first book in which he appears, Caspian and Susan are both 13 years old, and he has more interactions with the 9-year-old Lucy than he ever does with her older sister. This troper has heard rumors that the movies were planning on foreshadowing Lucy/Caspian, to be properly set up in Dawn Treader, but when 26-year-old Ben Barnes was cast against 12-year-old Georgie Henley and 19-year-old Anna Popplewell, they decided not to go down that road.
- The Terrible Dogfish from The Adventures of Pinocchio is a shark. The popular misconception as a whale parallels that from the story of Jonah (see "Mythology and Religion" below), but this time we can blame Disney.
- Some critics find Plato's writing of Socrates to be this, since Socrates was emphatically opposed to writing any philosophical wisdom. Which statements were genuinely Socrates' and which ones were put in his mouth by Plato is a subject of much analytical debate. Plato certainly backpedaled on the statements that led to Socrates' execution.
- On Buffy the Vampire Slayer, the demon in the Musical Episode is never named, and in the credits is listed as "Demon." However, fanon has named him Sweet, after a line in the credits saying "Sweet makeup provided by..."
- Either in confirmation or appeasal, the character was credited as Sweet on the episode's soundtrack.
- Star Trek:
- Linkara's Theory as to the cause of Power Rangers suits sparking upon being stuck (essentially a Power Surge) has been adopted as canon by the franchise's fandom.
- The second movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 8th Symphony allegedly originated as a canon honoring Johann Nepomuk Maelzel for his invention of the metronome. This canon (WoO 162) is now considered non-canonical, merely one of Anton Schindler's more elaborate fabrications about Beethoven's life.
- The common myth that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri were enemies, or that Salieri killed Mozart, originates with the 1830 verse drama Mozart and Salieri by Alexander Pushkin, though most people know it from the film Amadeus. In real life, Mozart and Salieri stood on amicable terms, but a lot of people who should know better still discuss Salieri's supposed ill will toward Mozart as though it were historical fact.
- Thanks to Revo's complete refusal to clear up any ambiguities in the albums, most Sound Horizon "canon" is really just a large swath of widely-accepted fan theories.
Mythology & Religion
- Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy is the Trope Namer, and the most famous example. Pretty much anything you think you know about Heaven, Hell, or Purgatory was probably popularized by Dante, though much of it was based off actual contemporary Church positions and local superstitions, which is still dominated by leftover bits of Roman and Greek mythology. There are also some Real Life people (such as Francesca da Rimini and Count Ugolino) that we only know of through Dante's work and the early commentaries explaining it. Note that many of them, especially the souls found in the Inferno, could probably have gone without being mentioned. Many among that group had wronged Dante in some way, and the general consensus among modern critics of Inferno is that Dante included them for personal reasons. There are so many of these people that Inferno is 40-50% political satire and requires extensive knowledge of contemporary Italian politics to understand.
- This trope is older than the actual Bible we know today, with various other religious texts not included in canon but occasionally influential, known as Apocrypha. First there are the various deuterocanonical books which you might find after Revelation in your Bible (in Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, however, they'll simply be in the Old Testament- there are seven, not counting the codicils of Esther and Daniel and the appendix to Daniel). These are considered by Biblical scholars(in varying degrees) to be not canon, but not heretical. Why? A Serious Business but often some of it is as simple as obvious errors. Generally not found in modern Protestant Bibles but still available in common versions.
- Beyond this there are Apocrypha not found in any widely available version of the Bible. One of the oldest and most referenced is the Book of Enoch, which is possibly the Ur Example of Word of Dante for The Bible. It notably has a lot of info dumping about angels and fallen angels and either started various beliefs or at least shows they go back into ancient times. The Book of Enoch was lost to Western scholars for a time but turned up in Ethiopia and archeological finds.
- Other texts called Apocrypha were consciously discarded as Christianity took shape, some for being considered total fiction and others for being outright heretical. This category includes the Gnostic Gospels which get into very divergent beliefs compared to what Christianity became. Incidentally they contain no revelations as shocking as certain disreputable modern authors may claim to sell book.
- "Apocrypha" has a specific meaning in terms of biblical studies; it refers to Old Testament books present in Greek sources (such as the Septuagint) that aren't present in the Hebrew Tanakh.
- Some people have said that Mary Magdalene wrote a gospel, though this is generally considered non-Canon by the church. A book of it was put out a few years ago, however.
- These are only a few examples related to The Bible:
- Paradise Lost is like this for the entire book, especially Satan. Satan only gets a few lines in the Bible, and not much that you could use to establish a sympathetic character. Paradise Lost also establishes the idea of angels playing harps.
- December 25 is not mentioned as the date of the nativity. Most scholars believe it was in September.
- The names and number of Wise Men who visited Jesus were not mentioned in the Bible; they come from 6th to 8th century sources. In Western Europe they were assumed to be 3 because 3 were the gifts they gave to Jesus, but in Armenia,for example, they were 12. What's more, they likely did not visit Jesus on the day of His birth or twelve days after. It could have been up to two years.
- At no point in the Bible or any of the books that didn't make the cut is said that there was an ox and a mule present in the Nativity scene either. Luke mentions a manger doubling for Jesus' craddle, hence why it's assumed that the birth took place in a stable. The specific animals come from the first live enactment of the Nativity scene in 13th century Italy, where these two might have been added just because there were no others around.
- The Bible also never specifically singles out the Seven Deadly Sins. That set comes from later saints and Church Fathers (and originally, there were 25 of them.)
- Mary Magdalene is often identified with other females from the Gospels, including Mary the sister of Martha, the woman who washes Jesus' feet with her tears, and the woman caught in adultery. That is, she is considered to be one or more of them. However, there is no support in the Gospels themselves for these. Some of them are Church tradition, though. The originator of this idea is the sixth century Pope Gregory the Great, also the man responsible for the Seven Deadly Sins (before him, there were eight).
- Similarly, the Antichrist, who is mentioned only in the first epistle of John in the context of "many antichrists" (who are more likely general oppressors and heretics rather than specific apocalyptic enemies; basically, anyone who isn't pro-christ), is often identified with various apocalyptic figures, such as the Beast from the Sea from Revelation, the Man of Sin/Lawlessness from Second Thessalonians, and the Little Horn from Daniel.
- The only time "antichrist" is used is in the Johannine Epistles, and it refers to the proto-Gnostics in/around Ephesus that claimed that Jesus was a purely spiritual being (thus not really human in any meaningful sense). This was one of the major conflicts of the early church, since early Christian thought involved a mixture of very earthy Jewish ideas and very other-worldly Greek philosophy. In a society steeped in Greek thought, a divinity actually becoming human would have been ridiculous or offensive, but was right at home with the Jewish idea of YHWH being ultimately invested in human history.
- After Saul's conversion, he didn't deliberately change his name to Paul. Has birth name was Sha'ul (Saul is the closest the Greek alphabet can come to rendering that name) and he never abandoned it. However, like many Romanized Jews he had a Latin name that he used when dealing with Gentiles—Paulus or "Paul." So basically, the author of Acts called him "Saul" so long as that's what his main associates (the Pharisees) called him; he got referred to as "Paul" once he began moving mainly in Gentile circles..
- Nowhere in the Garden of Eden story does the Bible mention the name of the forbidden fruit, commonly accepted as an apple by people who aren't Biblical scholars. In fact, Jewish sources debate five or six possibilities, which include everything from fig to grapes to wheat, but no apple.
- The word for "apple" in Latin is "mālum" (long 'a') similar to the Latin word for "bad". Latin being the language of the Catholic Church, someone illuminating a manuscript probably thought "evil apple" to be a rather clever pun. The Church says nothing either way; only in art does this tradition exist. Secondly, in early modern English apple was used to mean fruit in general (in the same way that "corn" meant the grain of an area, not any specific grain). When the meaning of "apple" got narrowed down, the picture of the fruit of the tree of knowledge was narrowed with it. In any case, the apple didn't make it to the Middle East until the Persian era at the earliest (they're originally from Central Asia), so Eve eating one is a bit of a stretch, to say the least.
- Jonah never spent time in the belly of a whale in The Bible; it is simply described as a big fish. At the time the story was written there was no specific Hebrew word for whale, apart from various words for large fish. The metamorphosis into a whale comes from translations. In some languages, "big fish" is a term used to refer to both whales and sharks, with little or no distinction. In later mentions of Jonah's story in the New Testament, the Greek word used for the big fish was literally "sea monster", a term often applied then to whales. The King James Version, among others, decided that a whale made more sense than just a big fish, since no known ordinary fish is that big. That whales aren't actually fish is another, unrelated issue.
- In regards of the Devil, the popular image of a red-skinned, horned, goat-legged devil with a pitchfork is neither biblical nor has it ever been mainstream Christian teaching. The picture is a steady amalgamation of pagan symbols attached to Satan over the years in order to discredit them. In fact, in many early paintings he's represented as a goat that walks on his hind legs.
- Much like the Devil, the popular image of God as an elderly, bearded man is based more of Zeus, and violates the Second Commandment ("thou shalt have no graven images of Me"). YHWH's actual apperance in The Bible is less Physical God and more horrifying.
- The only Biblical mention of "Lilith" is in Isaiah 34:14, where it's not even clear that it refers to a person. Even if it does refer to a person, it's actually a plural noun. As in "people" rather than "person". The idea of Lilith, singular, being the first woman before Eve comes from medieval Judaism, long after the book of Genesis was written.
- Christian tradition teaches that of Jesus's 12 apostles, all but two (Judas and John) were martyred. The Bible accounts only for the fate of two of them: Judas (suicide/divinely ordained accident, the Bible give conflicting accounts) and James (killed by order of Herod). Stories of the rest come from apocryphal and medieval sources.
- Naturally, Cracked has an entire list of this trope for Christianity. Along with those already mentioned is the entire concept of any of the fallen angels ruling Hell, as Hell is just as much a prison for them as it is for the sinners.
- Quite a few tenets affirmed of the Catholic and Orthodox Church are not actually found in the Bible. Example include immaculate conception (not to be confused with the virgin birth), the bodily assumption of Mary, and transubstantiation. They could be considered universally believed Words of Dante that were upgraded to Words of God by via Papal fiat. However, the Catholics Orthodox accept both the validity of Scripture and Tradition, with Tradition being the results of continuous deepening of understanding of theology. The Protestants generally do not accept these due to their belief in Sola Scriptura (Scripture only): all tenets of faith must be directly extrapolated from the text.
- Exodus doesn't name the Pharaoh who Moses went up against, but pop culture has completely identified him with Ramesses II. The Ten Commandments didn't invent the idea, but it probably codified it and later The Prince of Egypt codified it again for a new generation. It's reached the point where any screen adaptation of the story which doesn't call him "Ramesses" will simply not mention his name.
- This results from confusion due to the mention of a couple of cities (either contemporary version of slums, or a huge collection of barns, scholars differ in opinion) built by the Hebrew slaves, one of which is called רעמסס ("Ra?amses" where /?/ is an epiglottal stop).
- The Leviathan and Behemoth are only briefly mentioned in a list of other contemporary animals. The actual descriptions sound more like a largish crocodile and a hippo than the giant monsters they are now associated with.
- There is scholarly debate on whether to understand these as descriptions of animals or mythical creatures, however a contemporary audience would be very familiar with stories of gods fighting "chaos monsters" to create the world. There are elements of this at several points, such as the Psalms and Job, where it seems that there was a tradition of YHWH battling primordial ocean monsters. As Israel began transitioning to true monotheism (after 500 BCE or so) these stories become more rare as Israel's religion became more distinct from its neighbors.
- Hell and Satan are good examples themselves: before the 6th century BCE, the Jewish afterlife was Sheol, where people existed as ghosts or shades, but didn't really do/think/feel anything, and everybody went there. Also, Ha-Satan ("the accuser") is only mentioned in Job and several non-canonical works, where he is a member of YHWH's court and not evil or duplicitous at all (and Job was a parable deconstructing pre-exile theology, so he is just a character the author used to represent that ideology). During the exile, the Israelites encountered Zoroastrianism and their religion gained an evil counterpart to YHWH, and later when Greek thought became the norm in Judea, Sheol and Hades merged, along with the Jerusalem trash pit Gehenna (which was constantly on fire, as the land was ritually impure and couldn't be used for anything else).
- Virgil's Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphoses are like this for Greco-Roman myths. Ovid cobbled together different Greek sources and added his own imaginative touches to create the definitive versions of most of the Greco-Roman myths we have today. The Aeneid standardized the story of Aeneas, which had previously existed in a bunch of variations and hadn't been as popular as, say, Romulus and Remus.
- The popular image of Santa Claus is taken from A Visit from St. Nicholas ("'Twas the night before Christmas..."). Before the poem was published in the 1820s, pretty much everyone had their own idea of what he looked like and how he traveled around. The popular modern image also owes a lot to Thomas Nast's cartoons of Santa in the 1860s.
- The modern perception of Norse Mythology and religious practices is mainly based on Christian or Muslim sources, such as the chronicle of Adam of Bremen from the 11th century, Ibn Fadlan's brief depiction of life among the Norse in Russia, or various texts by Icelandic skalds in the 13th century (such as Snorri Sturluson's manuals on how to write poetry).
- Stories about King Arthur have been told and retold to the point where this happens. T. H. White's The Once and Future King is probably the best known these days, although most people are at least aware it's based on an older set of legends. Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (or, more recently, his Complete Works) is usually the main "canon" but Malory makes no secret of drawing from other books... some of which scholars today can't identify for sure. And, even then, these books are following mostly off of Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain and the romances of Chrétien de Troyes and others, and not the often forgotten (and often missing) Welsh folktales... which may or may not predate the accounts of Roman historians from not long after the time that mention Arthur (confused especially since Gaius, who was present for this part of history, is the one person who never mentions Arthur).
- The Hadiths of Islam can be seen as an example of this: a huge body of phrases attributed to the Prophet but not actually part of the Qur'an, a sort of Ascended Fanon.
- The more fundamental differences between the sects of most major religions are largely due to separated groups coming to consider Word of Dante as Word Of God due to prolonged lack of contact or as a deliberate decision.
- The Quran or Muhammad never said anything about martyrs receiving the company of 72 virgins in paradise. The idea was first written down by a commentator 200 years after the death of Muhammad. And some scholars down think the word he used meant "grapes", not virgins.
- Everyone knows that Medea poisoned her children after Jason left her. However, older sources state it was either an accident, or the citizens of Corinth were the murderers. Medea didn't become the murderer until Euripides started writing the play, and the Corinthians convinced him to change it (with a large bribe, that is).
- Warhammer 40K: While it is never outight stated that the priest of the Adeptus Mechanicus worship the Void Dragon (a star-eating C'tan deity that has power over machines imprisoned on Mars), most fans readily accept it as canon. Given the nature of the universe, it says something that a vital part of mankind's dominion secretly serves its own master, who actively hates all living things.
- While no names were given, early fluff explained that the God Emperor of Mankind held many guises throughout his life, from humble slave to messiah. Now the "messiah" part has been retconned, but try and find a single fan who will deny that Jesus Christ was the Emperor.
- The "official" scenario of The Seven Deadly Sins was not written by Bertolt Brecht, though it was adopted by choreographer George Balanchine.
- Bungie imported the concept of rampancy from Marathon into the Halo series, and made it part of an AI's natural life cycle after seven years of existence. Nowhere, however, is it stated that Halo's AIs follow the same rampancy pattern of "Melancholia - Anger - Envy" as Marathon's AIs, or that there is a possibility for AIs to advance past those stages and become Metastable. Regardless, this has become a basic concept in the fandom, and appears commonly in post-Halo 3 fanfiction surrounding Cortana.
- Pokémon has a few:
- Cubone is actually Kangaskhan's baby. Its Mother's skull is therefore a Kangaskhan's skull that eventually fuses to its head when it evolves.
- The PC from Red and Blue killed his Rival's Raticate - and that's the reason the rival was in Pokemon Tower in Lavender Town.
- Ditto is a failed clone of Mew.
- Herobrine is a character from a Minecraft creepypasta. Many people now think he's a real character, either Notch's dead brother or a dead miner.
- It has recently (sort of) become Ascended Fanon by constantly appearing in official release notes as a Running Gag. Herobrine has now been "removed" several times from the game* , and another bugfix stated that "all ghost entities under the command of Lord Herobrine" had been removed.
- Fans of Resident Evil (particularly the Fan Girls) all seem to think that William Birkin is a loving father. However, the game never once gives even the slightest hint of evidence to support this, and if you go by what Sherry (his daughter) and Annette (His wife) go by, he was the complete opposite: so obsessed with his work he hardly even knew she existed. There's also the fact that he stashed a sample of the G-Virus in her locket after he found out Umbrella wanted to steal his research early, which also made her the target of the Tyrant T-103 Type.
- Touhou runs on Word of Dante. A character can say something once and have it become their Catch Phrase. Several of the Fan Vids and Fan Fic spawn Alternative Character Interpretation that has little to no canonical basis. The biggest example of how prevalent Word of Dante is in Touhou is probably the two nameless mid-bosses from The Embodiment of Scarlet Devil: Fans were the ones responsible for giving them names and distinctive appearances. Their Fan Nicknames were then acknowledged by the author, and the fan depictions of them seem to have made cameos in supplementary material.
- Hisoutensoku, the third fighting game in the series (numbered 12.3) had no official English title, a first for the series. For a few months after its release (and intermittently afterwards) the game was referred to as Unthinkable Natural Law, after a loose translation of its Japanese title.
- Eight Bit Theater has led to many people assuming characterizations and personalities in the comic are canon to the Final Fantasy games. In particular, that White Mage is a girl (though many people already assumed this long before 8-Bit Theater existed), to the chagrin of male White Mage cosplayers everywhere. Or that black mages in general are psychopathic murderers, which is hinted at in Captain SNES: The Game Masta, even though no appearances of playable black mages in the rest of the series have portrayed them as anything even close (worst would probably be Palom, who was a little bit rude, but definitely not evil). And no, despite his ears, Thief is not an elf.
- In the original Final Fantasy, the White Wizard was either a male or a Bifauxnen with the latter being more widely believed. However, since most healers in the series since have tended to be female, and 8-Bit Theater had White Mage as a female, most fans assume the original NES White Mage is also a female. The developers seem to gone with this, since in the remakes the White Mage's higher-resolution sprites are female or otherwise androgynous, and the games that suggest names for the party members pick mostly female names for the White Mage. In addition, Square-Enix-developed Mario Hoops 3-On-3 and Mario Sports Mix, in which White Mage is a playable character and is undeniably female◊.
- Among the fandom of The Elder Scrolls, there's the notion that Sheogorath is the only person in the Shivering Isles allowed to grow a beard, which is generally agreed upon to the point where it was stated on the wiki. The evidence for this one comes from the fact that Sheogorath has a beard and that if the player goes to the place Sheogorath teleports you to when you try to attack him, where he drops criminals from multiple feet in the sky, there's a body with a note saying that the man was executed for having a beard. However, the note doesn't specify anything other than that he had a beard — for all we know, the crime could be that it was longer than Sheogorath's, not that it was there in the first place. This being Sheogorath, he might just have made up a random baseless excuse to kill the guy.
- Or have had such a rule in place for a time — he's Sheogorath, instituting a 'No Beards Allowed on Pain of Death' rule for a week is perfectly in character.
- People who found Mega Man through Bob and George are often confused by the fan-character "Ran", usually asking which game he came from. A lot of this has to do with the fact that, for a while, Ran's creator let just about anyone who asked use the character, meaning he showed up everywhere. This (and the very large sprite-sheet leading to him having as many or more poses as game characters) led people to believe so ubiquitous a character must have come from the games.
- If Ran himself is asked, he will often answer that he is from Rockboard, an obscure Japanese only Mega Man themed NES board game video game.
- Also regarding Mega Man, thanks to the thousands of loose threads the franchise has, newer/more casual fans swear on their life that Zero killed off the classic characters before being sealed again for a hundred years. There were certainly hints in that direction, but Word Of God (from Keiji "Inafking" Inafune) is that it never happened — and anyway, who could have sealed Zero if the whole cast was dead? Bob and George bears some responsibility for this one too, as Zero is supposed to kill everybody in its storyline; the term the comic used for this event, the Cataclysm, is now universal.
- Reno's backstory is never mentioned in Final Fantasy VII or Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children. Nor is it mentioned in any related promo material. Yet most fanfiction has him depicted as a former Street Urchin who later became a government assassin. This probably originated by someone attempting to use Rule of Drama to make for a Darker and Edgier story or a Hurt-Comfort fic. And since this popular character had a past that was (at best) sketchy, everyone just went along with it, not only because it provided the Angst for whatever Ur Example fanfiction that was/might have been, but because it somehow became one of those things that "Everybody knows." Thus it is still a popular motif for many a fanfic that involves Reno.
- Any prominent Magikoopa in the Mario series is assumed to be Kamek. It doesn't help that Kamek is Magikoopa's Japanese name. The same issue happens with red Toads and green Yoshis.
- Despite Gilgamesh being a major character, Enkidu's appearance or character have never been brought up in the Fate series proper. Instead, fans almost universally take reference from Fate/strange fake, a scenario setup written by Baccano! and Durarara!! creator Ryohgo Narita as an April Fools joke.
- MSF High suffers from this at times. Since the Question and Answer threads are sometimes answered by people other than Wraith, they run the risk of being Word of Dante. Also, a lot of people use elements that haven't fully been fleshed out, which can lead to embarassments in the forum roleplay. Such as thinking Legion have green blood.
- For Homestuck, this has gotten to the point where if you ask just about any fan what the currency of the Alternian Empire is, they'll answer "caegars". At no point in the comic are caegars used as money - the sole mention of them is a single coin used for flipping to make decisions. They're explicitly based on ancient Roman coins - the name is adapted from "Caesar", and the coin depicts Julius Caesar with horns, so it's fairly likely that caegars were intended to be ancient, obsolete coins from an ancient civilisation and no longer in circulation. However, since Nepetaquest 2011 features an instance early on where the titular character uses caegars to pay for a map, anyone who uses any other term for Alternian currency will inevitably be "corrected".
- To a lesser extent, Nepetaquest 2011 also discusses how some trolls use their hives as "waystations", which function as shops. This was more or less made up by the author entirely, but it's still cropped up in other fanfics.
- Speaking of troll society, there's also the idea that the troll deity is named "Gog", thanks to trolls referencing "Gog" and "Jegus" in conversations with the kids. This has gotten so prevalent that the fantroll community had to point out that the trolls using the term "Gog" are intentionally referencing a Sweet Bro and Hella Jeff misspelling - they otherwise say "Oh my God" as normal.
- In fact, the fantroll community has a lot of popular fanon that they take as canon for troll society, making it especially annoying when the "Stop Having Fun" Guys call Canon Defilement on a fantroll that contradicts these assumptions. Among them are that trolls see themselves as a Master Race and wipe out any species they conquer (when canon never states why or how they invade planets); that trolls are drafted when they reach 10 sweeps (when canon never specifies the exact point); and that they are visited by the Imperial Drone and this time and this time only (also never specified in canon, which, in fact, seems to imply it's a regularly occurring event.)
- On a matter that ISN'T troll-based, Hussie intentionally gave the kids undesignated ethnicity and race (only stating that John & Jade and Rose & Dave should have the same genetics due to being siblings), but it's generally accepted that all the kids are white with John & Jade having black hair and Rose & Dave having blonde hair. The only notable deviation from that is Dave, who used to generally have red hair, but after the above Word Of God, the fanbase agreed that a blonde Dave was better than a redhead Rose.
- The fan base has done a lot of speculation and theorizing about the vaguely-defined classes and aspects the characters have been assigned, and a generally-accepted pseudocanon has accumulated around them explaining their mythological significance, what each says about the characters associated with them, and what they imply about the future story progression.
- Homestar Runner: On its fansite, the Homestar Runner Fanstuff Wiki, many aspects of the 20X6 characters added in the more popular fan works seem to be thought of as canon by many of the wiki's members, such as Stlunko not using contractions (only appearing in the game Stinkoman 20X6, Stlunko only had one line in the manual which had no place for a contraction in it), the most major example being 1-up's obsession with pudding, whereas in the canon pudding appeared in a single toon, and 1-up said "I want pudding" once. It also influenced the creators, giving names to the minor characters (the Visor Robot, for example) among other things.
- A related example to the Halo/Marathon one above comes into play with Red vs. Blue. The show has never officially been stated to take place in the Halo universe; while a number of things do hint at it, a lot of other things imply otherwise (or at least imply things took place in a different order from in Halo). Still, many theories revolve around how things work in the Halo universe. Interestingly enough, considering the above discussion on Halo and Marathon AIs, an episode of season 10 implies that the Marathon concept of AI development actually does hold true in the RvB universe!
- Another RvB example is how Big Name Fan Luke McKay did a well known series of what the various characters look like underneath their helmets. Since McKay both eventually did official (albeit not related to RvB) art for RT, and some of the RT guys expressed appreciation of the designs, the fandom latched into the designs as "canon". Which has led to the recent revelation of some of the characters turning out to not canonically look like McKay's designs (notably, South looking completely different, Wash being blond versus brunet, and Maine being bald instead of ginger) causing some grumpiness in the fandom. However, Wyoming actually looks pretty close to McKay's design.
- Michael Demcio was the first to use the names Chip "Maplewood" and Dale "Oakmont" in his epic Chip 'n Dale Rescue Rangers Fan Fic Rhyme and Reason, released in 1996 as the first of its kind. Ever since, these names have been established as fanon.
- In the Dungeons & Dragons cartoon proper, only first names are used — except for Presto, who is only known by his nickname. An early fanfic by Victoria Bishop, "The Gathering," gives everyone full names, since it's depicting how they all met. The story in full is not part of general fanon, but most of the invented names have been reused. Two naming concepts in particular are widespread:
- Eric having the last name Montgomery. He must just look it. This concept is so established in fanon that it can easily be mistaken for canon.
- "Presto" being short for Preston. This one is probably because of elegance — making a double meaning, making the nickname a Line-of-Sight Name, and explaining why everyone uses it when names are used in true canon. The main reminder that this isn't canon is there still being disagreement on whether Preston is a given name or surname...
- Total Drama Comeback gets this often for the Total Drama series. However, whether the creators are acknowledging (a "TDC" logo appeared in the second-season special) or subverting it (Ezekiel and Bridgette's personalities third season and their early eliminations) it is still unknown.
- My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic's fan-favorite character Derpy gives us an interesting example. Although the show itself seems to insist quite clearly (This pic sums it up◊) that Dinky Doo is the daughter of Carrot Top/Golden Harvest and Written Script, fans of the show insist that Dinky is Derpy's daughter. Maybe it's because Derpy has been (mostly) portrayed as a loving and devoted perfect mother (most images generating nothing but "awwwwwww" from whoever sees them), but the fans get quite jossed if you even suggest that Dinky isn't Derpy's daughter* .
- The fact that Derpy and Carrot/Golden have been canonically declared roommates might cool things down a bit.
- Pinkie Pie being a Fourth Wall Observer. In the show, she does have some Medium Awareness, but the furthest she's ever been able to take it is messing with the Iris Out (which the Comically Serious Twilight Sparkle was able to replicate). Contrast that to the fanart, where she's basically a less violent version of Deadpool.
- The character of Scootaloo being an orphan, is an idea that a lot of fans have latched on to, her parents never appearing in any episode she's involved in is what started this.
- Even Princess Celestia isn't immune to this treatment. The show portrays her as a long-lived, wise, and powerful magic user), not the Nigh Invulnerable Physical Goddess the fandom would have you believe.
- A lot of phrases assumed to originate in the U.S. Constitution are actually from contemporaneous letters, speeches, or Supreme Court decisions.
- The Declaration of Independence is probably the most frequent victim of this. It seems to run together with the Preamble to the Constitution in a lot of people's heads. One of the most common examples of this is its use by religious conservatives to uphold the idea that the Christian faith is enshrined in the Constitution. While the Declaration does contain mention of "Nature's God" and a "Creator", it is highly debatable whether or not these are references to the Christian God (many of the Founding Fathers were deists), and even if they are, the Declaration holds as much legal standing as the Articles of Confederation do.
- One thing the Constitution does specifically say on religion is that no religious test shall be required of any candidate for office; that is, requiring any politician or employee of the Federal Government to belong to a particular religion, or any religion, is specifically prohibited.
- The phrase "separation of church and state" (and variations thereof) is possibly the single most prominent example within the Constitution itself, being derived from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptists describing his intent for the First Amendment's Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses* and upheld through precedent by the Supreme Court, but the phrase itself is not present in the Constitution.
- The Supreme Court's power of judicial review (i.e. deciding whether or not a law is constitutional) is not enshrined in the Constitution, but was created in 1804 via the landmark decision Marbury v. Madison.
- This isn't to say that judicial review was created out of thin air by the Supreme Court: the Constitution is (obviously and by its own admission* ) a law, and laws have always been subject to judicial interpretation under The Common Law, which the US follows. Marbury is simply the Supreme Court (or rather John Marshall) explaining the consequences of that system interacting with an entrenched, written constitution.* So subverted in a way.
- The interesting thing is that the Supreme Court does, in fact, rely on these papers for a hint on how to interpret the Constitution, and that in The Common Law tradition, this is perfectly acceptable. The Federalist/The Federalist Papers is considered particularly persuasive. These have no real standing but being written by the same men that wrote the Constitution itself can be considered a meaningful window on their intent, and therefore how pieces of it should be interpreted. James Madison's secret notes from the 1787 Philadelphia Convention are also considered persuasive.
- A lot of what people "know" about king Richard III is actually propaganda Shakespeare made up. He certainly wasn't an ugly cripple (though he suffered from severe scoliosis, if recently unearthed skeletal remains thought to be his test positive- though that's still not a hunchback a la the legend and Shakespeare's play) and the informed opinion on whether he actually killed the Princes in the Tower is split about 50-50.
- And Shakespeare got much of that from earlier Dantes who had an equal disregard for reality.
- The first Tudor, Henry VII, beat Richard III for the throne; to make himself look good, he put out a lot of propaganda to make Richard III seem like an evil bastard. It had become so entrenched by Shakespeare's time that he wouldn't've been able to get away with writing anything good about him. As an example of the sort of thing invented in propaganda: The Duke of Somerset, who Richard III killed in Shakespeare's play, died when Richard III was three years old.
- Richard did have his own supporter Lord Hastings dragged from the council chamber and beheaded on a block concealed beneath a pile of straw. Hastings may have opposed Richard's decision to depose the young king. He then had the Neville loyalists who had been escorting the prince, and whom Richard had had imprisoned in the north, executed.
- The above is not necessarily true. There's plenty of evidence that the on-the-spot beheading of Hastings is also propaganda directed against Richard by the Tudors. It was written in the Croyland Chronicle by a former chancellor of Richard's who wanted to get in with Henry by slandering his former monarch. Other sources put Hastings' arrest on the 13th of June (the day of the council chamber meeting) and his execution, after a trial, on the 20th.
- Also, Richard's move against the Woodvilles was fairly justified, considering that Edward IV named him the boys' Protector. In defiance of the king's deathbed wish, the "loyalists" mentioned above essentially kidnapped the young Edward V with an "escort" of armed men, and Richard was forced to use aggressive tactics to prevent them from seizing power and the protectorate.