Malus: I am warning you, you tell me another and I'll arrest you myself. That is a promise, Miss...A simple and common form of Theme Naming is to name characters after flowers or other plants. This has the advantage of being less conspicuous than other forms of theme naming, as many of these names are common Real Life names, particularly for females. Furthermore, many flowers and other plants already have strong symbolic associations. Common English language plant names for girls include Angelica note , Dahlia, Daisy, Erica, Ginger, Hazel, Heather, Holly, Iris, Ivy, Jasmine, Lily, Marigold, Olive note Petunia, Poppy, Rose, Rosemary, Veronica, Violet and Willow. Creates something of a problem if they later have a son, since there are not many plant names that could work for boys, though Ash, Basil, Herb note , Joshua, Logan and Rowan are some examples. If there's a female skunk in a story, chances are she'll have this, for obvious reasons. See also Cherry Blossom Girl, and, of course, Flower Motifs. The Tragic Rose is a subtrope about the poignant relationship between roses and pain which also applies to persons named Rose.
Rose: Rose. Sister Rose.
Malus: Of course. Another plant!
Rose: Rose. Sister Rose.
Malus: Of course. Another plant!
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Anime and Manga
- Most of the various ships and ship classes, mecha and alien devices in Martian Successor Nadesico are also named after flowers — although this is deliberately obscured at times in the North American dub. ("Chulips" are, in fact, "tulips".)
- Revolutionary Girl Utena, is rife with floral imagery. "Anthy" is a Greek name meaning "flower". "Utena" is the Japanese word for "calyx", the protective covering that shields a developing blossom.
- The ferry girls in YuYu Hakusho: Botan (peony), Ayame (iris) and movie-only Hinageshi (red poppy). Sensui is an anagram of "suisen," meaning daffodil, while Itsuki means "flowering tree." As they also worked for Spirit World, this is likely deliberate and a play on their Face–Heel Turn.
- Flower names also appear, a little more subtly, throughout Weiß Kreuz. Ran means "orchid" and is referenced several times within the series; Sakura, of course, refers to Cherry Blossoms; Yoji may refer to Mirabilis jalapa; Weiss has a handler codenamed Botan. All of the Aoba Center Kritiker personnel have flower names (although these are probably codenames): Shion (Tatarian aster), Kikyou (Chinese bellflower), Kuroyuri (black lily), and Tsubaki (camellia). The members of La Mort use flower-themed names as well: Azami (thistle flower), Ayame (iris), and Rindou (Japanese gentian).
- Most of the members of the guild Moon Tree in Dot Hack GU are named after plants.
- The entire Kinomoto family in Cardcaptor Sakura. There's the titular character Sakura, her mother Nadeshiko (Japanese name for an entire family of flowering plants), her brother Touya whose name contains the kanji for Peach Blossom and her father Fujitaka (wisteria)
- It's emphasized in the manga with the character profiles, which name each of the family's favourite flower as the one they're named after, except Nadeshiko - whose favourite flower was cherry blossom, hence why she named her daughter 'Sakura'.
- In the Japanese and English version of the anime, Misty's three sisters are named after flowers. In the Japanese version, they're Sakura (cherry blossom), Ayame (iris), and Botan (peony), while Misty's Japanese name, "Kasumi," can mean either "baby's breath" or "mist." In the English version, the sisters are Daisy, Violet, and Lily. Misty loses out on the theme naming in order to keep her Meaningful Name relating to her being the water-type Gym Leader.
- Gary Oak's name is also a pun; there's a type of tree called a Garry Oak. He is the rival of Ash, who also happens to have a tree name. His game counterpart Blue has a sister named "Daisy" however Gary seems like an only child.
- In HeartCatch Pretty Cure!, all the Cures has flower-related names: Tsubomi ("flower bud"), Erika (after the flower erica), and Yuri ("lily"). A supporting character, Itsuki, has a name that follows the theme as well (meaning "flowering tree"), but this is because she becomes the Sixth Ranger. Also, one of the fairy mascots is named Potpourri, and their mothers follow the pattern too: Tsubomi's mother Mizuki ("ki" = "tree"), Erika's mother Sakura ("cherry blossom"), Itsuki's mother Tsubaki ("camellia"), and Yuri's mother Haruna ("haru" = "spring"). In general, this season likes its Flower Motifs.
- The Kuja tribe of One Piece usually have flower-related names. A full list: Sandersonia, Marigold, Ran ("orchid"), Rindo ("Japanese gentian"), Daisy, Cosmos, Blue Fan, Sweet Pea, Marguerite, Aphelandra, Gloriosa, Kikyo ("Chinese bellflower"), Belladonna ("nightshade"), Kiku ("Chrysanthemum"), Poppy, Pansy, Shion ("aster"), Enishida ("broom") and Nerine. It isn't known for sure where their empress Hancock's name is taken from, but it's probably either from Thomas Hancock, (founder of the British rubber industry), or from the Latin name for snowberry.
- Please Save My Earth: Being aliens watching over earth, Moku Ren finds out that by pronouncing their names without pauses in it, their names all are a type of flower or plant found on earth.
- Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory has all of the mobile suits created as part of the EFSF's Gundam Development Project named after flowers, namely the RX-78GP01 Zephyranthes, the RX-78GP02A Physalis, the RX-78GP03 Dendrobium Orchis/Stamen and the prototypes RX-78GP00 Blossom and RX-78GP04G Gerbera.
- Shaman King:
- The Asakura family also has something of a theme going, with all of its members having kanji representing parts of plants in their names. The most common is "leaf", found in Hao ("leaf emperor"), Yoh ("leaf"), Yohmei ("bright leaf"), and Yohken ("wise leaf"), but there's also Keiko ("stem child"), Mikihisa ("long-lasting tree trunk"), and Kino ("of wood"). Yoh's son Hana ("flower") also fits the bill.
- Tao Ren and Tao Ran deserve mention as well as Ren's Chinese name, Lián, means "lotus" while Ran's Chinese name, Lán, means "orchid".
- Urusei Yatsura has two characters, who are related to each other, named Sakura (means "cherry tree" or "cherry flower") and Sakuranbo (means either "cherry fruit" or "deranged monk", depending on which kanji it's written with; he prefers to be called "Cherry" because of the latter meaning).
- In tsuritama, the girls: Koko (coconut), Misaki (doesn't seem to be an actual plant, although it literally translates to "ocean blossom"), Sakura ("cherry blossom"), Erika ("heather"), and Keito/Kate ("plumed cockscomb").
- Magical Flowers, a Show Within a Show in Servant × Service, features a combination of this trope and Colourful Theme Naming for the names of its main characters; namely Gerbera Pink, Rose Black, Hydrangea Blue, Mimosa Yellow and Lupin Purple.
- In Blue Seed all of the major characters are named after either trees or plants. Koume for example means "little plum", Matsudaira's first name Azusa means "catalpa tree", Momiji and Kaede are both names for maple, 'Take' from Takeuchi's name means "bamboo", Kusanagi means "mower of grass", Sakura is "cherry blossom", and so on and so forth.
- The villains from the first Sailor Moon movie have floral names. Fiore is Italian for flower, the Flower Youma are named after types of plants, and the Xenian Flower's name refers to "xenia", the effect of pollen on a seed or fruit.
- In Yuru-Yuri, the Ohmuro sisters' names all have something to do with flowers; Sakurako's name means "cherry blossom child", Nadeshiko's name is the Japanese name for the wisteria flower, and Hanako's name means "flower child".
- Sakura Discord's entire premise revolves around the main characters all having "sakura" in their names, which helps to bring them closer as if it was some kind of destiny.
- Used in Some Semblance of Meaning, which makes sense, seeing as it's a Hunger Games fanfiction. Several characters are given floral names: Laurel, Briony, Phlox, Cassia (a type of tree), Tansy( the real name of Lavinia Gilden), etc. (Also, the author's pen name is Volcanic Lily.)
- In Gensokyo 20XX, it is interesting to note that both Ran and Ren are named after some kind of flower, as Ran's name could either translate to "orchid" or "indgo", and Ren's name could translate to "water lily" or, as a favorite way of writing his name dictates, "lotus". It should also be noted that both are wife and husband.
- In Vincent Gallo's The Brown Bunny, all the women that the main character meets on his journey have flower names. Because his ex-girlfriend's name was Daisy, this suggests that these interactions are all in his head, as is his interaction with Daisy, who is actually dead.
- There have been four films in the Poison Ivy series, and each has kept the tradition alive and given its protagonist a floral name (Ivy, Lily, Violet, and Daisy.)
- Damsels In Distress: the Damsels are Violet, Rose, Heather and Lily.
- In the Sex and the City movie, Charlotte's daughters are Rose and Lily.
- In both the original and the remake of The Wicker Man the citizens of Summerisle all have plant names to reflect their Pagan religion, including rare male examples like Ash, Oak, and Alder. (This is especially noticeable when Howie is browsing the list of students◊ at the school.) While in the remake it's Lampshaded with the page quote, in the original Howie remarks on it when he looks up the death certificates for the family of the missing girl.
Howie: "Benjamin and Rachel Morrison." (pleased) Rachel and Benjamin, names from the Bible.Librarian: (dismissively) Yes. They were very old.
- The Hunger Games: Katniss is named after a plant that is also called "arrowhead," referring to her weapon of choice. "Primrose" means "eternal love". "Rue" means "regret," referring to Kat's regret over her death.
- In the Anne of Green Gables series, we have Lavendar Lewis, Hazel Marr, Ivy Trent, Rose Elliott and Rosemary West.
- In J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth (The Lord of the Rings, etc), the hobbits do have an acknowledged tradition of most often naming their daughters after flowers or gemstones. E.g. among Sam's six daughters are four with flower-names: Elanor (a flower growing in Lothlórien), Rose, Daisy, Primrose.
- It's also mentioned that many humans and some hobbits from Bree have plant-names, including the innkeeper Barliman Butterbur and Saruman's agent Bill Ferny.
- Bilbo's mother was Belladonna; it means 'beautiful lady', but is another name for deadly nightshade; as she's dead before the beginning of the book, we don't know if either name is significant.
- Harry Potter:
- His mother, Lily (symbolic of purity and death) and aunt, Petunia (symbolic of resentment) Evans.
- There's Poppy Pomfrey, the nurse (poppies relieve pain), Lavender Brown and Pansy Parkinson, Moaning Myrtle (it's a shrub like a blueberry), Narcissa (egotism, derived from the narcissus flower) Malfoy, and Fleur Delacour (French for flower).
- There's Pomona (goddess of gardens and fruits) Sprout, herbology professor.
- Ron and Hermione's daughter, Rose.
- Arabella Figg, Dorcas Meadowes and Padma Patil (means Lotus).
- Lupin. Tends to be overlooked in favour of wolf-ishness, but it's a flower.
- In P.C. Hodgell's Chronicles of the Kencyrath series, female Kendar almost universally have plant-based names, both flowering and non-flowering: Rue, Brier, Rose, Larch, Nightshade, Cherry, Hawthorn being just a few examples.
- Happens a lot in Redwall, with instances such as Cornflower, Rose, and Columbine.
- Artemis Fowl offers Holly Short, Julius and Turnball Root, Mulch Diggums, Grub and Trouble Kelp, and Briar Cudgeon.
- Dedicates and some mages in the Circle of Magic universe normally pick nature-y names, with plant mages having, well, plant names. Two of them are Rosethorn and Briar Moss.
- Every single rabbit in Watership Down except Fiver and Bigwig (which are both nicknames) is named after a type of flower or type of low-growing plant. This even allows Names to Run Away from Really Fast, with "General Woundwort".
- MG and Pete, the Caldecott sisters of the Black London series by Caitlin Kittredge are Morning Glory and Petunia, respectively.
- In The Secret of Platform 13 by Eva Ibbotson, the three nurses are called Lily, Rose and Violet. For added fun, they are identical triplets.
- There are lots of plant-based names in Warrior Cats, since the characters name their children after what they know, and they live in the forest.
- Jessica Day George's Princess of the Midnight Ball, based on The Twelve Dancing Princesses, names all twelve of the princesses after flowers. From eldest to youngest, they are Rose, Lily, Jonquil, Hyacinth, Violet, the twins Poppy and Daisy, Iris, Lilac, Orchid, Pansy, and Petunia.
- Heather Dixon's Entwined, also based on The Twelve Dancing Princesses, not only names all twelve princesses after flowers and plants, but alphabetically in order of birth as well: Azalea, Bramble, Clover, Delphinium, Evening Primrose, Flora, Goldenrod, Hollyhock, Ivy, Jessamine, Kale, and Lily.
- Katniss from The Hunger Games comes from an aquatic plant while her sister Primrose received her name from a bush (Primrose bush). Prim named the cat Buttercup because she insisted that his muddy yellow coat matched the bright flower. Rue, another tribute, received her name from a small mountain flower (Ruta graveolens). Symbolically, both Ruta graveolens and primrose blossoms close at night. Rumor has it Suzanne Collins says Katniss and Peeta's daughter is named Willow.
- Technically, the Easter Bunny from The Guardians of Childhood series as his full name is E. Aster Bunnymund — 'Aster' being an entire genus of flowering plants. Given his portrayal in the books, the association is likely unintentional, but it's given more meaning in his movie portrayal, where he's a spirit of spring. This has led to a fandom trend of using this trope for original Pooka characters including, occasionally, AU versions of Jack Frost.
- Deconstructed and then reconstructed in the children's picture book Chrysanthemum. The title character loves her name until her first day of school comes, at which all the other students laugh at her because her name is so long and doesn't fit on her name tag ("I'm named after my grandmother; you're named after a flower!") However, the music teacher, who the students admire deeply, comes to Chrysanthemum's rescue by showing them that she's also named after a flower and wants to name her daughter after the same one as the protagonist.
- In Zilpha Keatley Snyder's The Changeling, Ivy, Martha and Josie have a sustained fantasy game about a faraway planet, The Land of the Green Sky, populated by peaceful Tree People. (You can see where this is going). The characters in the little girls' game are all named for flowers, trees or plants; there's Prince Willow, Princess Wisteria and their advisor Lord Lilac; in the opposite corner (down below the earth) there's Princess Mistletoe, her dad Lord Hemlock (apparently a Consort), and her mom, the reigning monarch, Queen Oleander.
- In Connie Willis' novel To Say Nothing of the Dog, the Chattisbourne sisters are named Rose, Iris, Pansy, and Eglantine. Their mother even introduces them as her flower garden.
- In the Vorkosigan Saga novel Mirror Dance, the women of the Durona group are all named after plants because their clone mother is named Lily. The men have avian-themed names, instead.
- In the Dear America book A Coal Miner's Bride the main character meets the daughters of the man she is going to marry, Violet, Rose, and Lily. All she could come up with to say is, "What a beautiful garden."
- In Nina Kiriki Hoffman's book A Fistful of Sky, the mother Anise and the mother's sister Hazel are named for plants.
- Kate Morton's novel The Secret Keeper has four sisters: Laurel, Daphne, Iris, and Rose. (And their brother, Gerald.)
Live Action TV
- In Keeping Up Appearances, Hyacinth and her three sisters, Violet (the one with a Mercedes, sauna, and room for a pony), Daisy (NOT the one with a Mercedes, sauna, and room for a pony), and Rose (also without a Mercedes, sauna, and room for a pony, and in point in fact an aging village bicycle) are all named after flowers. Hyacinth insists on her last name to be pronounced Bouquet. "Bucket" is Richard's name, and she's being snotty.
- In The Golden Girls, Rose has two sisters, Lily and Holly.
- Cleopatra 2525 features Sarge (whose real name is Rose) and her sister Lily.
- Carnivŕle has Iris Crowe, though that isn't her birth name. It's nicely subverted by the fact that she's one of the bad guys (being big sister to The Antichrist will do that), and that irises are a symbol of heaven. She does, however, wear a lot of blue, and traditionally, blue irises were symbols of faith and hope, which Iris does embody, in a dark way.
- Constable Crabtree's massively numbered aunts in Murdoch Mysteries. In one episode, Murdoch asks how many aunts he has: "Well let's see, there's Aunt Amaryllis, Aunt Aster, Aunt Azalea, Aunt Begonia, Aunt Briony..." These were just A's and B's. Fifteen identified: Aunt Amaryllis, Aunt Aster, Aunt Azalea, Aunt Begonia, Aunt Briony, Aunt Clematis, Aunt Dahlia (though George managed to pronounce just "Dahl-" before he's cut off), Aunt Hyacinth, Aunt Iris, Aunt Ivy, Aunt Lily, Aunt Marigold, Aunt Nettle, Aunt Petunia, Aunt Primrose. The ones mentioned most often are Aunt Iris, Aunt Primrose, Aunt Petunia or Aunt Begonia.
- An Aunt Nettle is mentioned in a later episode. And it turns out that the Aunts aren't technically aunts, but a group of prostitutes who adopted the names as a selling point.
- In How I Met Your Mother, Lily has a daughter named Daisy.
- Super Sentai:
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger has the Flower Kunoichi Gang, a group of five girls who are all named after flowers.
- GoGo Sentai Boukenger has Sakura (cherry blossom) and Natsuki, whose name contains the kanji for cole blossom. Their Power Rangers Operation Overdrive counterparts are also named Rose and Veronica.
- In Juken Sentai Gekiranger the lone female is named Ran (orchid) and her Power Rangers Jungle Fury counterpart is named Lily. Gekiranger also had a female gang of thieves with the names Rose, Lily and Cherry.
- Many Greek Nymphs. Obviously justified, since they are nature spirits. Bonus when turned to a flower by a miffed deity.
- An unusual example: On The Fastrack's Rose Trellis (double whammy!), whose second husband is Thornton Saguaro.
- Yu-Gi-Oh!: Each of the Aromage are named after a species of flower that can be used to produce essential oils.
- In The Secret Garden musical, Colin's mother Lily has a duet at the start of act two (as part of a quartet) with her sister, Rose.
- The Sakura Five of Fate CCC EXTRA has their names based on flowers like the original Sakura Matou: Meltlilith(Lily), Passionlip (Passion Flower and Tulip), Violet, Kazuradrop (Arrowroot and Snow Drop), and Kingprotea(King Protea).
- The Heartless in Tales of Hearts are all named after plants, and the biggest one is named Gardenia. Ironically, the character named Flora is the one who worked against them and created the countermeasure/antidote. Flora was the goddess of flowers and other plants, after all.
- Tales of Graces invokes this - Sophie is named after an in-universe flower, the sopheria.
- Most of the members of the Imperial Floral Assault Division in Sakura Wars have names taken from flowers (In contrast, the New York Star Division of Sakura Wars: So Long, My Love all have names with astronomical or astrological significance).
- In the Japanese versions of the games, every single significant NPC has a plant-based name.
- In the English version of Platinum, the Frontier Brains have plant-based names.
- Johto's towns and cities also have a plant motif in both English and Japanese.
- The Pokemon Professors are all named for trees: Oak, Elm, Birch, Rowan, Juniper, Sycamore, and Kukui.
- Most of the characters keep their puns in English or use altered versions. They are just harder to find. For example, Candice, Riley, Thor(n)ton, 'Palmer, and so on.
- Gym leaders who use Grass Pokémon (Erika, Gardenia, Ramos) tend to have names with plant-related meanings.
- Most everyone in Steambot Chronicles of any significance is named after a plant. Most are seasonings and overlap with Edible Theme Naming, but a few are just plain plants.
- Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney has Dahlia and Iris Hawthorne, which has another bonus: the last name could be seen as "Has thorns", which is plant-related and is indicative of Dahlia's behavior. Sorta kept in the original Japanese: while Dahlia's original name "Chinami" is written in hiragana and thus has no fixed meaning note , her last name "Miyanagi" means "beautiful willow"; also, Iris's name is "Ayame" meaning "Iris" and being a symbol of hope... something that she sorta gives to Phoenix. Another bonus: Dahlia may come from the gruesome murder of "Elizabeth "Black Dahlia" Short and/or the novel written about it.
- There's a lot of plant names in Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth, probably to reflect that the villains are all part of a ring run from the flower-themed Allebahst. Calisto Yew, Cammy Meele (chamomile), Quercus Alba (the white oak)—whose Japanese name is closer to "red carnation"—etc.
- Sisters Poppy and Violet from My Sims.
- The majority of names and places in Duel Savior Destiny are named for plants including such obvious things as Floria academy, Lily or Lobelia.
- Neku Sakuraba and his three successive game partners in The World Ends with You have this going in a relatively subtle way in their surnames— Sakuraba means "cherry garden", Misaki means "beautiful blossom", Bito includes the character for "wisteria", and Kiryuu has the character for "Paulownia". Arguably, they're all fitting beyond just matching the theme— Neku spends the whole game learning that the world is worthwhile and to break out of his own mental "garden"; Shiki Misaki, besides being The Chick, has major self image issues, making her name a little painfully ironic; Beat is nothing if not tenacious, reflecting the strength of wisteria vines, and paulownia is sometimes called the "princess tree", which is pretty funny given Joshua's campness and flirtation. Or, more relevantly, it also has a whole host of supernatural implications, particularly an association with the Phoenix and therefore death and rebirth; very appropriate for the Physical God in charge of running the Reapers' Game.
- In No More Heroes, all of Travis's beam katanas (except the Blood Berry) are named after flowers. The Tsubaki models in the first game, and the Camellia, Peony, and Rose Nasty in the second.
- In Little King's Story, the names of the princesses are plant-related: Scarlet Bouquet, Shizukanote , Martel Daisy, Apricot, Spumoninote , Ferne and Pine. The non-princess you can take with you to the end is Verde, meaning "green", a color commonly associated with plants.
- Harvest Moon:
- Two of the customers in Video Game/Style Trendsetters are twin sisters named Violet and Rose.
- The Spriggs from Beyond the Canopy. Bramble, Glade, Elmsly, Stump, Redwood, Thistle... The only exception appears to be the protagonist, Glenn.
- "Glen", however, is a synonym for glade, in the sense of a woodland clearing.
- Female Kayoss in L's Empire do this, apparently as tribute to their first queen, who had power over plants (among other things).
- In Turn Signals on a Land Raider, the entire Emperor's Pointy Sticks Space Marine chapter, except for the main protagonists Kren and Frep, are named after various types of plants (mostly trees).
- In King of the Hill, Bill Dauterive's seductive cousins-in-law and cousin are named Rose, Lily, and Violetta. (For additional theming, each wears a color suggestive of the flower she is named for.) Also counts as Odd Name Out, since the actual cousin, Violetta, is the only one whose name isn't exactly the same as a flower.
- Blossom and Buttercup from The Powerpuff Girls. Interestingly enough, Bubbles is the Odd Name Out.
- My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic has a trio of flower-themed Recurring Extras that panic over such things as a zebra visiting the town and a stampede of bunnies. They are named Flower Wishes (Daisy), Roseluck, and Lily Valley.
- The first six named Flutter Ponies in My Little Pony 'n Friends were: Rosedust, Honeysuckle, Morning Glory, Forget-Me-Not, Lily, and Peach Blossom, and all had appropriate cutie marks (Or symbols, as they were known back then) for their names.
- In Avatar: The Last Airbender, women from the Beifong family seem to be named after flowers. Toph's name means "lotus" and her mother is called Poppy. It’s not averted by Toph’s own daughter, Lin, from the sequel series The Legend of Korra despite appearances. For the name Lin different Chinese characters can be used, one being the same character for Lotus.
- Some Russian Self-propelled howitzers are given plant/flower names, such as Tyulpan (Tulip), Gvozdika (Carnation), Akatsiya (Acacia), Giasint (Hyacinth), and Pion (Peony).
- Australian actress Poppy Montgomery (whose full name is Poppy Petal Emma Elizabeth Devereaux Donahue) has sisters named Rosie Thorn, Daisy Yellow, Lily Belle, and Marigold Sun. She also has a brother named Jethro Tull. In 2013, she gave birth to a daughter and named her Violet.
- During World War I and II, the Royal Navy used "Flower" class ships which could be built quickly as convoy escorts. The WWI class was originally a type of minesweeper (5 sub-classes, 120 units in all), while the WWII class was a corvette (267 units in all).
- The streets running roughly east-west in Center City ("downtown") Philadelphia are mostly named after kinds of trees and other plants: from south to north, the floral streets are Pine, Spruce, Locust, Walnut, Chestnut, Filbert,note Vine, Wood, Buttonwood, and Nectarine. Additionally, South Street (south of Pine and the southern limit of Center City) was originally Cedar Street in William Penn's city plan.
- This tends to happen a lot, in most major cities in North America that don't use numbers (and even ones that do: the aforementioned Philadelphia has numbered streets running perpendicular to the floral ones), and also (even more especially) in the suburbs. As the saying goes, "Suburbia is the place where they cut down the trees and name the streets after them."